# Sample Education Essays on Statistical Analysis; Types of Research Questions

To complete this Signature Assignment, you will use the statistical knowledge and scientific writing skills acquired in this course. You will be initially asked to develop two types of research questions, or research questions involving relationships between variables and research questions involving the difference between variables.

A research question is a clear inquiry asking just one question and eliciting more than a simple yes or no response. Begin your research question with howwhy, or what rather than doesdo, or can. Once your research questions have been developed, you will need to create corresponding null and alternative hypotheses for each research question. Remember, the null hypothesis indicates a non-significant relationship or difference will exist while an alternative hypothesis indicates a significant relationship or difference will exist.

Research questions and hypotheses are divided into two categories: relationship questions and descriptive questions.

Relationship research questions include comparison (difference questions) and strength of association (associational):

• Difference research questions are used when comparing scores (on the dependent variable) on two or more groups. These questions attempt to demonstrate that groups are not the same on the dependent variable.
• Association research questions are used when the researcher wants to examine the association or relationship between variables. The approach is commonly used to see how two or more variables covary (vary together). For example, do higher values on one variable correspond to higher values on the other? These questions are also used to how one or more variables can be used to predict another variable.

Descriptive research questions do not use inferential statistics. Descriptive questions are used to summarize or describe the current data. No generalization to a larger population of individuals.

For example:

Research Question 1:

Q: What is the relationship between family socioeconomic level and student state-mandated test performance?

Ho: A non-significant relationship will exist between family socioeconomic level and student state-mandated test performance.

Ha: A significant relationship will exist between family socioeconomic level and student state-mandated test performance.

Research Question 2:

Q: What is the relationship between family socioeconomic level, sex, and student state-mandated test performance?

Ho: A non-significant relationship will exist between family socioeconomic level, sex, and student state-mandated test performance.

Ha: A significant relationship will exist between family socioeconomic level, sex, and student state-mandated test performance.

Research Question 3:

Q: What is the effect of an intensive language immersion program on spoken English acquisition skills among high school ESL students?

Ho: An intensive language immersion program will result in a non-significant effect on spoken English acquisition skills among high school ESL students.

Ha: An intensive language immersion program will result in a significant effect on spoken English acquisition skills among high school ESL students.

Research Question 4:

Q: What is the effect of an intensive language immersion program on spoken English acquisition skills among high school ESL students by sex?

Ho: An intensive language immersion program will result in a non-significant effect on spoken English acquisition skills among high school ESL students by sex.

Ha: An intensive language immersion program will result in a significant effect on spoken English acquisition skills among high school ESL students by sex.

You will then need to explain the type of statistical analysis to be employed to analyze the relationships and effects between variables. Keep in mind, a statistical relationship analysis involving two variables often involves a Pearson r correlation or a simple regression while a statistical relationship analysis involving three or more variables often involves multiple correlations—or what is more widely known as multiple regression. A statistical analysis testing for effect involving two variables often involves some form of a t – test; on the other hand, a statistical analysis of effect involving three or more variables often involves some form of an ANOVA.

Carefully review the scenario and research questions provided below for you to develop the statistical analyses plans.