Characteristics of Theories, Conceptual Models, and Frameworks
The concept of the theories, frameworks and conceptual model used in any research depend on the type of research being carried out. Notably, on different occasions, the conceptual framework and the theories derived in a research offer an orienting and clear view of the conceptions applied. In carrying out, different research characteristics can be established that make the entire study reliable and viable. Consequently, theories and conceptual frameworks should have quantifiable variables (Loiselle, Profetto-Mcgrath, Polit, & Beck, 2010). Additionally, it can also be explained as the quantity of any phenomenon that is able to take different values. Notably, a variable is the dynamic component of the research and includes various aspects such as weight, temperature and the anxiety levels. In essence, this mostly applies to quantitative research that seeks to understand the reasons for the existing difference between various components of the environment.
Frameworks and conceptual models should also have supporting data. Through this, the theory can be able to establish the findings, and the evidence gathered. Primarily, there exist different data collection methods such as primary and secondary that are applied in both quantitative and qualitative types of research. Theories should also be able to build relationships with the phenomena under investigation. Through building relationships, uses will be able to understand the conceptual models and frameworks easily (Loiselle, Profetto-Mcgrath, Polit, & Beck, 2010). Moreover, theories and frameworks should not be bias and should present high level of credibility to increase the level of confidence among both the researchers and users.
Conceptual Models of Nursing
Conceptual models in nursing research involve the concepts that are evidenced and applied and provide observable phenomenon on the subject under study. Conception models are used in providing comprehensive guidance and view in nursing and are used as organizing frameworks that help in guiding the reasoning process in any research process. Some of the conceptual models used by nursing researchers include preparation of written reviews of research evidence, critiquing of research reviews and reviewing of the research findings of the topic of study. Moreover, the researcher can ensure investigation of individual characteristic, assessing of cognition effects and the behavioral outcomes (Loiselle, Profetto-Mcgrath, Polit, & Beck, 2010). The reviewing and screening of references are used to ensure the validity of the sources used and ensured that the data collected are authentic and current. After the establishment of the validity of the references, the nursing researcher should ensure extensive reading of the research using the guidelines provided. Essentially, it is essential to have different stationaries such as pens that will help in highlighting any vital information obtained.
Critiquing data, on the other hand, is used by as a conceptual model in nursing to ensure that any non-evidenced data is identified. Notably, most of the nursing research is quantitative and require extensive discussion on the validity and reliability of the measures used. This also helps in verifying the quality of data used in the study. Researchers should also consider the ethical aspects of the research. These considerations support in establishing the behavioral requirements since they sometimes conflict with the quality of research and the findings obtained.
Linking Theory and Research to the Studies
Bridging the gaps between qualitative and quantitative methods in research should enable the maintenance of a pragmatic perspective on maintaining the selection and use of research methods. Both the framework and the conceptual model are used in the guiding of the process of developing and refining the methods and instructions used in the organization of data obtained both in qualitative and quantitative research. Additionally, the theory helps in guiding the researcher in the organization of the thoughts and practices to be applied during the collection of information thus allowing extensive extraction of data (Loiselle, Profetto-Mcgrath, Polit, & Beck, 2010). The theory involved also helps in the synthesizing of information that is used in the generation of a broad understanding of caring and ethical mechanisms that are applied in both types of research. The building of any concept in research requires the recognition of different concepts involved in nursing and how they affect both the researcher and the users.
The explanations in a nursing research are based on the theories used in developing the assumptions. Understandably, the hypothesis is based on the backbones of the conceptual model. Additionally, anytime researchers are not able to obtain empirical confirmation for the assumptions, the theory in question may be used to derive reliable evidence based on other researches done. Consequently, nursing researchers content that their studies do not consist of not only hypothesis but also on the findings obtained (Loiselle, Profetto-Mcgrath, Polit, & Beck, 2010). Theories also provide a comprehensive and complex understanding of some of the phenomenon that cannot be established in a given time frame including the behaviors of community, and how institutions operate. Through the frameworks, the researchers can also be able to have distinct angles of approaching the complex aspects of the study thus focusing their attention of on various issues of the data collected. This provides an effective model for conducting proper analysis and obtaining reliable inferences. As such, the data obtained in both the qualitative and quantitative research depend on the theory, conceptual model and the framework adopted by the researcher.
Loiselle, C. G., Profetto-Mcgrath, J., Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2010). Canadian Essentials of Nursing Research (3rd e.d.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer.