Identification Methods Used in The Criminal Justice System
The photo array technique is the mist common identification process used by the police. A photo array is comprised of 6 to 9 photographs that are displayed to a given witness (Hunter, & Quinn, 2016). An officer can develop an array be choosing pictures of individuals deemed to look like the perpetrator.
A live lineup is an identification process whereby the physical suspect as well as fillers stand in front of the witness either as masses or individually. The police usually use five fillers who bear the same physical characteristics as the perpetrator (Hunter, & Quinn, 2016). It is assumed that the fillers are not known by the suspect.
Flaws with Eye Witness Identifications
Since eye witness identification is usually conducted with phot arrays, it can be limited by variables like poor lighting, stress, and the difficulty of identifying people of other racial groups (Hunter, & Quinn, 2016). Further there are fewer known flaws that involve how the memory itself is formed and tainted. Such flaws reduce the accuracy of identification.
Difference Between Physical Evidence and Circumstantial Evidence
Physical evidence is one that establishes a certain fact without needing to make an inference to associate the evidence with the fact. Circumstantial evidence is one that is directly related to a fact (Hunter, & Quinn, 2016). Physical evidence is more reliable to a jury since it can be interpreted directly.
Benefits and Drawbacks of Relying on DNA In Criminal Cases
The greatest benefit of DNA is based on its specificity. Indeed, even relatively small quantities of DNA at a crime scene can provide enough material for examination. Another benefit is that DNA profiling is a highly accurate method of comparing a suspect’s DNA with specimens collected at the crime scene (Oliver, 2014). A major drawback of DNA evidence is that the databanks maintained by law enforcement officials can be manipulated thus the results of DNA analysis may be flawed.
Hunter, R. D., & Quinn, S. T. (2016). Research methods for criminology and criminal justice. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Oliver, K., Innvar, S., Lorenc, T., Woodman, J., & Thomas, J. (2014). A systematic review of barriers to and facilitators of the use of evidence by policymakers. BMC health services research, 14(1),