Sample Economics Paper on Mobile Computing Effects on African Economy

Mobile phones are the most commonly owned and used devices in any household. It has a radio system that can enable fast communication over a wide area in a short time. Over the years, the various models has been upgraded. The use is remarkable as our lives are dependable on it. This can be referred to as hyper or micro coordination. Its uses are now becoming diverse, resulting in the replacement of early modes of communication.

Why the topic is interesting

In the past years, the use of mobile technology in Africa as a continent has dramatically increased, bringing new ideas and innovations. It has contributed significantly to the growth of the continent’s economy, providing employment opportunities both directly and indirectly. For instance, mobile computing eliminates paperwork as it facilitates the collection, storage, and transmission of data electronically. Mobile computing devices such as barcode scanners, personal computers, and portable printers eliminate the burden of delivering receipts and writing invoices manually (Kuoppamäki et al., 2017, 110). Mobile computing tools enhance the ability of a worker to collect, evaluate, and access crucial business information accurately and quickly. Mobile computing reduces cost as increased individual worker productivity can as well minimize intermediate staff, thus saving on the cost of labor. The use of mobile computing devices eliminates the need for discrete equipment for numerous functions such as evaluation, retrieval, and transfer of data, reduced extra travel, selling time, rework, and field solutions to facilitate substantial gains in service profits.

Mobile computing facilitates better decision making in the organization. Real-time access to crucial information for management and workers assists the organization in making better decisions based on customer service in fields like mobility solutions, and inventory management assists in balancing stock levels. Keeping an accurate track of stock helps organizational management in making real-time decisions to avoid both excess and outdated situations (Kuoppamäki et al., 2017, 116). The availability of real-time and accurate information within an organization helps in decision making, which improves the effectiveness of an organization.

Systematic and Critical literature review

How I ensured I had undertaken a systematic and comprehensive review of the literature

I researched the internet for the most comprehensive and detailed materials about mobile phones. For instance, I researched the mobile phones have impacted the technological industry and the leading companies in the industry. I also consulted our school library for valuable resources relating to mobile computing – the primary concept of mobile phones. Additionally, I reviewed and analyzed peer-reviewed journals and articles that explore the issues and topics relating to mobile phones and their application in the business world.

Within what approaches/disciplines/ theoretical perspectives?

The exploration design that was adopted in this investigation was a descriptive research design in the quest to describe the phenomena of mobile phone usage and social media influence an individual’s performance and knowledge sharing at the place of work. This study utilized employees from different organizations as the respondent who had already adopted social media in their daily activities at the site of action. This descriptive design made use of a qualitative research technique to scrutinize the relationship that occurred between social media usage, individual performance at the workplace, and the level of knowledge sharing among employees in different organizations. Through a qualitative methodology, questions were inquired regarding the use of social media amongst employees in various organizations and their feedbacks collected for examination (Levi-Bleich et al., 2018, 319). The purpose of conducting research is to benefit the population; nevertheless, owing to the enormous population, a researcher cannot involve all the characters in the public as this will become costly and timewasting.

The sample group utilized in this investigation was made up of employees from selected 12 organizations that had used social media in their operations. These individuals were professed to have worked in organizations that had not yet incorporated social media in their actions as well as those that had already adopted social media in the running of their entities. The number of respondents who participated in this investigation was 24, who were considered sufficient to make a firm conclusion. Equality based on gender was observed with high regard to establishing how different gender groups viewed the adoption of social media in organizations. The sample group in this research focused on large organizations that involved many workers. The technique that was applied in picking the sample size was stratified random sampling. In this research, the researcher identified a group of organization staffs from various companies in the sampled population. It then represented the said population in a fashion that the acknowledged subgroups in the populace were epitomized in the sample in the matching ratio that they occur in selected geographical populations (Levi-Bleich et al., 2018, 319). An all-embracing survey questionnaire was organized for this study and deployed to selected respondents, which was targeted at providing answers to the research objects and goals

The questionnaires were delivered by physical means to the respondents, and each went with a cover letter explaining how the employees were intended to provide their answers to various questions and other details that regarded the questionnaires. The interview was another data collecting instrument that was applied in this study. It involved one to one cross-examination with employees. In this study, visits were done to various organizations and the needed information collected after face to face interrogation with the employees. The interview questions were structured similarly with those contained in the questionnaire, and the meetings were planned to go hand in hand with the questionnaire administration to save on time and cost of the study (Levi-Bleich et al., 2018, 319).. The information gathered via the interview procedure was utilized to supplement the data that was found through the use of the questionnaire.

The Findings

Mobile computing improves customer relations. Flexibility in accessing information field mobility solutions assists employees in resolving customer queries, checking prices stock availability, immediately calculating estimates, and updating customer information. Customer relations are enhanced through allowing a customer to place an online order from their home or business and reducing time spent on a customer. The type of approach makes the customer feel more comfortable and satisfied with the offered services and create grow loyalty to the brand or company. Convenient and faster services are a constant and precise method to enhance customer base and relation. Modern technologies applied in field mobility solutions render low-cost mobile computing a feasible reality (Rowles, 2017, 127). Within a short period, organizations can anticipate payback on investment. Increased productivity, reduced expenses, and enhanced business process applying mobile computing devices offer a high return on investment.

Mobile computing offers greater accuracy as it facilitates quick and accurate data transfer. Mobile computing devices transfer data electronically. Moving data electronically prevents interpretation and transcription errors that regular on manual data entry. Transferring data online requires automatic date and time recording, tracking work in progress, which guarantees traceability, accountability, and transparency.

Cloud computing is also implemented in credit card verification-at the point of sale (POS) stations in supermarkets and shops when a customer uses a credit card to transact. Communication is needed between the bank central computer and POS terminal to verify the card usage adequately. This is achieved securely and quickly over a network by the use of a mobile computer unit (Zhang et al., 2017, 146).

Mobile computing facilitates performance improvement and also a reduced operational cost. Field sales- the sales personnel’s operational efficiency is, importantly, enhanced by mobile computing. Examining Financial planning sales and remote assurance are examples of portraying improved operational efficiency (Zhang et al., 2017, 146). Mobile computing can facilitate mobile automation- General business explorers exploits mobile computing. Word processing, presentations, spreadsheets, and emails are the four major tasks accomplished by business explorers (Zhang et al., 2017, 146). Portable clamshell computers, palmtops, and laptops enable business people to stay connected and achieve the tasks they require for job effectiveness. Using high-speed connectivity combined with robust mobile networks, business explorers can carry out tasked typically performed within an office while on the field or the road.

Limitations of mobile computing in business solutions

Low bandwidth and bandwidth variability- wireless connections have lower bandwidth as compared to wired networks. Developing mobile computing should consider the issue of bandwidth. The delivered bandwidth per user depends on the number of users in the system. Bandwidth value can be improved by limiting the transmission range and maintaining numerous cells at a different frequency. Mobile device constraints- small mobile computing devices possess limited resources such as storage space, display size, screen resolution, and processor speed. The designers of mobile devices have a challenge on how to address the constraint issue while satisfying fast user interaction with the computing environment (Zhang et al., 2017, 146).  Low power- mobile computing devices use batteries. Batteries add weight in the portable computers. As reducing battery weight is essential, a battery that weighs less can challenge the value of portability, making users change them frequently, use mobile networks less, or carry spare batteries. Minimizing power consumption improves portability by lengthening charge of a cell and reducing battery size.

Small user interface- windowing techniques in small portable devices are inadequate. It is impossible to have multiple windows open at a time on a small screen, even with high resolution. Portable computers have a small surface area, which is possible to exchange buttons with any other form of input. Feasible input methods include voice and gesture recognition and handwriting. Alternative pointing devices such as mouse and stylus are used due to their availability and versatility to replace the keyboard (Zhang et al., 2017, 146). The risk to data- Mobile VPNs are not safe to connect to and accessing the Wi-Fi is risky as WEP security can be bypassed easily. Portable computers increase the risk of unauthorized access, loss, physical damage, and theft. The risks can be reduced by minimizing essential data stored in portable devices. A mobile device serving as a portable terminal is less exposed to data loss than a stand-alone computer. Encrypting data stored on removable memory cards and disks prevents the data from unauthorized access. Saving a copy of the data ensures security from data loss. Mobile devices account for nearly half of internet use and have become part of human life, therefore presenting opportunities to companies such as Google, Facebook, and Apple. Google’s strategy for mobile computing is through android, which is found in three-quarters of all mobile devices. In addition, it began to index content in mobile application where users spend most of their time in. Through innovation, Google is making its platforms as user-friendly as possible. On the other hand, Apple’s response to the importance of mobile devices is manifested in its emphasis on service improvements to enhance user experiences. Facebook has also adopted a similar approach by continually improving home pages to allow users to post more content. Mobile phones are increasingly used in digital content creation, a platform that Facebook is venturing in as it seeks to dislodge YouTube as the premier personalized content creation platform.

Although mobile computing technology developed slowly in the past, the current low price and availability of mobile devices have led to tremendous growth in mobile computing. In the sector of medical applications, it is still entirely new. Several companies are developing Commercial products to solve numerous problems. In the future, fixed wireless devices will continually screen our health, allowing the medical profession to remedy most diseases in their total beginning. Mobile computing will also be applicable to monitor our diet and its impacts on our health, keep unhealthy habits such as alcohol consumption and smoking under control and enable us to make the most out of exercising (Zhang et al., 2017, 146). Mobile computing will control diseases such as diabetes virtually through corrective-action devices and wireless monitoring. These devices will automatically change insulin levels without the knowledge of the patient. As technology is growing from 2G to 3G and currently 4G, all organizational operations may apply mobile computing. Mobile computing is an evolving and vital technology. Communication plays a crucial role in an organization’s success. Every business should have efficient and useful tools like mobile computing devices for information transfer.

The Mobile Phones and Mobile Computing Effects on African Economy

Youth Unemployment has been one of the problems African countries are facing. Nearly 50% of youths are unemployed because government policies are focusing on vocational education as a better way to earn employment. With the current situation, it’s clear that these measures are bouncing back. The global economy has to create more than 3 million jobs each month to absorb everyone getting into the job market. Nearly half the positions should be for the youth, based on current numbers. Digital Technology offers a variety of ways to curb the youth unemployment crisis – to capitalize on digital opportunities, more investment towards emphasizing on digital infrastructure (Zhang et al., 2017, 160). Access to cheap internet, reliable mobile smartphones, and computers are the necessary resources youth need to get started. Many big cities globally are contracting Huawei for fibre connection and developing 5G internet for faster access to the web hence making it a better investment in digital infrastructure. Therefore, the public-private partnership should be a scheme by the Government to lower cost and build more relevant digital support for the youth to curb youth unemployment.

To initiate the right skills to youth, the Government should open online courses. These services will customize education globally without financial burden due to its low-cost access and without a strict schedule on the course to achieve. The U.S based Udemy offers more than 1000 courses that emphasize on both technical and soft skills that employers need. This helps students to create a revolving curriculum that mitigates online learning dropouts. Therefore, in creating opportunities globally, digital technology needs to be embraced in curbing high rates of youth unemployment. Encouraging young people to engage in digital entrepreneurship will enable youths to create and manage their businesses. Embracing internet shops as one of the innovations in digital technology, since teenagers can now access funds more efficiently on a digital platform like PayPal. However, content marketing by picking a product of another company, market, and sell, then earn a commission is one of the ways to engage in digital entrepreneurship. Embracing digital entrepreneurship, young people will use it to create self-employment hence, helping in controlling youth unemployment. In creating online employment to youth, more industries are using online platforms as a market place to outsource jobs to workers globally. Freelancing is one of the sectors to post thousands of online employment daily for those eligible to access and earn (Zhang et al., 2017, 155). This is helping thousands of youths worldwide in meeting their economic sustainability and freedom since they can work from home and get jobs with higher wages. Connecting skilled youths to online employers with digital tasks is one of the ways to create jobs and curb youth unemployment.

 

 

 

Bibliography

Kuoppamäki, S.M., Taipale, S. and Wilska, T.A., 2017. The use of mobile technology for online shopping and entertainment among older adults in Finland. Telematics and Informatics, 34(4), pp.110-117.

Levi-Bliech, M., Naveh, G., Pliskin, N. and Fink, L., 2018. Mobile Technology and Business Process Performance: The Mediating Role of Collaborative Supply–Chain Capabilities. Information Systems Management, 35(4), pp.308-329.

Rowles, D., 2017. Mobile marketing: how mobile technology is revolutionizing marketing, communications and advertising. Kogan Page Publishers.

Zhang, T.C., Omran, B.A. and Cobanoglu, C., 2017. Generation Y’s positive and negative eWOM: use of social media and mobile technology. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.