Sample Annotated Bibliography Paper on Food Security in Nepal

Food Security in Nepal

Food security is a concept that attempts to ensure people have access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and attain an active, healthy life. However, attaining global food security remains daunting due to the unprecedented increase in global population and because of harsh climatic conditions attributed to the exacerbated case of global warming. According to the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), there are approximately one billion undernourished people in the world. The state of food insecurity is expected to worsen with the exponential rise of the global population. Napal is regarded as one of the countries with the highest number of undernourished people. Aside from the severe climatic conditions, the rapid growth of Nepal’s population has contributed to the growing food scarcity. It is for this reason that Nepal continues to innovate new strategies with an aim of producing agricultural food products to meet the growing demand for food. The annotated bibliographies below describe some of the developments that have been put in place for food security in Nepal.

Shrestha, K., Ojha, H., Paudel, G., Paudel, N., & Pain, A. (2017). Reframing community forest governance for food security in Nepal. Environmental Conservation, 44(2), 174-182.

This article assesses how forest policies and local institutional practices have disregarded the important aspect of food security in Nepal. According to the authors, the growing challenge of food insecurity in Nepal is largely attributed to the discriminative policies, legislative frameworks, and formal bureaucratic practices that solely focus on forestry rather than on forest-food security linkages (Shrestha et al., 2017). The article proposes the need for equipping the community with sufficient knowledge and skills required for proper utilization of forests for food. The author further suggests the need for Nepal to adopt transformational approaches that support institutional change and policy reforms necessary for landscape specific innovations in forest-food linkages (Shrestha et al., 2017).Gurung, T. B. (2016). Role of inland fishery and aquaculture for food and nutrition security in Nepal. Agriculture & Food Security, 5(1), 18.

This article seeks to describe how the fisheries sector plays an integral role in providing food and nutritional security in Nepal. According to the author, the aquaculture and open-water capture fishery contribute about 2% of agricultural gross domestic production (Gurung, 2016). This paper elucidates the role of the inland fishery and aquaculture in food and nutritional security in Nepal. The per capita fish consumption in Nepal had risen drastically from 125g in 1975 to 2060g in the year 2013 (Gurung, 2016). The per capita fish consumption would further increase if the fishery sector puts more focus on producing farm native shellfish, water chestnut, frogs, and aquatic plants for several ethnic communities in Nepal (Gurung, 2016). The author further proposed the need for Nepal to develop support services in areas such as Far-Western Development region that experiences low fish production (Gurung, 2016). These innovations would be key in improving food and nutrition security in Nepal.

Shrestha, R. P., & Nepal, N. (2016). An assessment by subsistence farmers of the risks to food security attributable to climate change in Makwanpur, Nepal. Food Security, 8(2), 415-425.

This article assesses the impact of climate change on vegetable and cereal-based farming systems in the Makwanpur district of Nepal (Shrestha & Nepal, 2016). To determine the effects of climatic changes, the author analyzed the primary data collected from the local farmers through interviews and group discussions. The author also utilized recorded local climate data to analyze the climatic changes in the past 30 years (Shrestha & Nepal, 2016). From the analysis, it is evident that the farming communities have suffered low harvests because of erratic rainfall, flash floods, drought, insect pests, and diseased. Even though most farmers have developed measures to address the above issues, two-thirds of households are still facing food insecurities. From the article, it is evident that vegetable-based households were more secure than cereal-based households (Shrestha & Nepal, 2016). The author thereby emphasizes the need for farmers to embrace effective strategies that will reverse the negative farming effects attributed by severe climatic changes. Some of the adaptive measures include; rainwater harvesting, plant date adjustments, and mulching (Shrestha & Nepal, 2016).

 

 

References

Gurung, T. B. (2016). Role of inland fishery and aquaculture for food and nutrition security in Nepal. Agriculture & Food Security, 5(1), 18.

Shrestha, K., Ojha, H., Paudel, G., Paudel, N., & Pain, A. (2017). Reframing community forest governance for food security in Nepal. Environmental Conservation, 44(2), 174-182.

Shrestha, R. P., & Nepal, N. (2016). An assessment by subsistence farmers of the risks to food security attributable to climate change in Makwanpur, Nepal. Food Security, 8(2), 415-425.