Sample English Research Paper on Classical or Rogerian structure

Instructions for the Body of the Researched Argument


Regardless of whether you use the Classical or Rogerian structure, the purpose of the Body of an Argumentative Research Paper is essentially the same—to prove your point. The order and style of information presented, however, changes. In the Classical structure, the author presents his/her arguments in support of the thesis first and addresses the opposition second, specifically for the purpose of refutation. In the Rogerian structure, the author summarizes the opposing side’s arguments first, and then issues a statement of understanding. The author of a Rogerian argument posits his/her own interpretation second. This is a softer approach and is meant for arguments that may require compromise.


The Body/Discussion’s main purpose is to:

  1. Establish the academic conversation that already exists regarding your topic. The Body/Discussion presents the current state of the research and developments regarding your topic.
  2. Clearly articulate your arguments. Your argument will be developed in the Body/Discussion section through research and your ability to tie it together.


In your Arguments in support of your topic, whether you address these in the first or second half of your paper, follow the following 12 directions.


  1. Focus on at least three major issues found in the research.
    1. If you do three issues, you are following the model of the five-paragraph essay, but on a larger scope.  Three may be the number that you choose, but remember that you may choose four or five issues, depending on the complexity of your credible claim/argument.


  1. Answer: “Which questions are scholars and professional asking? How are they going about their research?”
    1. Remember to keep this focused on your topic, as specificity is strength.
  1. In the section, if you are making general statements that are unsupported by evidence, you are not convincing the audience.
  2. Your evidence must be compelling.


  1. Write seven-eight pages, correctly documented, and free of unsubstantiated personal opinion. (This task will be split over Weeks 4 and 5.)


    1. Give the reader an objective account of the current state of research as it relates to the topic.
    2. Show connections between researchers, scholars, and writers.
    3. Explore and report on the similarities and differences in the current research.
    4. Comment on any “gaps” or “holes” in the current research, but not to the extent where you render any of your future discussion on the topic worthless.
    5. While there should be no “unsubstantiated” personal opinions, remember that you are using the evidence from academic and professional sources to argue your opinion.
  1. Tie the objective information from the researchers back to your argument.
  2. You do not want to do this overtly, but keep reminding your audience of where your argument is headed.
  • Do not present this as your opinion; present it as logic derived from the information in academic and professional resources.


  1. Have clear and logical organization.
    1. Do not write a grocery list of information; rather, present researched information in a carefully organized way.
  1. Compare and contrast experts.
  2. Show how one expert has influenced another (i.e. offering a “pedigree” of the research).
    1. When making connections between items discovered in the research, explain the significance of those connections. Avoid a mere presentation of information found during the research process.
    2. In a sense, you are telling a story:  the story of the problem you are addressing.  Group like information together, but remember to tie everything together through transitions:  make the information connect.
    3. You may break this section into headings by themed evidence.  While you still want to transition or connect the ideas/areas of research to show how they relate to teach other, you can also use headings to break between sections.  If you do make this choice, use Heading Level 2 in APA 6th ed.  (Level 1 is Body/Discussion, Conclusion, etc.)


  1. Paragraphs must begin with a topic sentence that supports the controlling idea of the section.
    1. These sentences will also serve as transitions, so remember to link the information for your reader.  Show the audience the logical connections you have made in the material and how all of the academic and professional resources (your research) build to support your argument.


  1. Paragraphs must provide plenty of supporting evidence to support the topic sentence.
    1. Be sure to evidence specific scholarly arguments with correct source use.
    2. Avoid making general references to “studies” or “research”: your reader must be able to look at your references or your evidence cannot be trusted.
    3. All references to studies and research must be specific and be accompanied by a proper APA 6th ed. in-text citation as well as an entry on the references page.
    4. Use a variety of sources to support each of your arguments.


  1.  Use research that has been published within the last seven years or provide rationale for the use of older research.
    1. For example, if you are investigating a topic where you need to provide historical context or historical contrast to current methods, you may have to use older sources to make your point.
    2. One possible rationale for an older text is if it is a seminal/foundational text, and it is still regarded as central in the field.