Sample Criminal Justice Paper on Homicidal Deaths

Homicide death is the act of killing another human being. A homicide can result from acts of negligence, accidental, or recklessness even if there is no intention to cause harm, and it requires the self-imposed doing by alternative person to lead to death. The United States of America has rising cases of homicides, especially gun-related, but over the years, it has continually decreased. African Americans are the ones that are most affected by homicides, while the whites are the least affected ones. The choice of this topic is to analyze and give precise rates of the causes of these homicides as well as the trends as Fulton (1987) confirms.

Homicide is unique as a crime as it frequently done against the reprobate’s loop of associates. The target is naturally close to the offender who most regularly is a family affiliate or a colleague. Homicides are more than any other crimes; they recurrently arise out of prolonged and antagonistic contact between the target and the criminal rather than from senseless and intentional accomplishment by the crook. The proportion of homicide crooks committing suicides, perhaps explained with the intimacy between the crook and the target.

Also, homicide studies have overrepresented males as perpetrators as universal features while also being disproportion victims of homicide. Biological, psychological, and sociological factors explain why the high prevalence of homicide is done by males. Biosocial theories stressing on interactions between biological and ecological factors, numerous genetic qualities have been linked to the connected aggregation in males, for instance, high testosterone, impulsivity, and low empathy, also surrounding issues can simplify and restrict their effects. Sociological methodologies emphasize the part of communal education procedures, differential changes, sub-cultural effects, lifestyle variances, and gender character socialization courses in creating the well reputable sex variations in homicide crooking and persecution as Pope (1992) confirms.

The momentous share of the lady victims murdered by close partners is one of the few exceptions to the general pattern of the men’s uneven contribution in deadly vehemence. Through research conducted has confirmed that the dominant role of male sexual watchfulness and proprietaries in local violence, generally get females killed by their abusers. The source of male sexual jealousy and their craving to regulate females can be derived from two main perspectives: feminist schemes and changing mindset. For suffragette philosophers, the groundwork of the wariness and governance lie in male-controlled social edifices and cultural methods. In contrast, for developmental psychologists, the idea that males’ basis is purely social or cultural is inconsistent with the general picture of the overrepresentation of men in deadly viciousness and mutual circumstantial background and reasons making men to assassinate women as Baliko (2008) confirms.

Nevertheless, in the view of men, in response to procreant rivalry amid men, sexual proprietariness has advanced among males this as a result of the risk of being deprived of a partner due to alleged disloyalty or the associate abandoning the relationship. Moreover, adding to this pattern are women who are culprits of killing infants and homicides. Infanticide enquiry has shown that this is brought about the need to hide pregnancy in order to prevent the parents from knowing this is young gender or when women are not able to care for the newborn.

Besides, the infants are choked or throttled, whereby the newborn’s body is often deserted or concealed not to be revealed. The most critical forecasters of baby killing abuse rates are womanly effort force involvement and salary differences. In 2015, an article was published concerning the murders that happened in America starting 1913 to 2015, where 235 homicides were selected. From the FBI statistics, it is indicated that there were over a thousand killings between 1900 and 1999, meaning the 235 cases selected represented a quarter of the incidents. The cases selected had insufficient information and were assessed psychiatrically. In the selected cases, 7 had no enough data to draw judgment, and therefore, the series consisted of 228 cases as Herzog (1991) confirms.

For the diagnosis of these people, a little meaning of mind ailment: psychosis was used. The many murderers recognized as psychologically sick were all found to have either with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder with insane characteristics. Every  individual was judged to have either absurdity or feasible mind ailment, which include several with well-recognized finding. The conclusion was drawn that fifty-two of the crooks-46 men and six ladies- were psychologically challenged, which represented 23% of all 228 cases learned. However, the learning camouflaged many years from 1913 until 2015 before the disarrangement of people with a mind wellbeing condition, and its impacts became protruding. From 2000 to 2015, 28 of those 88 mob murderers or 32% were crazy. In this period also, the effect of ceasing hospitals of state and reducing society psychiatric facilities are seen as Heide (2003) confirms.

To add, the research by being based on personality disorders was conducted by a psychoanalyst Stone and the study the killers were diagnosed with an antisocial, psychopathic, narcissistic, or paranoid personality disorder.  The paranoid personality disorder leaves someone losing a sense of reality. Therefore, amid the 48 mob murderers recognized with schizophrenia, many would be recognized by a clinician with obsessed schizophrenia increasing the finding that 32% of the mass killing is as a result of severe psychological disorder. For instance, Jiverly Wong, a immigrant from Vietnam who assassinated 13 persons and committed suicide in 2009 in Birmingham in  New York, was diagnosed with schizophrenia, however, upon killing himself, he left a letter describing his imaginations on the online network.

Moreover, as figures showed, 15-24 and 25-35vyears old had the highest homicide deaths in 2017 at around 12 per 100,000. The lowest homicides cases were part of the elder and young American children, except for infants who expertized in high homicide rates, which were roughly eight deaths per 100,000. 21.4 African Americans per 100,000 died from homicides in 2017, ranking the highest among the races. 6.3 per 100,000 represented by the American Indians and Alaskan natives died from homicides. Whites being the third-highest, with 3.6 per 100,000 dying from homicides. Furthermore, least in the rank being the Asians or pacific islanders with 1.7 per 100,000 deaths.

In conclusion, men are at a high risk of dying from homicides than women. Data collected from 2017 indicates that 9.8 men per 100,000 died from homicides, while only 2.5 women per 100.000 died from homicides. Total homicide deaths by race show that the African American homicide rate has been considerably higher than that of whites since 1980. However, the white homicidal rate is fluctuating from 6.4 to 3.4 compared to Africans americans51 to 21.4. the homicidal deaths are brought about the psychological nature of beings, social factors like the intimacy of people, for instance, the risk of losing someone to another, biological factors that stimulate the body and mind to do regrettable things.

 

References

Baliko, B. &. ((2008)). Perceptions of survivors of loss by homicide: Opportunities for nursing practice. Journal of psychosocial nursing and mental health services,, 46(5), 26-34.

Fulton, R. (1987)). Unanticipated grief. Death: Completion and discovery. Lakewood, OH: . The Association for Death Education and Counselling.

Heide, K. M. (2003)). Youth homicide: A review of the literature and a blueprint for action. International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology, , 47(1), 6-36.

Herzog, A. R. (1991). Productive activities and aging well. Generations. Journal of the American Society on Aging,, 15(1), 49-54.

Pope, K. S. ((1992). Ethical dilemmas encountered by members of the American Psychological Association:A national survey. American Psychologist,. American Psychological Association., 47(3), 397.