Roy’s Adaptation Model (RAM)
RAM is considered amongst some of the greatest models of the nursing metaparadigms and has in many ways influenced the practice. The nature of RAM makes it practical, generalizable and testable, which makes it a frequently used model in education and guiding nursing research (Shosha & Kalaldeh, 2012). RAM has provided nursing practice with a conceptual pathway for studying and understanding human behavior. The model is structured in terms of adaptive behaviors and a set of processes through which an individual adapts to diverse internal and external environmental stimuli. An individual’s response to the environmental stimulus may be in one of the four adaptive modes, which are, psychosomatic, self-concept, role function, and interrelationship (Shosha & Kalaldeh, 2012). For instance, if a patient is suffering from a skin condition, the nurse will have to figure out what the causes might be through examination of the patient’s psychological state and their adaptation to stress. However, it is common that the skin condition could have developed due to newly acquired allergies, poor nutrition or dwelling conditions. While they adapt to the environment, the skin conditions are expected to gradually decrease. The nursing practitioners have a unique responsibility of promoting health in the aforementioned adaptive modes through environmental management and the promotion of patient adaptation.
The model has separated the different ways in which individuals cope with situations, that is, individual or group coping mechanisms. RAM’s concepts of the environment, in terms of conditions or influences that are in contact with an individual are likely to affect the development of their behavior, and also their health (Clarke et al., 2011). For instance, when new individuals are brought into contact with a strange environment, they discover that the coping mechanisms they had previously used may no longer be effective, and must therefore, develop new coping mechanisms through counseling sessions or new support groups. By the time they get back to their usual environments, the fond memories they shall have developed through the interactions will overshadow any of the difficulties they endured.
Clarke, P. N., Barone, S. H., Hanna, D., & Senesac, P. M. (2011). Roy’s Adaptation model. Nursing Science Quarterly, 24(4), 337-344. doi: 10.1177/0894318411419223
Shosha, G., & Kalaldeh, M. (2012). A Critical Analysis of Nursing Using Roy’s Adaptation Model in Nursing Research. International Journal of Academic Research, 4(4), 26-31. doi: 10.7813/2075-4124.2012/4-4/B.3