Sample Biology Paper on Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and control mechanism

  1. Introduction

Definition and history of this retrovirus Human T-cell lymphotropic virus also known as T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus (HTLV) is a type of virus that belongs to a group of human retroviruses which causes a type of cancer called adult T-cell leukemia. There are different types of cancer diseases such as prostate cancer in men and breast cancer in women that have proved to be among the deadliest chronic disease types in the world. Definition of proteins through the research from different physicians and scientists, the HTLV causing lymphoma T-cell cancer is one of the rarest cancer conditions that not only affects the humans but also animals by the act of tax and rex proteins on cell surface. HTLVs infect both internal body and external skin presentation. In animals, the virus causing infection is called a Simian T- lymphotropic virus (STLVs) which is most common in old monkeys. There are four types of HTLVs and STLVs respectively, (HTLV-1, HTLV-2, HTLV-3, HTLV-4 & STLV-1, STLV-2, STLV-3 STLV4). Blood type sequence -approximately over 40000 cases have been reported in the USA of patients with blood groups A, B or AB was most likely to be infected with these viruses. HTLV was known to originate from the interspecies relationship of STLVs discovered in 1980.




Replication cycle in human host


The Human T-cell lymphoma virus has the potential of infecting a wide range of human body cells but primarily triggers the CD4+ T-cell. However, myeloid cells and other mammalian cells are replicated by this deadly virus. This effect on diverse cell types in the body results from the ability of another virus called surface subunit (SU) and glycoprotein interaction with the cell surface receptors such as glucose transporter (GLUT1). Following the fusion of the mature virus in the cell membrane containing RNA receptors, it is then delivered and transported to the cytoplasm (B) which undergoes a reverse manipulation to be converted to DNA. The already converted DNA is transmitted to the neighboring cells into the nucleus which is processed to spread as the host in the human body.


Encoded proteins and modulation of cytotoxic HTLV-1


Following the processes in the intermediary cells, post-virus is developed and transported to the cellular surface of RNA polymerase 2 which is exported to the cytoplasm and modified into the plasma membrane (PM). Finally, the virus generated undergoes the maturation stage which is converted to an infectious cell virus. HTLV infection exists in different forms; it exists as a Sexually Transmitted Disease- this virus in Latin America has been discovered in semen and the cervical section in women who are infected with STIs. HTLV also exists as Strongyloidiasis which is an intestinal disease that has been recorded to infect more than 60 million people worldwide. This asymptomatic disease causes abdominal pains which result in diarrhea. HTLV can also be associated with HIV which is also a deadly disease-causing AIDS. Further studies have been statistically analyzed showing the coinfection of HIV and HTLV in both men and women. In men, this dual infection results from having sexual intercourse with multiple partners compared to women. There are two main types of proteins that affect the cell membrane of the T-cells namely Tax and Rex Proteins. Tax protein plays a core role in these processes by destabilizing the genome hence speeds up the chemical reaction for the repair of the DNA. Rex Protein has the main role of stabilizing and triggers the transportation of mRNA from the nucleus for viral replication.



HTLV is transmitted into the body through several channels. Just like HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections, this deadly virus is contracted through sexual intercourse. The virus can survive the acidity of the female genitals that are mostly infected by the virus as compared to men. It is also transmitted through blood sharing during injection procedures in health centers. The virus rapidly spreads into the body taking a specific chamber body part to concentrate as the host. Young breastfeeding infants are also at risk to contract the chronic virus because it also gets transmitted through breastfeeding.


Signs & symptoms

Moreover, this infection has several signs and symptoms which include constipation, bladder problems, double vision, and development of deafness, stiff muscles, and numbness /tingling. There are also pre-initial symptoms experienced such as unexpected falls from a loss of consciousness, lower back pain and gait problems.



There is the specific and ideal treatment of this virus in the initial stages of the infection which is difficult to be located in the body. In animals, antigen and experimental vaccination is used and has been successful in rodents. Plasmid DNA types of vaccines have been used for numerous animal models for infectious diseases. In the past decade, physicians and scientists have conducted medical research to get more diverse information to understand the pathogenic structure of the T-cell membrane. Therapeutic vaccination procedures have been developed to combat HTLV-1. Antibodies have also been discovered to control the effect of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) reaction against HTLV-1.



The mutation impacts of the acting proteins on the cell surfaces in the body through evaluation of phylogenetic features may contribute to its dysfunction. The reverse transition of HTVL-1 in the DNA and RNA genes with the main aim of extracting and targeting the virus causing infection would result in stopping the infectious virus from spreading.





In conclusion, this paper aimed to discuss one of the deadliest viruses to be discovered that affects both humans and animals. HTLV affects the human body while STVL affects animals. HTVL-1, HTVL-2, HTVL-3, HTVL-4 & STVL-1, STVL-2, STVL-3, and STVL-5 are the main types of the viruses respectively.