Sample Environmental and Forestry Paper on Climate Change

Changes in global temperature, patterns of wind and precipitation are often referred to as climate change. The increased amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from mostly human activities have led to climate change which in turn has affected the ocean. This has led to the weakening of the ocean’s ability and coasts to provide food, carbon storage and generation of oxygen. Climate change poses a dual-threat for our ocean life, which can create problems for human life. Our ocean takes up 71% of the planet it provides us with many resources that we need every day to survive.

Greenhouses trap energy from the sun, this leads to oceans absorbing a lot of heat which increases sea surface temperatures and a rise in water levels(“Five ways that climate change affects the ocean, 2020”). This changes in ocean temperatures and currents will lead to changes in climate patterns around the world. Research as shown that oceans have been increasing the amount of heat they have stored for the past 70 years. This has also led to the rise of sea levels which is also increasing substantially as the years go by. Another change in oceans is the increase in acidic levels over the past years. The carbon dioxide from greenhouse gases dissolves in water, leading to an increase of acid levels which in turn make it difficult to see creatures to form their protective shells.

Coral reef ecosystems which are homes for many oceans animals are bleached by warm waters. The green colour present in corals is due to the algae which coexist due to symbiosis. The increased temperatures expel the algae from the corals turning them white (“The ocean and climate change, 2020”). Typically the corals will be alive, but they are at risk, and many starve to death changing their colour to a dark brown one. Scientist all around the world has tried to come up with solutions to save this coral reefs and give them a second chance in life.

Living organisms in the sea and small fish development and growth is affected by changes in water temperature. Fish are sensitive to warm water temperatures leading to them migrating to high latitudes to seek cooler waters(“Exploring how climate change relates to oceans,2020”). This becomes a concerning issue to fishers whose livelihood depends entirely on fish. The rise in water temperatures reduces the levels of oxygen in the water, which also results in the growth of algae blooms. If you take the amount of people who are billions in numbers who rely on fish as a source of protein, the news is heartbreaking.

Increase in water temperatures has led to diminishing in sea ice which has led to the displacement of seals, walruses, penguins, whales and megafauna. For the past fifty years, the arctic sea ice has thinned by over ten percent. This melting of ice and glaciers is one of the contributing factors to increasing water levels all around the world(“The ocean and climate change, 2020”). Most animals such as penguins build their colonies in ices due to its proximity to sea shows for easy access to food, this melting ice makes them lose their habits. This decrease in sea ice and seafood has forced polar bears to wander into coastal communities and hunting camps to find food. This makes it dangerous for people living in shorelines for they fear for their lives. This human-wildlife is a nuisance which cannot stop until climate change is brought under control.

Climate change is real and becoming a primary concern all over the world. The amount of fish in oceans has started to decrease rapidly as the years pass by, and polar bears are engaging with humans in a battle to survive. Unless something is done the consequences of these changes will be dire.



Five ways that climate change affects the ocean. (, 2020). Retrieved 23 November 2020, from

(, 2020). Retrieved 23 November 2020, from

Exploring how climate change relates to oceans. (, 2020). Retrieved 23 November 2020, from

Ocean and Climate Change – The Ocean Foundation. (, 2020). Retrieved 23 November 2020, from

The ocean and climate change. (, 2020). Retrieved 23 November 2020, from