Kingdom of Bohemia
The Kingdom of Bohemia was founded after the collapse of the Great Moravian Empire. This Kingdom became paramount in the development of the Czech. It was not an ordinary kingdom as it symbolized early modern cultural, economic and political entity. Because of this, Czechs believed that the birth of the kingdom was one of the brightest periods in history of their nation. In this kingdom, dynastic politics took center stage, overshadowing national or ethnic questions of any nature since it was a medieval state.
The Kingdom emerged in the 10th century after the unification of Czech tribes by the Premyslid chiefs, giving it a centralized rule. However, the Kingdom existed in the shadow of the Roman Empire after it was cut off from Byzantium. Otto I visited the Kingdom of Bohemia, demanding an accolade in the year 950. As a result, the Kingdom became part of the Holy Roman Empire. On the other hand, German emperors maintained the use of Roman Catholic clergy to expand their influence into Czech. It was during this time that the Premyslid also seized the opportunity and utilized the German alliance cement their rule against revolutions. In this way, they struggled to ensure that they retain their independence relating to the empire.
In 1029, the Kingdom of Bohemia acquired Moravia. This was after a long battle with Poland and Hungary. Following these developments, Moravia was to be ruled by the King’s younger son, as it continued to be an isolated margravate. It is important to note that the relationship between the Kingdom of Bohemia and Moravia was oftentimes severed. In such cases, Moravia was subdued directly to Hungary or to the Roman Empire. Though Bohemia and Moravia had an interlaced fate, the latter never participated in civil and religious battles of the former.
The Kingdom grew from strength to strength as the years progressed. It is worth noting that the 13th century marked the most dynamic period of the rulers over the Kingdom. Emperor Fredrick II was very much obsessed with Mediterranean affairs and the Great Interregnum of between 1254 and 1273. This preoccupation had significant impact as it undermined his influence in Central Europe, allowing the Premyslid to take charge of the Kingdom.
The events of 1212 would also form part of the Kingdom’s history as King Premysl Otakar I obtained as a Golden Bull from the emperor. This was a confirmation of his title and his lineage. Premysl Otakar II, who succeeded the King, married Margaret of Babenberg, a German Princess. This made him the duke of Austria, winning upper and lower Austria, together with some parts of Styria. He took over most parts of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola. In 1273, Rudolf, Hapsburg emperor started to strengthen his imperial power. Rudolf won the battle in 1278 against Premysl Otakar II, who died during the encounter.
There was widespread German migration during the 13th century. This was highly encouraged by the Premyslid kings who intended to weaken Czech’s nobility at that time. German colonies were mainly mining districts of the Kingdom of Bohemia, and other German populated towns.
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