Policy change encompasses changes in its content, setting, structure instruments and goals (Skogstad, 2011). Significant numbers of children die of diseases such as measles, tuberculosis, whooping cough and tetanus that can be prevented through vaccination. Moreover, many are incapacitated or disabled by polio. Parents have the primary responsibility for ensuring that their children below five years of age are vaccinated periodically. However, due to lack of awareness or knowledge on the dangers of vaccine-preventable diseases, some parents ignore to present their children for immunization in health care facilities. The current policy on vaccination has not incorporated education of parents, which is a critical component of healthcare service delivery. To this end, this group advocates for a change in the vaccination policy to include parents’ education on immunization issues.
Two models shall be used to introduce the policy change namely top-down and bottom- up models. The problem has already been identified and research conducted on the problem. The group has also formulated a policy position on the issue based on the findings of its study. The only part remaining is the implementation of the proposed policy change. A top-down model views policy developers as central actors in the implementation any policy. Glanchart (2011) provides concise strategies for assessment of implementation and goals of a policy. The implementation of parents’ education policy requires funding from the government to pay the health educators and cost of awareness campaigns. Two most important stakeholders in this process are the legislators and department of health officials. It is the department of health staff members who will be expected to make the changes in the vaccination policy and submit it to the Congress for adoption.
The another implementation strategy that will be used is the bottom-up model which focuses on the beneficiaries of the policy at the local level. The local community members will be consulted about how the policy can be implemented and to identify other local leaders who will be involved in planning and execution of the policy. The bottom-up model will help the group to identify contextual factors within the local environment where the policy is to be implemented. Mudacumura, Mebratu & Haque (2009) argue that bottom-up model pays attention to the extent of the autonomy of the locals.
Glachant, M. (2011). Implementing European Environmental Policy: The impacts of directives in the Member States. Northampton: Edward Edgar Publishing.
Mudacumura, G., Mebratu, D. & Haque, M. (2009). Sustainable development policy and administration. Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis.
Skogstad, G. (2011). Policy paradigms, transnationalism, and domestic politics. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.