Ethics and moral
Ethics and morals relate to the conduct of wrong and right. Ethics is a philosophical branch which entails the defending, systematizing and the recommendations of right and wrong concept with an objective of solving the moral diversity dispute. Moral theory, ethical theory and philosophical ethics are some of the terms used to refer to ethics. According to the founders of critical thinking, ethics are a set of principles and concepts which direct us in establishing the harmful behavior to the sentient creatures. In some cases however, ethics is often confused with behaviors relating to conventions, social, law and religious beliefs, thereby failing to treat ethics as a concept on its own. Morals on the other hand refer to the principles of right and wrong owned by a person. The discussions under this content examine ethics in relation to traditional perceptions and existentialism.
In any society, ethics are rooted in the beliefs and ideas concerning what is wrong or right; or simply a good or bad character. Apart from this, people’s attitudes and their social relations also embed the conceptions of ethics. Society’s moral thinkers explain, express and examine the ideas and beliefs that are the basis of moral conduct. African societies for instance have evolved ethical values, rules, ethical systems and principles with an intention of guiding moral and social behavior. The basics of right and wrong are related to religious beliefs, which are passed on from generation to generation. Consider business ethics for instance whereby a hand shake has always been the symbol of signing a deal over the years. In the past, a person’s word was honored, and never reneged on because the ancient society trusted each other. However in the modern world, trust has become a big issue and people don’t just believe in words and handshakes. Some people can’t be trusted in the field of business and it is because of this that contracts have to be signed to seal deals; in the presence of lawyers to witness the process of signing a contract.
Medical ethics has also changed over time. Some countries such as Canada has transformed from their former Hippocratic oath to code of ethics. With codes of ethics, one has to stick their head with the loop holes. The Hippocratic Oath however did not transverse into the modern society the care givers ought to offer medical attention to both the rich and the poor; although this is not always the case in Western countries. Also in the past, care givers tried their level best to diagnose patients and make them comfortable; and felt sad if they failed in their line of duty whenever they lost a patient.
The general code of ethics back then was total concern for one another regardless of financial status. However in the modern world, this does not seem to be the case since most care givers are driven by money and not the value of a person’s life. Generally, ethics are reflected throughout our lives; since we realize when we do something right and another one wrong. Nonetheless, sometimes we are faced with ethical dilemmas that require heavy questions and answers. For instance, in the case of euthanasia, what should one do? Is it ethical wrong or is it right? When a shopkeeper gives an extra balance and you are very broke, what do you do? To successfully solve all these ethics related dilemmas, we should invoke some of the moral rules that we should live by.
First, we should put in mind that whatever people do is not always what they ought to do. Ethics is all about what people do in relation to what ought to be done. The fact that people might speed up doing things does not necessarily imply that they should speed. Most importantly, the fact that individuals do not often assist each other does not imply that it is their moral responsibility to assist one another. There exists a fine line between what individuals should do and what they do. The subject concern here is morality, which mainly focuses on what people should do. Ethics does not entail what individuals actually do, but rather what people ought to do. Secondly, the fact that individuals may argue about something does not necessarily mean that each person’s believe is true or that everyone is correct. With this, consider the arguments raised by people concerning the shape of the earth. The argument never implied that everyone was correct and if that was the case, then the world would be round and flat at the same time, something that is impossible. Just like to this argument, people’s disagreement on morality does not imply that every individual’s moral belief is true.
Existentialism is a theory based on philosophical approach, with its beliefs based on the existence on a person’s responsible and free agent. It states that individuals establish their personal development through their own will. Mainly founded in Europe, it is a philosophical movement formed in the 20th century. Existentialism opposes non-cognitivist. With respect to free will recognition, a [person is said to be morally responsible for their actions. Although existentialism is often said to be subjectivists, it does not imply that choices are spared from being right or wrong. It however suggests that moral weight exists upon individuals with free will, and that obligation does not crop from any human nature. On top of this, existentialists oppose consequentialism.
This is evidenced in the concept of existentialist based on acts of hope and despair. Sartre for instance, questions himself whether social ideal can transform into a reality and confirms that the end state can vanish in the event of probabilities, and that he ought to what he believes to be right. Last but not least, existentialists oppose pure-deontology, since any duty that is subjected externally is non-authentic. Existentialists examine various tasks upon making decisions. Under this notion, prima facie is the typical task promulgates to moral anxiety decisions. In existentialists, actions are not justified with instincts. Strength of instincts is however is portrayed through action, and the process making decision is the key objective an authentic person arrives at.
Authenticity is a psychological term, inclusive of aesthetics and existentialist philosophy. Authenticity with respect to existentialism is the extent to which one remains true to their own character, personality or even spirit. With the absence of authenticity, it is regarded as a bad faith in existentialism. The biggest challenge that is subjected to the abstract approach is that it is subjected to culture bound. Authenticity has a limitation on language, and is therefore regarded as a negative space with inauthentic living. The easiest method to describe authenticity is by considering Sartre’s novel, which entails antiheroes and characters with their actions based on the external pressures. Such pressures include the pressure to adjust to a certain mode of living, pressure to be a certain person and ignorance pressure whereby one ignores their own aesthetic and moral objections so as to accommodate a comfortable existence. Furthermore, his works entailed characters who lacked the comprehension of their own actions, or those who neglect their personal lives so as to escape from the reality. Sartre’s related his works to that of traditional philosophies.
Additionally, Sartre mostly majors on absolute freedom based on vertiginous experience. According to him, this experience is essential for authenticity state; and if neglected it can divert the human race into inauthentic living styles. He also views authenticity as a general concept, with no aesthetic or political ideology. This is very important in authenticity aspect, since it entails the relationship of a person with the world which is never achieved by a continuous repletion of actions. Authenticity therefore is related with creativity, since the action needs to crop out from the individual in question without external impose.
In conclusion to this discussion, it is evident that in everyday life we are faced with the issues of ethics and morality. Over the years, these two aspects have evolved depending on the beliefs and traditions of different countries, and have been passed on from generation to generation. However, in the modern world, technology has transformed nearly everything across the globe, including the aspects of ethics and morality. Regardless of a person’s race, ethnicity or even gender, one should always base their ethics and morality on what is right or wrong.