Bolkan, S., Goodboy, A. K., & Myers, S. A. (2017). Conditional processes of effective
instructor communication and increases in students’ cognitive learning. Communication
Education, 66(2), 129-147.
Since the comprehension, application, and memory elements of cognitive learning
express among learners may vary, it thus remains essential to integrate conditional processes
promoting cognitive learning by offering clarity on instructor information. Bolkan et al. (2017. p.
129) explain that the study integrates two teaching behaviors effective in promoting proper
cognitive learning through instructional communication among scholars that include immediacy
and instructor clarity. The investigation remains based on assumptions like cognitive learning
largely depends on the student’s willingness to pay attention to the provided instructions and that
students can self-regulate cognitive learning despite the effectiveness or lack of it through
instructors’ teachings. The analysis presented results that showed that explicit instruction, either
verbal or non-verbal, promotes increased test scores among students with even more than one
letter grade. Immediacy also increased with reduced self-regulation among students. A learner’s
ability to comprehend instructions, thus, depends on the student’s self-regulation and implication
of immediacy in cognitive learning.
Bolkan et al. (2017. p. 134) use various forms of instrumentation to come up with
appropriate ways of instructor information for developing cognitive learning. The use of tests,
manipulation check, self-control, and sustained attention as some instruments of measuring
cognitive learning, the study explains that non-verbal and verbal clarity and immediacy affect a
student’s learning curve indirectly and directly. Manipulation check, for instance, analyzed the
straight-forwardness of a class session among students to assess perceptions and manners of
clarity among students. Analysis of self-control also offers insight into a student’s behavior in
matters like regulation of effort, resource management, and the sub scaling of tasks, for instance,
for proper completion. A limitation of the study, however, is that the study manipulation took a
short time. The lack of ample time means that analysis might remain unspecific in some aspects.
However, the study benefits from its careful manipulation of instructor clarity combined with
nonverbal immediacy to test their impact on student learning. Further research considering
students; personal traits and its influence in cognitive learning, however, remains efficient in
highlighting underlying effects overlooked in the analysis.
Kulkarni, S., Afshan, N., & Motwani, J. (2018). The impact of faculty member's
communication behaviours on student satisfaction: the role of cognitive and affective
learning and student's motivation. International Journal of Productivity and Quality
Management, 25(4), 444-458.
Faculty members of any learning institution possess distinct effects on students’ cognitive
learning through communication behaviors. Kulkarni et al. (2018. p. 444) focus on the study of
realizing the impact of various communication behaviors from faculty towards the student’s
motivation that further affects the cognitive and affective learning process of the student. A
factor like a student satisfaction concerning the learning type may also go overlooked but
possesses a relationship with the student’s learning. Thus, as Kulkarni et al. (2018. p. 444)
highlight, favored learning types among students may promote increased cognitive and active
learning compared to opposed learning types used by instructors. The analysis that used 265
post-graduate students studying management realized that effective faculty communication
habits promoted positive effects among student’s motivation. In turn, increased student
motivation supported positive cognitive and practical learning. Cognitive and affective learning,
on the other hand, promoted positive student satisfaction.
Kulkarni et al. (2018. p. 446) insist on the focus on perceptions, confirmation, and
immediacy concerning the faculty members to offer satisfaction and learning through proper
teaching methods that increase student motivation. The focus of the study remains on course
with an analysis of factors, both internal and external, affecting cognitive learning among
students in education. Student motivation, for instance, plays an essential role in promoting
cognitive learning. Expression of recognition through affirmations or endorsing the student’s
self-experiences as communication behaviors from the faculty, however, can help with
maintaining student motivation (Kularni et al. 2018. p. 447). Engagements through eye contact
or a simple touch during informal responses and opportunities from faculty members, thus, can
promote interest in learning and motivation among students. One challenge with the study,
however, is that it includes training for faculty members that may require time and additional
resources for completion. Future analysis of the essence of proper training focused on promoting
students’ cognitive learning among faculty members can help with integrating all essential
aspects of the critical sectors for the benefit of the student.
Mutlu-Bayraktar, D., Cosgun, V., & Altan, T. (2019). Cognitive load in multimedia
learning environments: A systematic review. Computers & Education, 141, 103618.
Mutlu-Baytaktar et al. (2019. p. 103618) focus on the impact diverse multimedia learning
environments possess on cognitive learning, especially among students. Rapid changes through
technology make the integration of multimedia learning environments and their impact on
cognitive learning essential to study. Analysis of cognitive load through the cognitive load
framework, for instance, explains that the reflection of presentations or analysis from students
represents a reflection of limitations or abilities to access information through present systems.
Through the study, it remains clear to note that gaps exist in realizing the connection between
emerging multimedia learning environments on cognitive load. The analysis helps to analyze
emerging sectors and their impacts like the effect of continued use of multimedia platforms on
the performance of students. The report, however, only highlights essential theories. In-depth
analysis of arguments like the cognitive load theory of Multimedia Learning, thus, can act as a
starting point for future research.
Porter, A. L., Schoeneck, D. J., Youtie, J., Solomon, G. E., Kwon, S., & Carley, S. F. (2019).
Learning about learning: patterns of sharing of research knowledge among Education,
Border, and Cognitive Science fields. Scientometrics, 118(3), 1093-1117.
The advancement of cognitive learning signifies that the use of research in education, the
increasing interdependence in research and cross-disciplinary diffusion of knowledge all impact
approach adopted by students in learning and research (Porter et al. 2019. p. 1094). Extensive
use of in-depth research and the citation of reputable sources, for instance, continues to grow,
showing increased cognitive learning. The strength of the analysis is that it offers insight into the
role of various origins in promoting cognitive learning. The lack of a productive evident
relationship leading to increased cognitive learning is a weakness that can encourage further
research and analysis.
Siburian, J., & Corebima, A. D. (2019). The correlation between critical and creative
thinking skills on cognitive learning results. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 81,
Siburian, J., & Corebima (2019. p. 99) realize that creative and critical thinking skills
among students possessed an impact on the cognitive learning curve and results. The analysis
recognizes that a relationship between cognitive learning and creative and critical thinking
promotes increased results through simultaneous integration of thought skills in the learning
process. Since the integration of knowledge, abilities, and attitudes concerning life skills
continues to gain essence in cognitive learning, it is essential to include effective, innovative,
creative, and productive approaches in the learning process (Siburian, J., & Corebima, 2019. p.
100). The inquiry learning process, for instance, offers students the opportunity to grow
investigation skills that help with gaining comprehension of cognitive learning.
The analysis of the role of critical and creative thinking skills to promote cognitive
learning is a concept that offers appropriate strategies that both students and instructors can use
to promote improved growth and development. The strong correlation evident between the
improved cognitive thought process and creative and critical thinking is effective in fostering
further empowerment and motivation for learning, the approach, however, requires time to
promote sustainable innovation for prolonged cognitive learning. Further analysis into realizing
the relationship between critical thought and cognitive learning by analyzing crucial players in
the connection remains necessary for the growth of the study.
Bolkan, S., Goodboy, A. K., & Myers, S. A. (2017). Conditional processes of effective instructor
communication and increases in students’ cognitive learning. Communication Education, 66(2),
Kulkarni, S., Afshan, N., & Motwani, J. (2018). The impact of faculty member's communication
behaviours on student satisfaction: the role of cognitive and affective learning and student's
motivation. International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management, 25(4), 444-458.
Mutlu-Bayraktar, D., Cosgun, V., & Altan, T. (2019). Cognitive load in multimedia learning
environments: A systematic review. Computers & Education, 141, 103618.
Porter, A. L., Schoeneck, D. J., Youtie, J., Solomon, G. E., Kwon, S., & Carley, S. F. (2019).
Learning about learning: patterns of sharing of research knowledge among Education, Border,
and Cognitive Science fields. Scientometrics, 118(3), 1093-1117.
Siburian, J., & Corebima, A. D. (2019). The correlation between critical and creative thinking
skills on cognitive learning results. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 81, 99-114.