Akbar Ali (2013) asserts that Human resource management is a part of anorganization concerned with people’sdimensions. Ali further posits that, human resource is thestaff or support junctions which are prevalent in an organization. The role of human resource is to provide assistance to employees or people directly involved in the production of the organizations goods and services (Ali, 2013). All organizations in the world are made up of people.Organizationsacquire peoples’ services and in return develop their skills and motivate them to higher level of performance. Organizations in the world must make surethey maintain total devotion to employees. This is important as it ensures that the organizationattains its objectives (Chaudhry, 2012). Currently, the human resource department is significant in ensuring that the company achieves its success. Job requirements demand that they adopt new levels of sophistications which are unprecedented in the human resource management (Ali, 2013). The main aim of this paper is to evaluate human resource training and development with a special focus on the Dubai Roads and Transport authority organization.The paper will analyze the compensation and reward systems, career development and education programs, employee performance and evaluation systems, HR planning and managing a diverse workforce, workforce planning and recruitment (Ali, 2013).
The Roads and Transport Authority was established in November 2005 by the Government of Dubai.The organization’s vision is to create a “Safe and smooth transport for all”(Roads and Transport Authority, 2013). The Road and transport Authority mission is to develop an integrated and sustainable transportation system and provide distinguished services to all stakeholders, to support Dubai’s comprehensive growth plans through preparation of policies and legislations, adapting technologies and innovative approaches and implementing world class practices and standards” (Voxeo, 2015). The main goal of RTA is to integrate the transport systems with economic as well as urban planning, increase coordination with strategic partners, improve the legal framework for roads as well as public transport systems. The organization is determined to make roads and transport systems in Dubai people friendly by preserving the heritage of the Middle Eastern country.
RTA is also responsible for the planning and executing of transport as well as traffic projects in Dubai. The company prepares legislation as well as strategic plans, develop integrated solutions for the road systems as well as the marine networks that are safe and which align with the city’s economic development plans and the highest international standards (Dubai School of Government , 2010). Because of its huge role, RTA is divided into six agencies, namely;
- Traffic and roads
- Dubai Taxi and licensing agency
During its inception, the company inherited a system that had many evident challenges, for example, the demand for transportation in Dubai was low compared to that of the other developed nations, many people were losing their livesin traffic related accidents; traffic congestions were prevalent. The swift growth in the populace, construction and economy intensified the problems greatly(Chaudhry, 2012).
The 21st century will present many challenges and opportunities, it is imperative for companies to improve the productivity of their people by treating them as vital components of all the economic activities in the organization (Shien, Chanda, Netto, & Monga, 2009). It is evident that organizations should come up with multiple perspectives which will help in increasing the performance of an organization(Dubai School of Government , 2010). As a company, RTA has adopted many HR practices that will assist the organization in reaching its vision and mission, some of the practices that are common in the organization include;
- Compensation and reward systems
- Career development and education programs
- HR planning and managing a diverse workforce
- Workforce planning and recruitment
According to the economic models of compensation, higher performance requires greater effort. To effectively come up with the right kind of incentives, the models predict that organizations should structure their compensation systems in order to increase the worker expected utility together with the observed productivity (Baker, Jensen, & Murphy, 1988). The rewards in the organization can be in very many forms; this can include praise from the workers and superiors, the implicit promises of future promotions, feelings of self esteem and current and future cash rewards that are associated with performance (Baker, Jensen, & Murphy, 1988). The company uses different types of reward systems to motivate the employees in the organization,
All the employees who work at Roads and Transport authority are entitled to receive a salary at the end of each month. The salary system is usually a collection of steps, policies and practices used by the authority to pay the employees for their work (Kaplan, 2014). The main elements within the salary system are the workforce skill plus the qualification of a person. The authority is responsible for creating job descriptions for every position and assigning values to the jobs by using an effective evaluation system(Transit, 2010).
Rewards networks are expository parts of an organization design, how efficiently they align with other systems has a very significant effect in the way the organization is, and the quality of life that the employees’ experience withthe company(Baker, Jensen, & Murphy, 1988). The reward system in the organization serves many purposes, this includes the attraction and retention of the employees, high reward levels usually lead to a high satisfaction, people who are satisfied with their jobs expect to continue to be satisfied and as a result want to stay with the same organization (Lawler, 1993). RTA completes the cascade through the use of individual performance plans. The objective of the company employees is aligned with the achievements and the implementations of the projects in the agency; this directly supports the achievement of the strategy. RTA has designed reward systems that are effective in retaining the most valuable employees, the systems in the company distribute rewards in ways that lead the more valuable employees to feel more satisfied when they compare their rewards with those that are received by individuals who perform similar jobs in the organization (Shien, Chanda, Netto, & Monga, 2009). The company pays bonuses and other financial rewards based on the IPP performance, which is used as the main determinant of the employee promotion.
Reward system motivates the employees’ performance in the organization, when a certain specifiable condition exists; the reward systems motivate the performance(Baker, Jensen, & Murphy, 1988). The important rewards which are distributed by RTA are perceived to be connected in a felicitous manner to the efficient performance. The main rewards at RTA include;
- Free cars
- Trips to different locations
The development of employees is widely recognized as a strategic tool that can be used for the expansion of an organization; one of the main benefits of employee development is the fact that it creates continuous growth and enables the organization to retain some of its most productive employees (Transit, 2010). Career developments alongside trainings significantly upgradeskills as well as the ability of employees. RTA has come up with a way to train their employees. To achieve success, it is imperative for RTA to align its strategic goals by engaging staff. RTA is one of the major organizations that have taken a keen interest in the development of its employees, there are several factors that have contributed to the need for the organization to embrace career development, this includes;
- The need to identify and forecast on the personal needs
- The social and demographic trends
- Changes in the work environment
- The need to acquire different kinds of skills
- Changes in technology
- The organization’s mantra.
RTA has adopted various career developments and education program initiatives which include;
- Learning interventions
- Group meetings
- Leadership training
- University Training
- Moving candidates between different departments
- SWOT analysis
The group meetings at RTA are aimed for people in the different departments of the organization(Dubai School of Government , 2010). The goal of the group meetings is to allow all the people who have attended to discuss some of the issues that affect them in the career development, through an informal environment (Kaplan, 2014). One of the major benefits of the group meetings is the fact that the organization’s management is able to create awareness concerning the different positions in the organizations. Group meetings provide platforms from which employees learn about different aspects of RTA(Roads and Transport Authority , 2013).
The learning interventions at RTA can be considered as in-service trainings that are created with the purpose of developing the staff in the organization. Learning interventions are created with the intention of improving the performance of an organization (Chuang, 2013). One major benefit with this intervention is the fact that it promotes the professional growth of the individuals; this is achieved through the fact that it has the capacity of strengthening the competencies of the workers while they are on the job. By using learning interventions, RTA is able to focus on the problems in career development of its employees; it broadens the perception of the employees and helps them to gain knowledge and mastery at their workplaces (Lawler, 1993).
The main objective of the leadership training is to develop the employees personally and professionally (Shien, Chanda, Netto, & Monga, 2009). Leadership training offers support to the employees, especially during the periods of organizational change, the trainings promote an open and supportive working environment that is necessary for learning how the employees should conduct themselves in the organization(Roads and Transport Authority , 2013).
RTA is committed to the career development and training of all its employees, for this reason, the organization has dedicated its resources to pay for university fee for its potential employees. By going through university, the potential employees of the organization are taught on company specific course requirements; this gives the candidates an opportunity to acquire significant skills to boost their careers. University trainings are accompanied by mentorship as well asother development options.
RTA often move its newly employed employees between the various departments in the organization the significance of this activity is the fact that it allows the employees in the organization to familiarize themselves with the activities of the organization. The employees can also transition easily if required to do so when they are given the chance.
SWOT analysis is used in the organization as career planning tools, the capability of these tools in defining the strengths and weakness of an individual makes them appropriate for identifying the major gaps that need to be crossed in the organization, for example, through a SWOT analysis, it is possible to determine what the employees are facing in terms of the skills needed. The ultimate significance of carrying out a SWOT analysis is the fact that they assist the company to identify detrimental elements in the company (Chaudhry, 2012).
The 360 degree feedback is an efficient, comprehensive tool that can be utilized by the organization. This tool is significant as it gives feedback concerning performance of the company and recognizes the existing gaps.Sources of feedback include employees, customers andself assessments.
Workforce diversity is a testament that people who work companies differ greatly. The intense globalization and internalization has enhanced the significance of the workforce diversity to a great extent (Shien, Chanda, Netto, & Monga, 2009). Cross cultural and multicultural employees are a common concept in all corporations globally. RTA has adopted many practices that have helped the company deal with workforce diversity; RTA has made efforts to include an entire spectrum of the primary dimensions of a person including their race, age, gender, disability and sexual orientation.
RTA has championed diversity by infusing it into all the organizational processes; the organization has made sure that diversity is integrated in all the cores of the organization. RTA recognizes diversity as a very important goal; the responsibility of managing diversity in the organization has not only been left to the human resource department only, but with the top executive as well (Chuang, 2013). Diversity is an apex priority and responsibility for leaders at RTA.
The CEO of RTA is the one who leads the diversity meetings; he usually holds meetings and regularly talks to the employees of the organization with an aim of listening and talking about diversity. The company has dedicated time to the creation of a common frame of reference that establish a solid foundation upon which to discuss the issue of diversity and develop effective action plans for the purpose of eliminating the barriers and biases (Shien, Chanda, Netto, & Monga, 2009). The most common communication channels that are used by the organization to communicate about diversity include meetings, policy, speeches, trainings, and websites and policy statements. The human resource management supports the presence of a dedicated staff, which oversees diversity at the company.
The leadership at RTA understands the significance of the employee involvement in the change process; they also understand that that being competitive in the global process will need the utilization of skills and talents of all the employees to enable them to serve their customers in the best way possible(Shien, Chanda, Netto, & Monga, 2009). The organization’s values are used to define the spirit of the organization, the values are also used in an attempt to foster a diverse workforce and recognize the value of every individual’s unique skills and perspective in the organization. To institutionalize the diversity management, the employees are requested to become champions of diversity through the leadership training (Chuang, 2013).
RTA through the diversity strategic planning has been able to focus on the creation of measurable ways through which diversity is able to support the strategic directions, goals and the objectives of the organizations(Roads and Transport Authority, 2013). The human resource management in the organization has realized that in order to be effective, the successful diversity planning must be aligned with and provide support for the strategic objectives and operational decisions in the company(Ali, 2013). The main objective of the company is to focus on building skills, offering training, improving the work environment and provide market competitive and performance based compensation and benefits. The goal of diversity is to enhance theattainment of objectives in which employees who come from diverse backgrounds can work as a group to assure that there is long term success(Roads and Transport Authority, 2013).
For any organization to achieve its objectives, it must be conscious of the issue of accountability (Transit, 2010). RTA achieves accountability by grouping performance evaluation elements plus compensation to successful implementation as well the as progress of organizations initiatives. Accountability is important because it makes sure that every person in the organization is on board
Workforce planning and recruitment are very important aspects of an organization; workforce planning involves the planning process that is undertaken by the RTA in ensuring that it has the right people, with the right skills and at the right time(Roads and Transport Authority , 2013). Planning documents the directions in which a work factor is going; it equips managers with different tools for purposes of making human resource decisions, which involves the present and future. The planning, human resource at RTA is a big challenge for the organization together with its leaders; it takes into accounts not only the human resource factors, but also the overall strategic plans, financial and budget considerations, the environmental issues and the legislative requirements(Roads and Transport Authority , 2013).
Workforce arrangement and recruitment have assisted organizations to forecast its present as well as future conditions and environments. Through workforce planning and recruitment, managers in the organization have been able to anticipate change and put strategies in place to ensure that the organization is not caught out and left ill equipped to meet the needs of the organization(Chaudhry, 2012).
Workforce planning has resulted in the following benefits at the company;
- The company has been able to identify the staffing requirements and skill shortages or over supply.
- RTA has been able to adopt a planned recruitment strategy that is inclusive of appropriate time frames and costs.
- Staffing costs in organizationsare reduced through close analysis of staffing needs and making sure there is enough staff.
Since the demands of the RTA are growing, it is imperative for the company to recruit on a regular basis, the positions in the company usually become available because;
- Increased demand for transport services in Dubai.
- New types of jobs that arise as the company changes its activities and technology
- Vacancies can arise as the employees leave the company, retire or resign.
RTA utilizes workforce arrangement tables, to have the insights of likely demands for new staff. This process is considerate of managerial and non-managerial positions in RTA (Roads and Transport Authority , 2013). The planning process in the company is done twice in every year, the company has reviews, the significance of the reviews is that they enable the company to adjust their staffing levels and recruit workers when it is necessary(Roads and Transport Authority , 2013).
RTA seeks to fill a lot of positions from within the company, the company recognizes the need to motivate all its employees to make them progress their careers in the company. The company practices what it commonly calls talent planning, this activity encourages the employees to work their way through and up the organization(CQ University Australia, 2015). By using the annual appraisal schemes, individuals are able to apply for bigger and better jobs within the company. Employees are given the opportunity to develop their careers with RTA, the human resource manager is responsible for setting out the technical skills, competencies and behaviors that are significant in the company(Roads and Transport Authority , 2013).
One important element in the workforce planning at the company is the presence of clear job descriptions and person specification, the company’s job descriptions are significant because they express;
- The title of the job
- The person to whom the job holder is responsible
- Description of the different roles and responsibilities
The company job descriptions and person specifications create a basis for the purpose of the job advertisements. Job applicants and post holders are able to know what is expected of them. The descriptions are important because they specify how the job holders fit into the business of the company, through job descriptions, RTA is able to recruit the right kind of people, they also create a benchmark for every job in terms of responsibilities and skills, this assists the manager to be able to assess if the staff are carrying out jobs in the appropriate standards.
This paper evaluates human resource training and development with a special focus on the Dubai Roads and Transport authority organization, the paper has analyzed the compensation and the reward systems; career development; education programs; employee performance; evaluation systems; HR planning; managing a diverse workforce; workforce planning and recruitment. In regards to the career development and education programs, RTA uses various approaches to enrich their employees; this includes leadership training, sitting with the line managers, moving the employees between the different departments and university trainings. The company manages a diverse workforce by communicating the vision of the organization, empowering the employees through leaderships and enhancing accountability, evaluation process includes carrying out a SWOT analysis, surveys and using the 360 degree feedback. Workforce arrangements have aided the company immensely, for instance, the organization is able to document its staffing requirements.
Despite the fact that RTA has been successful in most of its activities, some recommendations for the company will help the company to increase its efficiency, the recommended practices of the company include;
- The Human resource board should ensure that there are clear and consistent personnel policies and procedures in the organization, all the policies and procedures should be adhered to by all people in the organization(CQ University Australia, 2015).
- The compensation as well as the human resource should carry out a comprehensive review of the employee’s job classification and compensation structure to make sure that its rationale is consistent and non discriminatory(Ali, 2013).
- RTA should work in ensuring that it has created a positive environment and incorporate diversity management training in all the leadership trainings, conduct a cultural audit and develop intervention programs, establish guidelines for the purpose of defining and addressing the social climate issues that impact personnel(Baker, Jensen, & Murphy, 1988).
- The organization should have an open door policy in all the organizational levels, employees should be able to receive feedback within 48hours and if they are dissatisfied, they may elevate their concerns to the CEO of the company(Baker, Jensen, & Murphy, 1988).
- Mandatory training ought to be carried out across different departments in the company;organizations should create enough funds for the training process.
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