Sample Annotated Bibliography on The Advancement Of Artificial Intelligence

Humerick, Matthew. “Taking Ai Personally: How The E.U. Must Learn To Balance The Interests Of Personal Data Privacy & Artificial Intelligence.” Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal 34.4 (2018): 393-418.

Humerick states that many countries are investing heavily in the development of AI technology to become the trailblazers in that field. However, the implementation of artificial intelligence is riddled with concerns regarding the safety of the personal data and privacy of the users. The technology holds the promise of a better, more efficient and autonomous world. to achieve that in commerce and other sectors, it needs to be supplied with data.  This data might include personal information of large populations of people and can be weaponized to victimize the concerned persons. Many nations have taken measures to protect the personal data of their citizens. The most notable is the European Union’s comprehensive consumer personal data and privacy protection regulation called the General Data Protection Regulation. Despite the efforts of the various administrations to protect the data and privacy of citizens, it is hard to implement the regulations because they would undermine the progress of this technology. There is a likelihood that governments will be forced to make concessions in the future to facilitate the growth and efficacy of artificial intelligence.

Targowski, Andrew. “The Transformation of the Information Wave into Virtual Civilization and the Ethical Questions it Raises.” Comparative Civilizations Review.76 (2017): 28-57.

This paper focuses on the virtual civilization aspect of artificial intelligence. The elements of virtual civilization, their interdependency and the impact of informing systems have been described. The infrastructural structure of virtual civilization is global, socially constructed leisure and work in the cyberspace that can last for millennia provided that the information systems continue operating. The aim of having virtual civilization is to exert control and guide the formulation of public policies. The control is meant to ensure that these policies serve the common good in real societies. Given that the recommendations given by the virtual civilizations are directed towards the common good. There is a high likelihood that the technology will limit or eliminate the system of representative democracy. The elimination of the representative democracy would be replaced by direct democracy which is a plethora of conflicting viewpoints and ideologies. The possible result would be political chaos in the real world.

Gill, Karamjit S. “Uncommon Voices of AI.” AI & Society 32.4 (2017): 475-82. 

            Gill’s article on the many possibilities of artificial intelligence is filled with questions regarding how AI is going to affect society. The application of AI is taking place in every sector of the economy and society. It is used in medicine, commerce, transport, entertainment, law and so on. Most of the jobs that are performed by humans today might be replaced by AI machines that will be performing better than humans. They will very soon replace truck drivers, surgeons, soldiers, accountants, lawyers, and many others. This replacement of human work by machines spells doom for the people and economies that depend on human labor. The new nanotechnology, cyber bio, and synthetic biology brought about by the new and powerful computing capacities might turn on their human inventors. There is an increased likelihood of developing highly advanced weapons that might be used to spread fear and chaos to the world.

Kowert, Weston. “The Foreseeability of Human–Artificial Intelligence Interactions *.” Texas Law Review 96.1 (2017): 181-204.

            Kowert asserts that the developers of artificial intelligence systems often have no way of determining or controlling how it will behave once it is out of their hands. This is a cause for great alarm, as it alludes to the fact that the developers are not to be held accountable for any damages caused by the AI to the end user. Artificial intelligence changes its conduct and behavior depending on external influences that are beyond the control of the person who coded the program. This is increasingly becoming the case with the new AI that can make use of machine learning and perform functions that are unpredictable. Governments and regulatory agencies are at a loss with regards to how rogue AIs ought to be handled and who should be held liable for any damages incurred. The mere possibility of the artificial intelligence system to alter its code and learn how to do new things makes it an entity that is almost independent of human control. This is a scary thought and possibility that needs to be addressed before artificial intelligence becomes the norm.

Lewis-Kraus, Gideon. “The Great A.I. Awakening.” The New York Times . Dec 14 2016. Web. 30 Oct. 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/14/magazine/the-great-ai-awakening.html

Lewis-Klaus gives the account of a Japanese professor who was studying human-computer interaction and the professor’s realization of how artificial intelligence used in Google Translate improved its efficacy. The professor admitted that the English to Japanese translations were with no grammatical errors and it was as if an experienced linguist had done the translation. Such is the power that is held by artificial intelligence systems. They have been improved by machine learning such that they are better at playing online games such as chess than global masters. Artificial intelligence also can exhibit human behaviors online. Artificial intelligence has the capacity to gather data from millions of people online, analyze it and generate customized adverts for them in the timelines of their social media. This capability of the AI, though subtle, is already worrying. Improvements on the systems are still taking place. There is no telling what they will be capable of in the future or whether they will become humancentric or have apathy towards their creators.

 

 

Work Cited

Gill, Karamjit S. “Uncommon Voices of AI.” AI & Society 32.4 (2017): 475-82.

Humerick, Matthew. “Taking Ai Personally: How The E.U. Must Learn To Balance The Interests Of Personal Data Privacy & Artificial Intelligence.” Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal 34.4 (2018): 393-418.

Kowert, Weston. “The Foreseeability of Human–Artificial Intelligence Interactions *.” Texas Law Review 96.1 (2017): 181-204.

Lewis-Kraus, Gideon. “The Great A.I. Awakening.” The New York Times. Dec 14 2016. Web. 30 Oct. 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/14/magazine/the-great-ai-awakening.html

Targowski, Andrew. “The Transformation of the Information Wave into Virtual Civilization and the Ethical Questions it Raises.” Comparative Civilizations Review.76 (2017): 28-57.