Sample Biology Annotated Bibliography Paper on Genetic Testing

Thesis Statement: Although the goal of genetic testing is to improve the quality of life of patients, the process infringes on individual privacy, encourages discrimination, and may culminate into harmful gene therapy.

Hall, M. & Rich, S. (2000). Genetic Privacy Laws and Patients’ Fear of Discrimination by Health Insurers: The View from Genetic Counselors. A Journal of The American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 28 (3), 245-257.

In their research, Hall and Rich establish that patients of genetic testing experience unfair treatment by stakeholders because of their genetic statuses. Apparently, employers and insurers use information relating to genetic defects to deny patients coverage, limit the respective coverage, or increase the rates of the coverage. This trend according to the authors influences the decisions that patients and their families make with respect to genetic testing. In turn, it impacts on the quality of their life. They document several laws and legislations that have been enacted by a couple of states in an effort to curb the malpractice. Their findings show that anti-discriminatory laws have been useful for encouraging testing and preventing unfair use of this sensitive information. The source of the information is reliable and authors are researchers affiliated to North Carolina University’s department of health. The information is relevant for the topic because it explores the implications of discrimination on patients.

Rhodes, R. (2006). Why Test Children for Adult-Onset Genetic Diseases? The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 73 (3), 609-616.

In his review, Rhodes indicates that predictive genetic testing for children before the onset of adulthood is vitally imperative. He details the arguments of the policy makers who oppose the practice on the premise that it exposes children to harm, infringes on their confidentiality and autonomy and is not justified because of lack of treatment. Nonetheless, he maintains that genetic testing is imperative and documents various benefits. He concludes by encouraging parents and pediatricians to pursue the medical practice. Rhodes is a renowned researcher in the field of Bioethics who has published various journals. He works for Mount Sinai School of Medicine and his contributions to this field of specification are worthwhile. In addition to underscoring the importance of early genetic testing, the author provides the differing positions of other researchers. This contributes to the objectivity of the source.

Parker, M. (2013). Ethical Problems and Genetics Practice. London: Cambridge University Press.

In this review, the author explores the ethical concerns that surround the medical practice of genetic testing. He posits that the practice generates various moral issues for patients, families, and health professionals. He illustrates the problems using rich case studies and shows how they affect each party. As a professor of Bioethics at the University of Oxford, Michael Parker focusses on the ethical matters that genetic testing generates. He also undertakes research in global health and assumedly, he is conversant with the field of bioethics. This information will be relevant for the study because it provides rich insights into the moral issues relating to genetic testing. The case studies enhance understanding of the topic by triggering reflection and critical thinking. Undoubtedly, the source enhances generation of new knowledge about topics such as independence, decision making, and discrimination.

Robertson, S. & Savelescu, J. (2001). Is there a Case in Favor of Predictive Genetic Testing in Young Children? Bioethics, 15 (1), 26-49.

In their research, the authors advocate for genetic testing in pediatrics. They maintain that ideally, the procedure is confidential and therefore does not impact on the autonomy of the child as claimed by the prohibitive stance. They discuss the psychosocial benefits of the procedure and posit that it enhances independence as the child grows. Further, they indicate that parents are best positioned to make decisions in this respect. They conclude that all stakeholders should respect and support the views and decisions of parents. What is more, the parents or guardians should be allowed to make informed decisions after undergoing counselling. The authors are researchers at Melbourne University and have published various other papers on the topic of bioethics and genetics. Therefore, their prepositions are invaluable and contributions credible. The information is appropriate for the topic and offers useful insights regarding the importance of genetic testing, matters of autonomy and confidentiality, and arguments surrounding the same.

Burke, W. (2002). Genetic Testing. The New England Journal of Medicine, 347, 1867-1875.

In this study, Burke provides an in depth review of the concept of genetic testing and highlights its advantages and disadvantages. He contends that if the procedure is carried out effectively, it has multiple benefits. The prognostic and diagnostic information that it provides is vital for critical decision making. He also cites that mistakes in genetic testing are far reaching and as such, professionals should always be cautious. He confirms that the technology is useful in the medical field and has been imperative for solving complications related to cardiovascular diseases and cancer. This information is applicable to the study because it shows how genetic engineering contributes to the quality of life of the patients. In addition, it explains that procedures relating to gene therapy can be dangerous too. Doctor Burke is a reliable and trustworthy source who works for Washington University’s Department of Medical History and Ethics. He has undertaken extensive research in this field of specification and is knowledgeable about the discipline. The article is comprehensive, coherent, and relies on information from other credible sources too.

Sharpe, N. & Carter, R. (2008). Genetic Testing: Care, Consent, and Liability. New York: Wiley

In their review, Sharpe and Carter agree that genetic testing is widespread in the field of medicine. They indicate that health practitioners make resolutions using results of the tests in order to improve health outcomes. However, they cite that they must also consider a range of limitations and risks that surround the practice. They document policies, protocols, procedures, and models that relate to genetic testing. They explain and discuss the relevant legal framework that is used in North America and give implications for incidences of malpractice. They cover issues such as informed consent, psychological matters, and interpretation of outcomes and communications of the same to clients, confidentiality, risk assessment, and the concept of genetic screening. Sharpe and Carter draw their conclusions from various contributors in the field of bioethics. For this reason, their source is objective and therefore credible. The contribution that they make to this subject is appropriate and will aid in understanding the concept of genetic testing as well as the legal issues relating to the same.

Hodge, J. (2004). Ethical Issues Concerning Genetic Testing and Screening in Public Health. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 125C (1), 66-70.

Hodge notes that genetic testing ad screening has proliferated in the medical field. He points out that the procedure improves health outcomes but is associated with a host of social, legal, and moral concerns. Specifically, he cites matters pertaining to discrimination, privacy, and informed consent and insists that practitioners should respect them at all times. According to him, principles of public health allow for voluntary testing, screening and sharing of the data. He insists that although individual rights are important, they should not be used to prohibit pursuit of this important medical practice. This is especially because its benefits outweigh the disadvantages. Information regarding the ethical, social, and legal concerns is important for this study because it addresses pertinent matters such a s confidentiality and privacy. Hodge is a trusted source who has undertaken various researches in the field of bioethics. The information is credible and based on both primary and secondary data.

Offit, K. & Thom, P. (2007). Ethical and Legal Aspects of Cancer Genetic Testing. Seminars in Oncology, 34 (5), 435-443.

In this study, the authors state that cancer genetic testing is a sensitive procedure that raises various legal liabilities and ethical concerns. In particular, they observe that the responsibility to warn the families or relatives of patients regarding the risks of inheritance, the relevance of testing embryos and children, matters relating to equitable access to treatments, and harmful consequences including discrimination are particularly important. They offer different approaches that stakeholders and professionals can use to address the preceding challenges and ensure effectiveness. They base their prepositions and solutions on theoretical models and frameworks. Offit and Thom are professional researchers in the field of clinical genetics and have published several works relating to the subjects. Admittedly, the information that they present is based on informed thought. It is significant for the study because the implications of genetic testing for cancer can be applied to the general procedures of genetic testing.