Relationship Between Control and Planning
The planning and controlling functions of management are very closely related. Planning is referred to as the basic function of every enterprise that requires deciding what is to be done, how the task will be done, the time it is to be done and by whom it must be done (Werner, 2009). Controlling means ensuring that everything is in accordance with the plan and when there is any deviation, preventive measures are taken to stop it. For example, an astronomer was in a position to prevent his fall if he could have used tactical control level to enable him to see the well on the ground.
Planning and controlling are interdependent and interlinked. Planning originates controlling. Both functions always co-exist. The controlling function compares actual performance with the planned performance. On the other hand, controlling sustains planning. Controlling directs the course of planning and spots the area planning is required (Anthony, 1988)
Planning and control are forward looking. They are concerned with the future activities of the business. Planning always applies future operations whereas control is also forward looking. Their combined effort is to ensure that maximum output is reached with minimum expence. Control ensures that there is no indiscipline and incompetence in the organization and the employees do not put undue pressure on the management.
Planning and controlling reinforce each other. Planning strategies determine the control levels applied to a situation. For example, when the astronomer falls down while walking along looking up at the stars shows that he failed to see the ground beneath his feet (strategical control), failed to see the well (tactical planning) and ended up falling in to it (operational).
Strategical, tactical and operational control levels ensure proper planning actions for a clear definition of the problem, the resources, activities and controls necessary to solve it.
Anthony, R. N. (1988). The management control function. Harvard Business School Press.
Werner, J. & DeSimone, R. (2009). Human resource development (5th ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning.