Deductive and Inductive
Deductive argument is a way of reasoning in which the conclusion is in accordance with the principles of logic, perhaps as a person or in mind from the given statements to support the argument also known as a premise. The deductive argument can be sound/valid or invalid/ unsound. A deductive argument is belived to be sound if the statements brought in an argument are true. However, if the statements being used to support an argument are false, the argument is unsound. It is still possible that a deductive argument has true premises or statements, but the argument is invalid (deLaplante, 2013. An example of a valid and sound argument is ‘human beings will die at some point, Seth is a human being, meaning at some point in life he will die. This is a sound argument, since the arguer understands clearly that human beings are all subjected to death at a point in life, with this fact, the argument is sound. An example of a valid deductive argument, but unsound could be, ‘all men are subject to death, dogs are men, therefore dogs are subject to death. In this statement, the statement dogs are men is not true, making the case unsound. Deductive argument and inductive argument are usually used as a property of the intensions of the person arguing, the validity of the argument, whether valid or invalid is a property of the argument itself.
An inductive argument, is the reasoning in which the statement seeks to give strong facts for a truthful conclusion. The conclusion usually depends strongly on the quality of the individual statements used to support it regardless of the number of premises. An example of an inductive argument is, ‘John and Jack, who are guitarists feel pain in their fingers every time they play the guitar for 2 hours. Jill is a guitarist who also feels pain in her fingers when she plays the guitar for the same time frame. The guitarists, therefore feel pain in their fingers every time they play the guitar for 2 hours straight. This is a strong argument since it shows that guitarists tend to feel pain in their fingers the more they play the guitar. This is a true effect, meaning that the less time a guitarist plays a guitar, the less chances of having to feel pain in their finger. In the example of an inductive argument, all the premises support the conclusion in one way or another (deLaplante, 2013.
Compared to a deductive reasoning, the final result in the inductive argument does not necessarily come along with the statements. The conclusion of this kind of argument is determined in terms of probability of happening or otherwise. In a deductive reasoning, the arguer is supposed to give an assurance of the fact of the conclusion by ensuring that the statement provided are true. Meaning that if the premises used to support a deductive argument are true, the chances of the conclusion to be false are less. The Inductive argument usually requires the arguer to increase the chances of its conclusion. The statements are meant to be strong, and if they are true, the conclusion is therefore unlikely to be false (deLaplante, 2013). The difference linking the deductive arguments and the inductive arguments is from the relationship the arguer takes to relate the judgement from the premises provided. The reliability of the conclusion is usually decided by truth of the premises (deLaplante, 2013).
deLaplante, K. (Jan 29, 2013). What is a Deductive Argument? Deduction and Valid Arguments. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oGNnzfsfUAs
deLaplante, K. (Feb 1, 2013). What is an Inductive Argument? Induction and Strong Arguments. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=affFHkV4kNo