Unmanned Defensive Systems
The main theme of the paper is to review on unmanned vehicles or service robots, their application on ground, in the air and in the water. The number of fielded systems and the range of missions supported by unmanned systems continue to grow at a dramatic speed. The scope of the paper is to focus on the types and limitations of unmanned systems. As defense department steers a path toward the idea, the challenges must be overcome in order to realize the full potential offered by unmanned systems. Even though unmanned systems have experienced widespread growth in funding, current world economic conditions and the department of defense initiatives necessitate increased efforts and focus toward the acquisition of affordable and convergent systems. The defense department must continue to support diverse mission sets and abilities, but must focus on acquiring Joint and inter operable phases, means, software, plan, loads and sensors due to today’s increasingly austere fiscal atmosphere. In adding, the ability for commanders to take risks with unmanned vehicles depends significantly on their price. In order to be dispensable, which is often the intent of building an unmanned system; the vehicle must be in low budget
In sea, land, air and space, there is a need for unmanned systems in the fast developing world. The depth and breadth of the platforms and technologies portfolio provide users with a wide range of abilities. Unmanned systems operate in areas where manned vehicles cannot, permit for lengthy missions, then help reduce risk to both national security and human lives. The main purpose of the system is to establish brains, unmanned pore mark and recce superiority on the front lines of today’s hot zones. In fact this technology needs a lot of research and development in today’s world because of increase threat to the humans.
Unmanned systems in military applications will often play a role in determining the success or failure of combat missions and thus in determining who lives and dies in times of war. Engineers of UMS must therefore consider right, as well as working, requirements and limits when developing unmanned systems. The ethical issues involved in UMS design fewer than two broad directions, Building Safe Systems and Designing for the Law of Armed forces, and identify and discuss a number of issues under each of these titles. As well as identifying subjects, I offer some analysis of their implications and how they might be considered.
Before it will be ethical to field UMS, they must be safe to operate and keep, and safe to fight along. Additional indeed, they must be as safe as comparable manned systems capable of achieving similar performance in comparable parts. Their routine operation should not pose more of a threat to the health and safety of the operators than the systems they might replace. As far as is possible, they should not expose their operators to enemy line-of-sight. They must be capable of combined operations with manned systems during military exercises and wartime and also of being used for training and in peacetime operations alongside civilian methods.
Because the relevant safety comparison between manned and unmanned systems involves comparing systems capable of achieving similar performance in comparable roles this comparison actually speaks strongly in favor of the application of UMS in roles which currently involve a high risk to human life. Thus for example, the use of UMS in bomb and mine clearance is not merely ethical but ethically mandated where possible even with existing structures. Similarly once they develop the capacity; UMS may quickly become the option of choice for conducting suppression of enemy air defenses and brainpower, shadowing, and scouting missions.
To be sure unmanned systems could accomplish many if not all of the same aims. Nevertheless unmanned systems reduce the risk to our war fighters by providing a sophisticated stand-off capability that supports intelligence, knowledge and switch, aiming, and arms carriage. These systems also improve situation awareness and reduce many of the emotional hazards inherent in air and ground warfare, therefore decreasing the likelihood of causing civilian noncombatant victims. Unmanned systems have gained favor as ways to reduce risk to combat armed forces, the cost of hardware and the reaction time in a surgical strike and to conduct missions in areas that are difficult to access or otherwise considered too high-risk for manned aircraft or personnel on the base.
The main theme of the paper is to review on unmanned vehicles or service robots, their application on ground, in the air and in the water. Originally, at slightest, difficult of making robots safe is for the most part a technological rather than an ethical test. In order to greatly improve the safety of military robots by improving the technology in ways that can be specified independently of any commitments on controversial ethical queries. Unmanned systems have many valuable attributes that will aid and complement soldiers on the battleground. They are fearless and determined. They do repetitive tasks with speed and care. They are designed to avoid or withstand enemy armaments and to perform specific military roles. Most importantly, by using these systems in the war zone instead of soldiers can reduce casualties by increasing the combat effectiveness of soldiers on the combat zone.
The unmanned systems continue to prove their value in combat operations in areas like deserts, forests, mountains; snow and some other places where climatic conditions are very difficult for the military operations to plan and execute. Enemies are fighting using increasingly unconventional resources, captivating cover in the surrounding inhabitants, and using asymmetric tactics to achieve their aims. In future fights, we must be prepared for these tactics as well as a range of other novel means. Unmanned systems will be critical to operations in all domains across a range of wars, equally because of capability and performance benefits, and the ability for unmanned systems to take greater risk.
Even though unmanned systems have experienced widespread growth in funding, current world economic conditions and the department of defense initiatives necessitate increased efforts and focus toward the acquisition of affordable and convergent systems. The defense department must continue to support diverse mission sets and abilities, but must focus on acquiring Joint and inter operable phases, means, software, plan, loads and sensors due to today’s increasingly austere fiscal atmosphere. In adding, the ability for commanders to take risks with unmanned vehicles depends significantly on their price. In order to be dispensable, which is often the intent of building an unmanned system; the vehicle must be in low budget. The importance of securing common platforms with systems cannot be overstated as it will yield enormous collective benefits by reducing training expenses, reducing supply chain range, improving accessibility, and offering a cost effective gaining path by exploiting the benefits of scale and software technology reclaim.
The main theme of the paper is to review on unmanned vehicles or service robots, their application on ground, in the air and in the water.
Airborne types which include propeller and jet powered aircrafts, both regular and vertical launch, helicopters and even lighter than aircrafts. Aircraft range in size from units you can hold in one hand to planes or helicopters that could carry one or more persons if they were operated manually.
Picture 1: Unmanned aerial vehicles
Ground-based vehicles that include wheeled and tractor drive cars, trucks, armored vehicles, bomb retrieval units, battlefield tanks and low profile under vehicle surveillance devices.
Picture 2: Unmanned ground vehicle
Sea-based units include surface craft and underwater vehicles for surveillance and weapon arrangement. The smallest are undersea craft are cylindrical and launch able by one man. Some other undersea vehicles which can be deployed in submarine torpedo tubes. Unmanned surface vessels range as large as unmanned patrol power ships. The unmanned underwater vehicles can be as big as mini submarine, so that it can carry enough ammo.
Picture 3: Unmanned maritime vehicle
All of the unmanned vehicles have many common technology requirements. They all require an onboard energy basis, which may be a battery-operated, a gasoline or diesel piston device, a hydrogen fuel cell or a jet device. In all circumstances, the goal is achieve maximum energy efficiency for the weight and/or volume to increase mission scope, time and payload before refilling. For some uses, quiet operation is also important to prevent hostile forces from detecting the presence of unmanned vehicles.
The power density for unmanned vehicle batteries is a major development application. As some of the smaller aircraft are battery functioned, energy density against weight is an important factor. One exhibitor featured new battery equipment, which provides a lot of energy. Additional development area is for very small diesel aircraft engines. The researchers are trying to develop a diesel aircraft engine about prescription pill bottle size. The diesel engines are valued as diesel fuel also known as heavy fuel has more energy per unit of weight than gasoline and is readily available in battlefield conditions.
In integrated circuit technology, all unmanned vehicles require the most advanced on board computational control, real communications capabilities and real time surveillance systems while minimizing weight and or equipment volume and the impact on the assignment.
Software capabilities must support both the on vehicle operations as well as the base operator command and control location. For most vehicles there is also the need to increase the ability to operate distinctly, meaning the ability to accomplish the mission goal with little or no human intervention. Additional goal is to standardize control across many platforms for reduced operator training and greater interoperability between devices. In the case, airborne vehicles there is the added complexity of accommodating operation in the civilian commercial airspace.
Picture 4: Unmanned aerial vehicle.
The major concern with unmanned aircraft is establishing suitable locations where testing and operator training can take place so that there is enough real time experience for the device. But there is a demand of manned commercial civilian and military aircraft leave little airspace for such procedures. There are only a few around the world for testing these systems and make sure they are performing well in the real time world. Certain technology developers are addressing software to improve the accommodation and safe operation of unmanned aircraft in airspace also assigned to manned commercial and military flight.
Approximately 8,000 unmanned ground vehicles of various types have seen action various parts of the world today in the process of peace keeping. As of now, these deployed UGVs have been used in over 125,000 projects, including suspected object identification and route approval, to locate and defuse improvised explosive devices. Throughout these counter tasks, armed, commercial marine and explosive ordnance teams detected and defeated using unmanned ground vehicles. The lessons collected on the battlefield must be translated into programs that can be continued. The rapid fielding and proliferation of unmanned systems and the subsequent battlefield innovation they provided have met the task, but resulted in configuration and maintenance tests. These ground systems continue to provide tremendous benefit to the ground leader, but improvements in user borders, dependability, survivability and advances in noticing, record faithfulness and tense detection are required to meet the challenges anticipated in future encounters.
Over 90% of the data, persons, imports and services that sustain and create opportunities for regional economic prosperity flow across the oceanic domain. With emerging threats such as piracy, usual resource arguments, drug transferring and weapons proliferation a rapid response capability is needed in all maritime regions. The defense department continues to expand the range of missions supported by unmanned systems in the sea area. A recent study concluded that unmanned maritime systems have the potential to provide critical enabling capabilities for maritime missions that can improve Grouping security and strength.
Like aerial and ground unmanned systems, the unmanned maritime systems, better known as UMS have the potential to save subsists, decrease human risk, offer determined tailing and reduce operating expenses. UMS can be defined as unmanned vehicles that displace water at rest and can be categorized into two subdivisions: unmanned underwater vehicles and unmanned surface vehicles. USVs are UMS that operate with near continuous contact with the surface of the water, including conventional hull skills, hydrofoils and semisubmersibles. The use of UMS is not fresh. After World War II, USVs were used to conduct minesweeping missions and test the radioactivity of water after each atomic bomb test. Additional example occurred during the Vietnam War; anywhere remotely controlled USVs conducted minesweeping actions. Small diameter UUVs is currently the main mine detection capability for ports & harbor and in the very shallow water region. UUVs are made to operate without necessary contact with the surface, but may need to be near surface for communications purposes and some can operate secretly.
The cost plunders, schedule errors, and sustainability issues of unmanned systems cannot go unnoticed or unreturned. Active test and evaluation scenario is not sufficient for addressing financial plan, strategy, and sustainment issues in unmanned systems achievement. Unmanned system test and evaluation scenario must not only consider physics effects but other areas that have an effect on algorithm development such as human issues, independent functionality, looking, cooperation, and autonomy driven. The goal to gradually reduce the degree of human control and decision making required for the unmanned portion of the force structure will mean that autonomous functionality will gradually increase and new ways to test this functionality will be essential. The need to uphold simplicity and overcome bureaucracy in unmanned system acquisition is a constant trial. In place of these programs transition to acquisition files, here is a unique opportunity to enable productive process and oversight appropriate to producing harmless, appropriate, survivable and effective systems in a rapid acquisition outline.
Formerly viewed as a cheap alternative to manned aircraft, or even a poor man’s air force, some unmanned air systems are beginning to rival manned aircraft in cost. According to department of defense most recent evaluation, the program will cost $13.9 billion to purchase around 66 aircraft; a program acquisition unit cost of $211 million per UAV. The development cost overruns led to an average unit cost growth of 18% per airframe and prompted appropriators to voice their concern.
Much UAS cost growth appears to spring from factors that have also affected manned aircraft databases, such as requirements creep and inconsistent management performs. For example, the cost of a unmanned aerial vehicle have been driven up by adding multiple plans, which themselves increase cost, but also require larger wings and more powerful engines to carry the increased mass, which also increases budget. While originally intended to carry one primary sensor at a period, the changed the requirement so that the aerial vehicle is to carry two or more primary sensors which has increased the UAS’s price. This aerial vehicle is not the only example of requirements steal. Main considered a relatively modest UAS, the Joint Unmanned Combat Air System evolved into a large, long range aircraft with a heavy load, which increased cost.
The need to maintain simplicity and overcome bureaucracy in unmanned system acquisition is an ongoing task. For instance these programs transition to acquisition sequencers, here is a unique opportunity to enable productive process and oversight appropriate to producing harmless, right, survivable and active systems in a rapid acquisition context. There is a need to force and open interfaces to overcome the problems associated with patented robotic system designs. Morals and interface specifications need to be established to achieve modularity, harmony, and interchangeability across contents, regulator methods, video audio interfaces and communications. Standardization will enhance rivalry, lower life cycle budgets and provide war fighters with enhanced unmanned capabilities that enable commonality and joint interoperability on the battleground.
Addressing factors inhibiting the growth of unmanned systems will provide more interoperability, additional independence, well artificial intelligence, improved communications, social systems integration, preparation standardization, extra propulsion and power choices and better teaming.
There has been substantial growth in unmanned platforms of all sizes and shapes with a corresponding increase in payload numbers and ability. Numerous of these systems have been rapidly acquired and immediately fielded for war fighter and various other determinations. The unmanned systems have successfully added significant capability to joint war fighting. While those unmanned systems were rapidly developed to meet the immediate needs of the warfighter in the short time, they have not undergone rigorous requirements review and joint coordination through the normal process and to include systems interdependencies and interoperability. Added their long-term usage, sustainability and possible to contribute to long term enterprise wide capability portfolios have not been fully measured. Thus, they have not received due consideration in the context of capability areas which provide structure and organization to requirements expansion.
Given today’s highly constrained fiscal atmosphere, it is imperative that the defense department looks at many areas where efficiencies can be gained to create unmanned systems that are both effective and reasonable. The developers will look at capitalizing upon cohesion, normalization, and joint acquisition strategies among themselves. The Department demands these unmanned systems be affordable at the outset and not experience significant cost growth in their development and production evolution. Moreover, it must provide the required process with affordability advice by assessing the development and production lifecycle cost at the beginning.
Current technology and future advancements can and will enable single platforms to perform a variety of missions across multiple capability ranges. This represents an opportunity for the Department to achieve a greater return on security. In addition, the projections show that there will be opportunities for joint systems to conduct missions for each of the Facilities, just as there will be situations in which domain conditions or Service missions will dictate unique results. Comprehensive descriptions of each of the systems identified for the capability areas, including specific tasks, presentation attributes and integrated technologies can be found at the Unmanned Combat.
Battle space Awareness is a capability area in which unmanned systems in all domains have the ability to meaningfully contribute well into the future to conduct live battles and environment collection related responsibilities. To achieve this requirement unmanned systems development and fielding must include the tasking, creation, manipulation, and distribution processes required to translate vast quantities of sensor data into a shared understanding of the atmosphere. At hand are many ongoing efforts to streamline the battle space processing. Applications in this range are from tasks such as aerial and urban investigation, to tasks such as expeditionary runway calculation, nuclear forensics, special exploration. In the forthcoming, technology will enable mission endurance to extend from hours to days to weeks so that unmanned systems can conduct long endurance persistent reconnaissance and surveillance in all fields. Because unmanned systems will progress further with respect to full independence, onboard sensors that provide the systems with their own organic perception will contribute to battle space cognizance regardless of their intended primary task. This capability area is one that lends itself to tasks and missions being conducted collaboratively across areas, as well as teaming within a single field.
Force Application is another strategy which includes a proliferation of unmanned systems contributing to movement and rendezvous. Today there are a lot of unmanned systems which can perform on ground, water and aerial to conduct offensive actions, uneven combat and high value target high value individual action and this trend will likely continue in all territories. In the air field, projected mission areas for UAS include air-to-air combat and suppression and defeat of enemy air protection. On the ground, UGV are projected to conduct missions such as non-lethal crowd controller, descended offensive actions and armed inspection and assault actions. In the maritime domain, unmanned underwater vehicles and unmanned surveillance vehicles are projected to be particularly suited for mine laying and mine neutralization tasks.
Protection has particular unmanned systems applicability to assist in attack prevention or effects modification. Unmanned systems are ideally suited for many protection tasks that are deemed overcast, dangerous or dismal. As the future enables greater automation with respect to both navigation and guidance, unmanned systems will be able to perform tasks such as firefighting, distillation, advancing operating base security, fitting security, problem construction and breaking, vehicle and personnel search and assessment, mine clearance and nullification, sophisticated explosive ordnance removal, casualty extraction and removal and maritime exclusion. In the protection teaming within domains and collaboration across domains will likely succeed.
Fig 1: Challenges for unmanned systems.
The number of fielded systems and the range of missions supported by unmanned systems continue to grow at a dramatic speed. As defense department steers a path toward the idea, the challenges listed on above in the figure must be overcome in order to realize the full potential offered by unmanned systems. The following subsections summarize these challenges and the remainder of this document provides details and future goals for dealing with each encounter.
We can no longer afford to acquire self-governing, proprietary unmanned systems that do not leverage interoperability. As the lines in the battle space are hiding, and the need to share material, devices, loads, and stages is real. The fiscal battle space is also distorting and vendors must shift strategies to adhere to values, drive toward other sides, reprocess software and develop robust sources. The goal is to provide more capable unmanned systems to the war fighter on stage and interoperability will ultimately play a large role in this effort by enabling the composition of novel systems capabilities on a faster period. Intense progress in supporting technologies suggests that unprecedented levels of autonomy can be introduced into current and future unmanned structures. This advancement could presage dramatic changes in military capability and force composition comparable to the introduction of net centricity. Defense department must understand and prepare to take maximum practical advantage of advances in this area. Programmed systems are fully preprogrammed and act repeatedly and independently of external influence or switch. An automatic system can be described as self-steering or self-regulating and is able to follow an externally given path while compensating for small deviations caused by external conflicts. Though, the automatic system is not able to define the path according to some given goal or to choose the goal dictating its lane.
Department of defense has made great strides in emerging, creating and fielding unmanned systems. These systems have been effectively integrated across air, ground and sea domains to support a wide range of war fighting needs. The inherent advantages of unmanned systems including persistence and reduced risk to human life have been clearly demonstrated in combat operations in several situations like the war happened in Iraq and Afghanistan. Defense departments have envisions the continued expansion of unmanned systems in the future force construction. This expansion will include fielding additional systems in capability areas already supported by unmanned machineries, then also expanding into new mission areas not currently protected. The defense department defines a path toward this dream, a common set of challenges is apparent that cuts across all military facilities, funds, and all three domains of air, ground, and naval. The department working together with manufacturing, academe and other Government organizations will continue to map an affordable path forward to address these common tasks.