Sample Annotated Bibliography Paper on The Covid-19 Pandemic: Advantages and Disadvantages to Container Terminal.


The covid-19 pandemic has affected many lives ,businesses ,individuals and industries in a very
radical way.Covid-19 was first reported in China, but it now spreads throughout the world .The disease
spreads from person to person through infected air, projected during coughing or sneezing .Likewise, the
rapid spread of the disease has had a major impact on global shipping market with the demand of goods
from China having a ruffle effect .These has contributed a setback in the economy for most countries
.This paper discusses the pros and cons of Covid-19 pandemic to container terminal.


Opportunities for Employment
The pandemic has had an adverse effect to many employment positions in container terminal .In
many countries, Governments initiated a lockdown to restrict movement of goods and its citizen to other
countries. These has made the supply of goods to other countries out of question .Coronavirus caused
demand to fall lower and remain at lower levels than in usual years .Opportunities for employment in
terminal operations position have by the same token reduced since there is no available work .Employers
in container terminal have also suffered from being laid off because the blue economy is not as stable as it
was before hence making opportunities for employment in container terminal scarce.
Supply Chain
closure of ports due to the ”lockdown” in many countries have caused disruptions in the supply
chain of imports and exports .The pandemic has exposed the vulnerability of the global supply chain .The
pandemic lockdown and measures taken stopped manufacturing of crucial products disrupting the supply
chain .These has caused inadequate supply of critical products such as medical equipment and food
supply to some parts of the world who are in need .For instance, initially before covid-19, China produced
approximately half the world’s mask .As the infection spread across China, their exports came to a halt
.As a result, the cut in supply chain has affected not only the blue economy but also the economy of most
producing countries and their major recipient.
Port congestion
Many countries responded to the pandemic by initiating lockdown and restricting movement to act
as measure to reduce the spread of covid-19.Some manufacturers and retailers had failed to pick up their
goods and containers due to reasons such as their warehouses were full or closed .As stated before, many
ports have reduced or minimum workforce and this lead to many lying uncollected cargos which creates
congestion causing a disruption in the supply chain of imports and exports .Perishable goods such as
medical products also experience a wastage in the ports which could otherwise be used for good health in
a country during this challenging period when the world is affected by this pandemic.


Environmental Impacts
Port operations can also lead to adverse impacts on air ,water and land .Ports rely on heavy
machines with diesel engine which emit gases including Nitrogen oxide ,and sulfur oxide which are toxic
to the environment and can contribute to significant health problems .Port operations can also have a
striking impact on water quality and the health of marine life .Hence, the lockdown initiation and
movement restrictions will minimize these environmental effects since most container terminal are not
function or under minimum manpower .Cruise transportation has also greatly reduced making port
operations, which highly affect the environment, minimum.
Unlawful Port Operations
Water transport can sometimes be used for unlawful purpose, these include : illegal drugs
transportation into countries and illegal migration of refugees into a country in search of better lives
.These acts have been considerably reduced by the lockdown initiation and movement restrictions .Most
governments have tried to fight against illegal migration and illegal drugs from entering to their country
through container terminal but has no yielded results in a long time .The pandemic will cut short of drug
supply and illegal migration since most ports are not functioning or under minimal manpower making it
had for these activities to succeed.
Reduced Overdependence on Other Countries
Imported products tend to have a lower price than locally produced products for various reasons
.These reasons include better technology and lower production cost in the exporting country
.Overdependence of exported products in a country, although they reduce the impact on household

expenditure, tends to crush the local industries which leads to economic crisis in a country .The covid-19
pandemic ,however, will have a reverse effect of people relying on goods produced locally since the
lockdown and movement restrictions have the effect of reduced imports and exports .This will have the
effect of giving local industries a chance to also compete in the market.
Reduced Road Congestion Caused By Container Trucks
Container trucks have many times affected road transport due to reasons such as truck breakdown,
accidents and congestion in narrow roads. These has the effect of delay for people travelling in private
cars since clearing the road may take time. With the lockdown initiation and movement restriction on
play, there will be a reduced movement of container cargos among countries. However, these does not
mean that the transportation of goods by use of container cargos will end. Products such as foods staffs,
medical equipment learning materials and fuel products will still be distributed, only inside counties, by
the use of road. Although container cargos will still be operating on roads, it will be minimum since the
movement of goods from other countries is restricted making road transport convenient for the public.


The Covid-19 pandemic has had a major effect on Businesses, Industries and even to Individuals.
By the same token, it has had a major effect to container terminals and the daily port operations. With the
daily port operations affected, that has had both positive and negative impact to job opportunities, the
routine supply chain of products, and even road congestion as presented above. We send all our regards to
those affected by the covid-19 pandemic and urge that we keep up with the measures to stop the spread of


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