Compare the Suitability of HEXACO, Multiplicity, Dominance Factor and VIA in Measuring Personality
Personality experiences are monitored pre-scientifically from several fronts. These views have been used to draft theories, as well as to study personality phenomena empirically. In measuring personality, actions are observed, and these actions provide the data to be measured. Several approaches exist in measuring personality, and each approach incorporates various aspects of personality measurements. These approaches include HEXACO, multiplicity, dominance factor and VIA. These approaches have their own strengths, weaknesses, as well as limitations, and are vital in assisting individuals in gaining focus in life. This study will compare the suitability of measuring personality using the aforementioned approaches.
The HEXACO approach of measuring personality involves conceptualizing human personality by using six dimensions. Lee and Ashton (n.d) formulated this type of approach that necessitated the applying the six major dimensions of personalities, which are honesty-humility (H), emotionality (E), extraversion (X), agreeableness (A), conscientiousness(C) and openness to experience (O). On the domain-level scales, high level of honesty-humility indicates that individuals can evade controlling others for individual gains while a low level of honesty humility signifies that individuals can break rules for material gain. High level of emotionality makes a person experience anxiety when faced with life’s stress whereas low levels of emotionality means that a person may feel indifferent when carrying out a social activity.
On the face-level scales, honesty-humility measurement will exhibit unwillingness to control others on high levels while low level will indicate flattery or pretense in order to win favor from other individuals. On emotionality domain, low scorers will develop fear injuries while high scores would be strongly disposed to avoid physical injury. On extraversion sphere, high scorers usually consider themselves likable in the social self-esteem measurement while low scores feel unpopular amidst their social groups.
The HEXACO approach is usually based on classification of personality. The trait in this approach usually depends on factor analysis. However, no guarantee is given to show that factor analysis will give replicable results. The honesty-humility measurement does not offer consistent replicable results. Several studies of HEXACO approach support the use of honesty-humility, agreeableness and emotionality in measuring personality, but warned that the HEXACO approach does not always fit every situation.
Individuals tend to think that they are just single being, but in reality, they hold numerous groups of personalities, and every time they face a given situation, they exhibit a different personality. According to Carter (n.d), when different personalities begin recognizing each other’s strengths and weaknesses, they can chose among them which personality to be in control at any given time. Different personalities assist individuals in thinking, feeling, behaving and perceiving the world. These personalities come and go, following a sequence. For instance, when a person is angry, a personality for anger prevails, and when a person is happy, the personality for joy becomes active. When one personality is active, others are dormant, and vice versa. Therefore, multiplicity implies that individuals have multiple personalities, which are isolated from each other in the brain.
Human beings are quite adaptive to different situations. This is the reason why they survive in almost every situation. The society may necessitate individuals to demonstrate certain types of conducts that are rewarded. In many occasions, human beings will get the reward. However, to shape up the adaptableness into a theory that incorporates multiple and self-regulating personality types is quite a big challenge. This makes Carter’s approach seem like an illusion to human beings, although her explanation is true. The kind of measurements that put individuals in multiple personalities have been proved to be devious. Sometimes, individuals endeavor to do their best to control emotions and circumstances, but the inner person may possess different personality. Carter complicated her view when she claimed that individuals may require the help of others to learn how to chat with all the personalities. If individual are in control of their personalities, they do not require assistance from
Dominant Factor Approach
The link between the human brains and the way human sees, hears and touch is explained by the dominant factor approach. This approach asserts that individuals’ dominance profile account for the main factor in influencing the way they think and operate. According to Hannaford (n.d), individuals’ learning styles are influenced by their physical patterns of lateral dominance. Individual’s dominance profile offers the key to unlocking his/her potential. Individuals display numerous dominance profiles through their eyes, hands, and ears. The innate dominance is essential for children who are attending school. This dominance assists in understanding and overcoming challenges to learning and executing duties to his/her highest level. It also assists to detect individual’s strengths and weaknesses.
The suitability of this approach is that it helps both parents and teachers to learn, as well as measure the personalities of children, thus, assisting in correcting children’s’ behavior through dominance. An essential proposition of brain dominance can be observed when an individual tries to study something, or performs an action while under stress. Losing control in human beings is also dictated by the dominance pattern. Dominance patterns are usually demonstrated when adults are in stressful situations. To prevent such action to occur, individuals should emphasize on self development, social relations and education.
The VIA (Values in Action) approach was formulated by Dr. Martin Seligman, and involves 24 specific strengths that are grouped into six broad virtues. These virtues include wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, temperance and transcendence (Roffey, 2012, p. 170). Virtuous people possess these strengths, but they are subjected to change depending on environment. Seligman believed that all characters that an individual possesses should be measurable, but humility, courageousness and modesty are hard to assess.
Wisdom is a cognitive strength, which involves acquiring and using knowledge. Individuals become creative, judgmental and curious through wisdom. Courage in an emotional strength, which an individual exercises his/her will to achieve life goals, despite external or internal opposition. When an individual becomes brave, persevering and honest, he/she is exercising courage. Humanity is the interpersonal strength that assists individuals in interacting with other individuals. Demonstration of love, social intelligence and kindness are acts of humanity. Justice is demonstrated through leadership, teamwork and being fair while temperance is portrayed through forgiveness, self-control and prudence. Transcendence is the power to build connections and creating meaning. It is depicted through gratitude, humor and appreciation. The six virtues assist in measuring individuals’ profiles that incorporate character strengths. By learning the above virtues, individuals can gain character strengths to assist them in living a more fulfilling life both in their personal life and social life.
The suitability of using several approaches in measuring personality depends on their strengths, as well as their weaknesses. The HEXACO approach involves applying the six major dimensions of personalities, which are fundamental in making day-to-day life decisions. The multiplicity approach indicates that individuals possess several personalities that guide in handling life-changing situations. The dominant factor asserts that human being’s actions are controlled by various parts of their bodies, with the help of brain. Learning dominance helps individuals in releasing their potential. The VIA approach involves applying the six essential virtues in creating meaning to life. The above approaches are essential in determining the individual personalities, but there is no guarantee for reliability assessment in all of them since some dimensions are immeasurable.
Carter, R. (n.d). How Multiple Are You? Multiplicity. Retrieved on 1March 2014 from http://ritacarter.co.uk/page6.htm
Hannaford C. (n.d). The Dominant Factor: How Knowing Your Dominant Eye, Ear, Brain, Hand & Foot Can Improve Your Learning. Great River Books. Retrieved on 1March 2014 from http://www.greatriverbooks.com/DominanceFactorPage.html
Lee K. & Ashton M. C. (n.d).The HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised: A measure of the Six Major Dimensions of Personality. HEXACO-PI-R. Retrieved on 1March 2014 from Http://Hexaco.Org/Index.Html
Roffey, S. (2012). Positive relationships: Evidence based practice across the world. Dordrecht: Springer.