Commissions In Light Of Pre- and Post-September 11th Terrorist Risk
Since the September 11, 2001 attack, the United States has made tremendous in making the nation and its citizen safe of terrorism. However, work to counter terrorism threats still remain in progress as terrorist threats facing the nation have evolved in the last few decades and continue to be dynamic. Essentially, after the September 11, 2001 attack three commissions were formed.
The United States commission on National security
It is also known as the Hart-Rudman Commission. This commission was formed with the founding principles of securing the American citizens from terrorist and other on the American soil. Following 9/11, the United States government quickly developed a security framework which was to protect the country from large scale attacks directed from abroad while enhancing the federal government to prepare, respond and recover from disasters and threats against the nation (United States, 2001). To enhance these measures, the department of Homeland security department which incorporated 22 separate agencies was created.
Ideally, DHS enhanced information sharing as it various initiatives such as suspicious reporting initiative, terrorism advisory system as well as the infamous campaign of “if you see something, say something.” In addition, Homeland Security Department was responsible for planning, coordinating and integrating various federal activities involved with the Homeland Agency. Significant part of the commission’s finding were integrated into the legislation and the justification supporting the formation of Homeland Security department (Homeland security, 2001).
The Gilmore Commission
This commission is also known as the Advisory Panel to Assess Domestic Response Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction. It was formed by the Secretary of Defense in consultation with the Secretary of Energy, Secretary of Health and Human Services as well as with USA attorney General. Disaster and threats response capabilities at the federal, state and the local level were assessed (Civil rights implications of post, 2012). The commission in its fifth report called George W. Bush to craft homeland security strategies as well as recommend formation of independent oversight board to advice homeland security efforts impacting civil liberties.
The Bremer Commission
It is also referred to as the National commission on Terrorism. The commission was mandated by the congress to evaluate the Nation’s Laws, practices and policies enacted to prevent terrorism and for bringing into justice those involved with terrorism practices. The members of the commission drafted a report “Countering the Changing Threat of International Terrorism” which was issued in the year 2000 (Civil rights implications of post, 2012). The report concluded that international terrorism posed an increasingly dangerous threat to United States and countering the growing threats of terrorism required federal, states and local personnel to work in conjunction in eliminating the threats. Consequently, each of these conclusions and recommendations took on great meaning in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks and guided changes incorporated into the Homeland security Act of 2002. However, in absence of significant recognition of terrorist threats within the USA boarders, no major programs were initiated to counteract the increasing terrorism threat (United States, 2001)
As the commissions were conducting research to combat terrorism, President the George W. Bush addressed other recognizable and immediate needs by passing Presidential Decision Directives (United States, 2001)
Top of Form
United States. (2001). Countering the changing threat of international terrorism: Report of the National Commission on Terrorism : hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, second session, June 15, 2000. Washington: U.S. G.P.O. retrieved from https://fas.org/irp/threat/commission.html
Civil rights implications of post: September 11 law enforcement practices in New York. (2012). Place of publication not identified: Bibliogov. Retrieved from https://www.law.umaryland.edu/marshall/usccr/documents/cr122004024309.pdf
Homeland security: An in-depth look at Congress’s role in homeland security: special section. (January 01, 2001). Hill, 9, 23, 23-30. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/CFO/17_0524_U.S. congress’s role homeland security.pdf