Influence of Red Jersey Color on Physical Parameters in Combat Sport


The article Influence of Red Jersey Color on Physical Parameters in Combat Sport by Dennis Dreiskaemper, Bernd Strauss, Norbert Hagemann, and Dirk Büsch presents a unique approach to the different factors that affect the performance of sportsmen across different fields. According to the authors, fighter in 2004 Olympic Games wearing red jerseys come out victorious compared to those in blue. Although confusing, the study elaborates that the perception of human being on the red color has led to change in behavior. Understandably, men find women wearing red outfit to be more attractive than those in other colors. Equally, the ability of the color to change human performance has also been demonstrated in different parts of the article. To ensure that effective research and conclusions are established, Dennis Dreiskaemper and his colleagues adopted different methods of collecting and analyzing data to ensure reliability and transparency of the data.

Understandably, the  research is  a correlational  study as  it  tries  to establish  whether the two variables,  human  perception  and  behavior  and red color, are  correlated.  On  different  occasions the  article  articulates  that  most individuals  and  teams wearing  clothes in red  appear to be  superior than  the  others. Particularly, the aim of the research is to assess the influence of jersey color on actors during a combat situation. Some of the  variables used  in the  study  include  jersey color and  human behavior and performance  which  was   measured in terms of the  heart rate (Dreiskaemper, Strauss, Hagemann, & Büsch, 2013). The former is the independent variable while the latter is the dependent variable. Notably independent variable in any research is the stable factor that cannot be affected by any change in the state of the other variables.  Dependent variables on the other hand those that depend on the other factors that are being measured in the study and thus are subject to change. However the research referred to them as the control conditions of the experiment since they were used to influence the results. Consequently, the study used random sampling method with the total population sampled was 28 participants(Dreiskaemper, Strauss, Hagemann, & Büsch, 2013). These participants were grouped into two with each subjected to different tasks that included hitting each other with long sides of the impact surface. Each of them was to hit their opponents more often than they hit themselves.  Thereafter data was collected by measuring the heart rate which was done immediately after the fight.  Additionally, the same was done between the fighting sessions and later the mean was compounded.  Similarly, participants’ strengths were measured using dynamometer that provided the value in kilograms. The manual collecting of data ensured that the primary information obtained was not biased.

The findings of the research revealed different outcomes from the test conducted. The findings on heart rate revealed that there was higher heart rate for the participants wearing red equipment and they also used more strength in hitting their opponents. Consequently, this shows that the red effect must have perceived explicitly by the participants. Thus it confirmed that red color has significant influence on the strength and heart rates of the subjects.


The research uses different methods of research to achieve the results.  Considering the amount of data and the sample evaluated, the research achieved the minimum required aspects required to ensure both reliability and validity of the measures obtained.  In essence, reliability means the ability of the research to give the same results if the participants had to be subjected to the same conditions and the same procedures followed. Moreover, this was also made possible by the availability of observers who helped in ensuring that the data collected was not biased or manipulated in any way. Validity, on the other hand, refers to the credibility of the data obtained or any other information used in making an inference of the study.  In essence, this can be explained from different perspectives including internal and external validity measures. Undoubtedly, internal validity includes the procedures and instruments used in the research to measure the different variables (Patten, & Newhart, 2017). External validity, on the other hand, is the generalized perspectives that explain more than the findings obtained in the research. The research applied various aspects that ensured the information used were valid through using authenticated materials such as the dynamometer to get the readings from participants. Moreover, there reading was taken more than once and the average obtained.  Additionally, the availability of third parties such as referees helped in validating the information obtained at different intervals.

The authors also correctly interpreted their data considering the different measurements obtained from the data collection instruments. For instance, the heart rate measurement for red participants read 162 while that from blue recorded 155.71 and the authors stated that the heart rate for the red participants was higher. Correct interpretation of data encompasses identifying the SI units of measurements used by the different instruments and how the reading can be interpreted. Equally, factors that may affect correct reading of the instrument must be eliminated to ensure correct figures are obtained.  Considering all these factors, the researchers are successful in all these aspects thus high level of interpretation effectiveness achieved.

Understandably different safeguard measures were also employed. Each of the participants was subjected to an average of 120 minutes of training that prepared physically for the main event. Additionally, all of them were asked about their physical fitness and the willingness to participate in the exercise (Dreiskaemper, Strauss, Hagemann, & Büsch, 2013). Similarly different protective materials were distributed to ensure minimal injuries during the event. Understandably, research ethics requires that enough measures are put in place to reduce the level of harm, protecting the confidentiality and anonymity of the participant, avoiding deceptive practices and providing the right to withdraw.  Considering all the measures set by the authors enough measures had been set to ensure proper ethical practices have been followed.

The finding provides different perspectives of how red color affects both the behavioral and perceptional judgment of human beings. Considering the data collection methods used, measuring heartbeat rate and the strength applied to the event.  An appropriate follow-up study will be to evaluate the emotional levels of the participants. This will include changing the participants but maintaining the total population to be used. However different instruments will be used to collect data and more observers acquired.  The follow-up study’s aim will be to assess the emotional effects of red color in team performance.  Additionally, random sampling method will be used to ensure the selected participants will be willing to participate fully in the research.

The results presented concentrated on the readings and evaluation of the physical aspects of the participants. Although all the participants had been presented in the same environment and their health conditions assessed, the authors failed to take into consideration the psychological preparedness of all the participants. This not only presented a gap in ensuring standardized environment for the research but also presented gaps in ensuring reliable information was obtained. Considerably, since the researchers aimed at assessing the physical effects, they presented a strong finding of the phenomenon. The findings discussed the information obtained from the instruments and linked it to other secondary data that reflected other studies done on the same topic.


The article presents a differentiated approach to assessing how red color affects human perception and behavior.  It uses unique aspect of defining and investigating the power of the red color in the relationships of human being with different aspects of the environment. Understandably, it employs correlational study design to help in explaining the relationship between the dependent and the independent variables. These variables are then measured by different instruments used in the research including dynamometer. The population used for the investigation included 28 young adults whole were selected through random sampling and subjected to the same conditions to ensure proper preparation. After evaluation of the data collected, the findings established that the participants in red recorded a higher an average heart rate than their counterparts thus proving that the red color has significant influence on human behavior and perception to certain phenomena.




Dreiskaemper, D., Strauss, B., Hagemann, N., & Büsch, D. (2013). Influence of red jersey color on physical parameters in combat sports. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology35(1), 44-49.

Patten, M. L., & Newhart, M. (2017). Understanding research methods: An overview of the essentials. Taylor & Francis.