Sample Biology Paper on Polyunsaturated Fats

Polyunsaturated fats are basically the fat molecules which have more than one carbon bond that is unsaturated also referred to as double bond. Saturated fat on the other hand refers to a type of fat that contains a high proportion of fatty acid molecules and do not have a double bond. They are considered to be of not to be healthy. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature.
Majority of this saturated fats come from animal products; this are meat and milk. Polyunsaturated fats on the other hand are liquid at room temperature but turn into solid after being chilled. According to American Heart Association, polyunsaturated fats when eaten in moderation can be of more health benefit. They argue that this fats helps reduce the cholesterol level in the blood and this can considerably minimize the risk of getting a stroke or a heart attack. They are responsible for providing nutrients that are responsible for developing and maintaining the body cells.
Oils that are rich in polyunsaturated fats are known to provide vitamin E to the diet which is very useful in reducing the process that damage cells and also responsible for proper functioning of the body cells. They provide fats that our bodies require but cannot produce by themselves. This are the omega-3 and omega-6 and they are very useful in the body.
Scientific research has proved it that saturated fat can put one under a high risk of high cholesterol level in the blood which in turn can result to heart diseases. This is because saturated fats tends to clog along the sides of the blood vessels resulting in the narrowing of blood channel.

When preparing meat via a grill, the saturated fats undergoes a change in the physical state. It changes from solid to a liquid form that drips of the grill. This results to the final product having less fat. The fat hand undergoes a change in its chemical composition from saturated to unsaturated. Meat grilling results in transformation of saturated fat to unsaturated fat. On the other hand, raw meat has saturated fat content that can have a high risk of causing harm. Boiling and physical burning have almost similar results in the final product. For example, when preparing a pork shank by grilling the final product have a lesser concentration of fat (p = 0.049) as compared to that prepared by boiling (Claire,2015). This makes grilling most preferred method of consuming meat as compared to boiling. Boiling also reduces the overall concentration of saturated fats in meat.
Oil and fats differ in that oils are liquid at room temperature while fats are solid at room temperature. . Fats are soft solids at room temperature and they usually melt while cooking. There is, however, a notable difference in their melting points. This is brought about by different saturation of chemical bonds in the fat molecule. The higher the number of hydrogen atoms in a fatty acid the more saturated it is and this results to a higher melting point. Unsaturated fats contains a double bond that causes a bend in carbon chain and this prevents the chains from coming close to each other and interacting strongly. This is in turn results to weaker bonds that have a low melting point. A good example of unsaturated fat is oleic acid. Chemically, saturated fats are known to be very stable and they do not easily react with other molecules. The single covalent bond that makes them up are known not to react with other chemicals.
Hydrogenation is the process by which hydrogen gas is used to change vegetable oil that is in liquid form into hard margarine. Hydrogen molecules are used to saturate the compounds which are organic and this is made possible by presence of a catalyst. Hydrogenation rearranges the molecular shape of unsaturated fats. Hydrogen atoms comes in and it removes the triple or the double atoms between atoms. Margarine is the end product after hydrogenation and is usually a saturated fat while vegetable oil is usually unsaturated.
During hydrogenation the unsaturated fat converts from a cis isomer to Trans isomer. Isomers refers to molecules with similar molecular formula but are bonded differently (Hugo&Jesus, 2015). Due to constant addition of energy from the process of hydrogenation, activation energy that is required to convert the cis isomer that belong to unsaturated fat to trans isomer of an unsaturated fat is reached. Due to this effect, one of the hydrogens is kept facing one side of the carbon.
This brings about the result of trans configuration of carbon atoms that are doubly bonded. Most trans fatty acids cannot be referred to as unsaturated fats. This is because despite them being monounsaturated they are very different from cis monounsaturated fatty acids. This makes them to be classified under the category of saturated fats.

In a comprehensive review of the statistics represented by the graph, there is a powerful association of trans fatty acids and atherosclerosis. Based on per calorie this fats seem to increase the rate of the diseases more than any other micronutrient (Bruce, 2011). Atherosclerosis is seen to roughly double for each increase in trans fat composition in the blood. With reference to other studies, trans fatty acids have been proved to be of no nutritional value and there are great effects that results from their use the major one being occurrence of cardiovascular disease. This necessitates the need to reduce the overall uptake of the trans fats into the body. Making deductions from the graph presented the chances of occurrence of atherosclerosis to the mice increases considerably with the increase in the uptake. This without a doubt can be a cause of death to the specimen if regulatory measures are not put in place.
Trans fats have been believed to be the causative agents of cardio-related deaths in Canada. This is according to the research done by Heart and stroke foundation. The ban basically tries to cub oils that are partially hydrogenated in packaged foods and also foods that are sold in the restaurants. In reference to the research done by the Heart and Stroke foundation artificial trans fats were identified to cause clogging in the blood vessels and also a notable increase in the cholesterol level. However, this is not the case for naturally occurring trans fats that are basically found in dairy or meat products.
Imposing a ban will reduce considerably the overall intake of trans fats. This will however take a longer time for it to be effective since there are products that are currently on shelf and may take some years to completely get over them. This means that people will still be taking the trans fats. Banning trans fats completely will results to people opting for replacements which might as well be harmful. The food industries had voluntarily started phasing out oils that are partially hydrogenated for years. This ban had not been effected.
In my own view, mandatory trans fat labeling is the way to go. The companies making the food products should make it their duty to set up a monitor program that gives them feedback on the progress in meeting their target of reducing the uptake of trans fats. Consumers on the other hand should be responsible for reading the labels before purchasing the food products. This will ensure they take products with low count of trans fat. Restaurants and other food joints should also implement this by ensuring the products they buy for preparation are of low trans fat content. Prevention is the best medicine.





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