Sample Cultural Studies Paper on Reparations for Descendants of Slaves

Minus important reparations for African Americans, the worst racial division in the United States will at no occasion be eradicated. According to Feagin (2), in case the African Americans will not be recompensed for the considerable injustices and social harms exacted upon them by their regime, during and after the period of slavery, then it leaves no chance that America can resolve its ethnic complications. This has been a strong statement to consider in racism, yet realistic. In this paper, much is discussed concerning large-scale reparations and the necessity of making it to African Americans and its accomplishment.

In the history of slavery, Yale law professor Boris Bittker claimed that the repression encountered by African Americans was more widespread than that encountered by other ethnic assemblies and needed major reparations in return.  By then, nearly no one paid any specific attention to his examination and arguments. In the present day, however, several analysts have lastly revived the notion of reparations and have arisen to take action on that matter. There exist several voices relating to the high costs of anti-black tyranny that have sustained for over four centuries to date(Feagin 5).

In his analytical volume, Documenting the Costs of Slavery, Segregation, and Contemporary Racism: Why Reparations Are in Order for African Americans, Feagin argued that the poverty devouring Europe’s African societies was a major source of wealth and superfluity in Europe.  Large amounts of African assets, counting great human resources, and considerable socio-economic growth had been forfeited to make European nations very prosperous. There is a related association concerning the great economic impoverishment of African Americans and the development and fortune of a number of European Americans. In many centuries, a number of whites, as personalities and families, have profited substantially from anti-black harassment and the transfer of ill-acquired wealth and opportunity from one generation to the Ensuing (Feagin 9). Nowadays, the relative richness, long life longevities, and high standard of living of white Americans are considerably entrenched in centuries of mistreatment and disadvantage to the African Americans and other Americans of color.

White privilege involves the range of numerous benefits and rewards inherited by every batch of generations of the people designated as white in United States civilization. These radicalized benefits are both substantial and figurative, and they infiltrate and incorporate several interactions for whites and amongst whites and others in the course of generations. White privilege has become ubiquitous and rooted even where most whites are unable to perceive it since it is the basis of this civilization. It commenced in early white advances from slavery and has continued in the perspectives of legal discrimination and modern-day prejudice. Considering approximately four hundred years of expatriate and United States antiquity, one realizes that racial oppression aiming at African Americans involves the inter-historical repeating of ill-amassed wealth, in addition to the organizational structures and philosophies strengthening that wealth reproduction.

Publicly repeated over time are racially organized organizations, like the economic organizations that propagate the taking of advantage of black labor and the legitimate institutions defending that exploitation. According to Feagin (15), every new generation of Americans has inherited this persevering structure of racial discrimination and honor. From no less than the initial ages of the 1700s to the mid-1800s, a lot of the excess capital and finances of the nation’s white relatives and societies emerged directly. Alternatively, it could come as a means of economic multiplier impacts, from the African slave trade and the slave farms and associated businesses. The global trade produced by British and French farms in the Americas was the root of much capital for European business and industrial revolutions. Several white forecasters have argued that the notion of white civilization owing such back wages for servitude, believing the debts of a hypothetically too-distant past is just too challenging. Such squabbles almost fail to recognize that the harm done to African Americans did not culminate with oppressive servitude.  However, they continued for another century in the form of legal discrimination, and then for many more decades in contemporary discrimination. The age of black servitude was not ensued by a century of compensation, justice, and parity, but relatively the reverse.

For recent decades, United States census data show the black median family income to be consistently in the range of fifty-five to sixty-one percent of the white median family income. Today, the black population experiences high levels of poverty compared to the whites, and higher unemployment rates, almost twice the number of unemployed whites. Contemporary social science research suggests the many and severe effects that socially generated dehumanization can have on the health of human beings as individuals and as groups.

Comparable psychological and public costs have troubled several millions of African Americans from the 17th century to the present-day, and therefore ought to be considered into any serious consideration of the reparations owing to those who are presently victims of progressive racial oppression and the descendants of those who were victims of similar radicalized oppression. Indeed, one could well reason that reparation should begin with reimbursement to most African Americans existing today for the racial oppression they have established over their generations.

At present, African Americans’ lack of socioeconomic assets and amassed wealth links diligently to the enduring lack of access to fundamental firms with authoritative inspiration over the organizational realism of United States civilization. To formalize one significant instance, special attention must be paid to the mass media. African Americans have no authority over any of the major television or newspaper systems, which implies they lack important control over the conventional images and evidence on African Americans frequently disseminated countrywide by these mass media. Moreover, they cannot spread the encouraging information essential for entertaining their children socially and constructing their societies as successfully as they possibly will if they had the influence of the white-organized companies that frequently push their individual schedules and welfares through the mass media (Feagin 13).

In conclusion, it has been noted that millions of racist attacks occur every year in the United States. Additionally, blatant, secret, and elusive racist acts are fixed by white Americans counter to black Americans in all main industrial perspectives. This ranges from accommodation and schools to offices and transport sectors, to spending, restitution, and police links. In case the several illustrations of racism are added up over the longevity of a characteristic older African American, they undoubtedly reach into the thousands. In all fresh and existing African American generations, numerous millions of generations, coalesced must mount into tens of billions of racist, prejudiced acts and occurrences. Provided this sobering truth, it is clear that a big debt is payable to African Americans by white Americans.


Works Cited

Feagin, Joe. Documenting the Costs of Slavery, Segregation, and Contemporary Racism: Why Reparations Are in Order for African Americans. Harvard: Harvard Law School, 2004. <,d.d2k>