Sample Business Studies Essays on Quality Management

Quality Management


Quality management systems refers to formalized systems that document procedures, processes and responsibilities incorporated towards achieving quality business policies as well as short and long term objectives. With quality management systems, an organization is able to coordinate and guide its activities towards meeting its client’s need and regulatory obligations. QMS also improves organization’s effectiveness and sufficiently enhance an organization’s efficiency (Evans, & Lindsay, 2002). Ideally, quality management systems encompass planning, quality control, quality assurance and, quality improvement, hence, ensuring the organizations products or services are consistent. Notably, besides focusing on quality of products and services, quality management systems also establish means of achieving such goals. Hence, they involve quality assurance, products development and service improvements to achieve consistency in quality. Various quality management systems exists including total quality management, plan to do check, just in time and six sigma system. However, each quality management is utilized based on the type of the organization and organization’s objectives.

Total Quality Management (TQM)

TQM is a managerial tool that directs an organization’s in realizing long-term success satisfactory meeting its customer’s needs. Ideally, all individuals in an organization participate in enhancing processes, upgrading products, and improving services and organization’s culture in their daily work activities. In total quality approach, the client dependably determines the level of quality being delivered (Mendes, 2013). Subsequently, regardless of what an enterprise does to foster the quality of its goods and service, for instance, integrating quality into design processes, training its employees, or upgrading administrative services,  the customer decides whether the efforts were beneficial. Consequently, TQM expects quality to be exhibited in all parts of the organization’s activities with the goal of improving procedures in the first run and ensure expenditures are minimized. For successful implementation of TQM, an organization must concentrate on eight key elements- ethics, integrity, trust, training, teamwork, leadership, recognition, and communication (Avelini, & Gajšt, 1997).


Plan-to-do-check -act cycle (PDCA) or Deming cycle is an iterative four step model of carrying out change. It is used for continuous improvement within an organization when starting a new project, changing production process or service design or, when a need to define repetitive process arise and when the organization is planning to carry out data collection and analysis (Evans, & Lindsay, 2002). The planning phase encompass assessing current or new processes and establishing means of improving such processes. Consequently, discerning the types of output endeavored helps to develop means of customizing processes towards meeting the desired output. However, the management plan should encompass minimal changes to enhance monitoring and ensuring outputs are more predictable. Consequently, the doing phase allows enactment of the established plan. It incorporate testing the smaller changes applied therein, and gathering relevant data regarding the impact of the changes (Mendes, 2013).

The check stage includes assessing information and results retrieved from the doing stage. Doing stage results and information are contrasted with anticipated results to discern similarities or differences that may arise. Also, the testing procedure is assessed to establish changes from the initial test implemented during the process. Notably, tabulating the data in a chart makes it easier to establish expected trends if PDCA cycle is concurrently applied. If the check phase establishes that the plan phase implemented in doing phase results to improvements of prior standards, the plan becomes the new standards of how the organization should act (Mendes, 2013). The established news standard are referred to as the enacted baselines.  However, if the check phase stablishes that the plan phase implemented in the doing phase does not improve prior standards, the existing standards remain to be the organization’s standards of acting. In either case, the act phase suggests potential future of the PDCA cycle.

Six Sigma

Six sigma incorporates various techniques and tools of improving processes. Ideally, its main idea is to enhance yields quality by distinguishing and dispensing defects as well as limiting process variabilities. It includes experimental and factual strategies to build up exceptional foundation of specialists within the firm. Every sigma procedure incorporate a characterized succession of procedures that are directed towards a particular target. Six Sigma principle declares consistent endeavors to effectively accomplish steady and predicable procedures; organizations attends characteristics that can be defined, measured, enhanced and controlled; establishing a sustainable quality improvement involves commitment of the organization as a whole, especially from management (Mendes, 2013).

Just in Time

Just in time refers to an inventory strategy organizations employ to enhance efficiency and minimize waste by procuring the needed quantity of goods at a specified period of time. This type of quality management involves producers forecasting customers and organization’s demands accurately. Ideally, just in time focus on organizations that have very low inventory levels relying on their supply chain to deliver the raw materials (Knowles, 2012).

Based on the above discussions, Plan-do-check-act (PDCA) is the best quality management tool to utilize when carrying out projects. It is a continuous loop of activities involving planning, doing, checking and acting. It provides room for continuous improvements by driving processes forward while eliminating complacency. The system does not only encompass the inherent parts of a project cycle, but also includes the evaluation phase which is imperative. Additionally, the cycle articulates Sigma Six and TQM systems, therefore, it can be used to implement TQM and Sis Sigma initiatives by generally helping to improve processes. Consequently, PDCA explores a range of problems (a key element in projects management) and customize them in a controlled manner before establishing the best suited alternative for implementation. The cycle also avoid wastages of resources by eliminating ineffective solutions at the check phase.

Analysis of Quality Management Tools and Techniques

Quality management involves application of various tools and techniques. Cause and effect (Ishikawa or fishbone) are used to identify the root cause of potential or existing challenges.  Hence, they help management establish solutions to underlying or possible problems.  Control charts define the stability of a process. It analyzes the behavior of a process over a period of time. Control charts help an organization in decision making processes based on variances established on the chart. Additionally, the charts provides lower and upper limits for process execution and are usually at 3-sigma level. Flow charting involves following a process from initial stages of execution to the enactment phase in determining potential or existing challenges in the process (Evans, & Lindsay, 2002). Flow charting is largely used to predict potential weaknesses in process and thus aid an organization in establishing potential solutions.

Histograms or column graphs are graphical representation of event frequencies. They are used to tabulate processes as they show how they perform over a period of time. Additionally, histograms helps to compare performance of various processes thus helping the management establish areas that need improvements (Evans, & Lindsay, 2002). Pareto charts and Pareto analysis shows the probability density and distribution functions respectively.  Probability density refers to the probability of variable occurring amid process. Hence, this tool aid in foreseeing processes and helps management in pursuing possible solutions in advance (Evans, & Lindsay, 2002).  The run chart graphically represents computed data over a period of time (Evans, & Lindsay, 2002). The trend help in understanding availability of problems or abnormalities in the process. Hence, based from data obtained from the run chart diagrams, the management can best identify problems and establish means of addressing them in advance.




Avelini, H. I., & Gajšt, D. (January 01, 1997). Total quality management. Naše Gospodarstvo, 43, 47-55. Retrieved from

Evans, J. R., & Lindsay, W. M. (2002). The management and control of quality. Australia: South-Western. Retrieved from

Knowles, G. (2012). Managing quality in the 21st century. S.l: Graemes Knowles. Retrieved from

Mendes, S. (January 01, 2013). Quality Management Systems. Retrieved from…/9781441971388-c1.pdf?