Sample Discussion and Conclussion Essay on Clayton Christensen’s Lecture: Emergency Management

Clayton Christensen’s Lecture: Emergency Management

  1. Distinguish between Disruptive innovations and innovative efficiencies

Disruptive innovation is an artistic term Clayton Christensen applied to describe a process in relation to products and services and market positions. They initially take a root position in the market during the initiation stage. Consequently, they move up to replace rivals to achieve competitive advantage. They are characterized by simple products and services, small market sizes and low gross margins. Conversely, innovative efficiencies are positive predicators in relation to future returns. Innovative efficiencies control and manage organizational characteristics to lower risks and increase gross margins. They are characterized by mispricing factors, uncertain proxies and limited focus to increase tangency on portfolio returns (Clayton, 2014).

  • Why are disruptive innovations more powerful than efficiencies?

Disruptive innovations support innovation. More so, they respond to changes in relation to evolving consumer needs, tastes and preferences. Thus, disruptive innovations manufacture high quality and sophisticated products and services. However, they are affordable to a new and larger population of consumers in the market regardless of skills and income levels. Innovative efficiencies are too sophisticated and highly priced. Accessibility to products and services manufactured under innovative efficiencies is therefore limited to a small group of consumers with high income levels and/or skills (David, Hsu & Li, 2012). Thus, disruptive innovations are more powerful than innovative efficiencies as accessibility and affordability rates are high coupled with high and equally sophisticated qualities.

  • Examples of innovative efficiencies in emergency services

Health care costs are increasing at an alarming rate. They are burdening the government in providing quality healthcare services through Medicaid and Medicare to American citizens. In order to improve quality and emergency services, two innovative efficiencies have been implemented. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 were established to increase the number of citizens able to afford and access quality healthcare and emergency services (NBER, 2013).  

  • Example of disruptive innovation in emergency services.

Mini computers should be fitted in emergency rooms. Although they are relatively simple, they are affordable. More so, they are more convenient as they do not rely on centralized computer mainframes. They can increase speed to respond and attend to emergency healthcare services at reduced maintenance costs.


Clayton, C. (2014). Milkshakes: Understanding the Job, The Phoenix Lecture Series, University of Phoenix.

David, A., Hsu, P., & Li, D. (2012). Innovative Efficiency and Stock Returns, Chicago Meetings Paper.

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). (2013). Organizational Innovation to Improve the Efficiency of Health Care Markets, The National Bureau of Economic Research Report.