Factors Affecting Foreign Exchange Rate
Foreign exchange rate is always dynamic and it affects every sector of life. The economic health of a country is influenced by its current exchange rate. Consequently, it is important to understand some of the factors that affect foreign exchange rate.
When the interest rate of a country rises high or falls low than the rate of another country the currency of the country with low rate is sold while that of the country with a higher rate is bought for purposes of achieving high returns. Given the demand of the currency with a high rate, its value will increase against that of other currencies. The world today had become globalized and as such, the market trend has shifted towards one of free capital mobility and foreign exchange restriction elimination.
Differential in inflation
As a rule, a country that has a consistent low inflation rate will exhibit an increasing currency value since its purchasing power will rise relatively to that of other countries. Towards the end of the twentieth century, some of the countries that had low inflation were Switzerland, Germany and Japan while in countries like United States and Canada, it came later. Countries that have a high inflation witness depreciation in currency compared to the currency of trading partners. Usually, this will be accompanied by high interest rates.
Expectations of economic growth
In order to meet the need of an ever growing population, the economy must expand. However, in cases where the growth occurs at a very high rate, wage advances are outpaced by price increased such that the buyer power of consumers decreases despite the fact they earn averagely. Majority of countries target a 2% economic growth per year. With high growth comes high inflation and consequently, the central banks raise their interest rates in order to increase the borrowing cost and slow down spending in an economy. Changes in interest rates can signal currency rate changes.
Actions of Central Bank
With majority of major economies having an already low interest rate, government officials and the Central Bank have resorted to others measures which are not used often to intervene in the markets and influence the rate of economic growth. For instance, quantitative easing is used to increase the supply of money within an economy and this involves purchasing of government bonds as well as other assets from financial institutions to give them additional liquidity
Other factors that also affect foreign exchange rate include employment outlook, political stability, public debts, and terms of trade as well as economic performance.
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