Sample Business Paper on The Visa Whiteness Machine

The South African Institute of Race Relations (SAIRR) figures indicate a decline in White population size in South Africa by sixteen percent over the last decade. Other statistics show most South Africans living abroad are in United Kingdom (Neumayer 72). The statistics reveal the close relationship between the colonial master and colonist. Despite the prevailing conditions, racism and prejudice strain the relationship. The concept of whiteness and privileges has influenced the visa regime which restricts the access of South Africans in England and across Europe. The mobility policies in different regions control the population’s movement and settlements.

The concept of whiteness is associated with privileges and benefits over minority groups. Whiteness stands as a way in which parties are represented and understood. The belonging to a race allows one’s participation in political and spatial activities. Mobility helps us understand whiteness from a materialistic approach beyond the representation aspect. Increased mobility has increased the movement of people across the globe fostering interaction of different racial groups. Whiteness existed as an identity for privilege globally for a very long time. This means easy movement and access for White people to many regions compared to other groups. The strife between racial groups often culminates to violent confrontation.

Since the end of apartheid era in 1994, South Africa has strategically repositioned itself on the global front. The movement of Africans overseas follows the entry to commonwealth and liberalization of the economy. The extent of inequality at the global front influence the mobility policies. Up to 2009, South Africans enjoyed the privilege of visa-free access to the UK as tourists but was revoked due to security concerns. The entry to the UK since then has become a rigorous process (Neumayer 84). British citizens by birth enjoy unlimited movement between the UK and South Africa increasing transnational mobility.

Who Gets to Be Italian?

Italy stands as the epicenter of civilization. Between 1876 and 1980s, roughly thirty million Italians migrated to other parts of Europe and America. The massive migration deepened the racism conflicts between nations. Towards 1990, Italy became a favorite destination for Africans, Latin Americans, and Europeans. The proximity of Italy to Africa and the shared border point opened access and exchange between the regions. Approximately, 43 million tourists visit Italy to witness the unique historical and cultural endowment (Palumbo n.d). The increased movement of people across sectors depends on transnational ties and policies. However, entrenched inequality in the Italian society increases the suspicion, prejudice, and tension between nationals and foreigners.

Overtime, Italian societies have reconstructed their racial positions against Africans and other settlers. Increased mobility has seen an influx of foreigners in Italy. The arrival of Africans is associated with increased strife and social evils (Palumbo n.d). Growing insecurity suspicion increase the tensions and uncertainties between the native sand minority groups. The policies in play enshrine the concepts of racism and fascism directed towards the minority groups complicating the interaction between the two groups. The conflicts between population groups call for the restriction of phenotypical ethnic and cultural whiteness.

Europe is gradually adopting more inclusive policies for Africans and minority groups. The reforms follow the increased rebellion and pressure to drop supremacist sentiments. Protests erupted across the region calling for the unity against racism and the recognition of Africans and other groups. Protesters decry the treatment with prejudice against Africans and the racial hatred within the social groups. Africans barely acquired attendant and representative rights and privileges. Despite mobility policies, Italy has become an immigrant country increasing the ethnic diversity.

Human Blacklisting

Gradually, the essence of physical boundaries between societies has diminished. The desire to gain control and dominance of specific regions is taking a completely different turn embracing higher inclusivity, harmonious integration, and cross-border mobility. European states are now adopting constitutive management of the exclusion of the other inhabitants of the world. This approach brings to emergence bordering and othering creating regional boundaries with distinct symbols and authority. Bordering brings about the legitimation and justification of a location and edge of the territory which facilitates for unification and collective identity for the locals. This approach allows every locality to set its social and individual dynamics based on their personality.

Developing European civilization, politics, and global engagements have seen the deployment of rapid and active forces to contain illegal migration, terrorism, and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The geopolitical ambitions include tackling international crime and terrorism and maintaining conducive conditions for nationals across the region (Carrera n.d). The European Union external border control system applies selective criteria of border maintenance. The particular selection distinguishes citizens of European Union member states from non-members. The risk analysis strategy allows member states to ward off immigrants and illegal activities. This model requires citizens from other regions to acquire a visa for access for a given duration and reasons. The whitelist contains countries whose citizens do not need to apply for permission. The blacklist has 135 states that require a visa to access European Union territories

Adopting restrictive and apartheid geopolitics in border management creates selective admission to Europe which is outrightly unjust on the social and economic ends. The blacklisting policy institutes inequality, segregation, prejudice, and discrimination in the society and against foreigners. The exclusionary policies only increase the suspicion between states causing conflicts. The stringent legal entry measures have improved the illegal channels and routes of entering Europe.

 

 

Work Cited

Carrera, Sergio. “Building a Common Policy on Labor Immigration: Towards a Comprehensive and Global Approach in the EU?” SSRN Electronic Journal, 2007. Retrieved from: Aei.Pitt.Edu, 2018, http://aei.pitt.edu/7380/2/7380.pdf. Accessed 18 May 2018.

Neumayer, Eric. “Unequal Access to Foreign Spaces: How States Use Visa Restrictions to Regulate Mobility in a Globalized World”. Transactions Of The Institute Of British Geographers, vol 31, no. 1, 2006, pp. 72-84. Retrieved from: Eprints.Lse.Ac.Uk, 2018, http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/715/1/Transactions_of_the_BIG%28FINAL%29.pdf. Accessed 18 May 2018.

Palumbo Patrizia, Ed. “A Place in the Sun”. Google Books, 2018, https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=lfWsNSdZdOUC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Accessed 18 May 2018.