The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The history of the world has been shaped to some extent by the signing of treaties to end wars. One such treaty is that of Guadalupe hidalgo that effectively ended the US-Mexican war. This paper discusses this treaty and highlights how it came about. It also intends to investigate what happened to the Mexicans who found themselves in a new country following the signing of the treaty.
The treaty of Guadalupe hidalgo remains one of the oldest in the history of the United States. It came about as an aftermath of the hostilities that was taking place between the United States and Mexico. The war began in April 1946 and went on up to late 1947. Numerous battles characterized this war and approximately forty thousand soldiers lost their lives. Most of these were Mexican soldiers and only a handful of the US soldiers lost their lives in direct battle. A large number of the American soldiers only succumbed to diseases they contracted in the military camps.
Twelve battles were fought during the US-Mexican war. The Mexico City happened in September 1848. The United States soldiers capitalized on victory in the previous battle to pursue Mexican soldiers who were now retreating to the western parts of the city. General Antonio Lopez and General Winfiled Scott led the Mexican troupes and American troupes respectively. During this final battle, over three thousand Mexican soldiers were killed. After consultations, a delegation of Mexican politicians gave up the war and surrendered the city to the Americans.
The media performed an essential responsibility during this war. Using the telegraph and other print media, information spread at fast rates. Publishers provided information to the fighting troupes as well as the public. In Mexico, the media was used to praise and criticize the war depending on which side of the political movements one supported.
In the aftermath of the military engagement between the US and Mexico, the Mexican government agreed to meet with Nicholas Trist, the United States peace commissioner, to formulate the terms and conditions of the peace deal. Negotiations began, and the key issues discussed were geographical boundary, property rights, and the citizenship of Mexican citizens in the new territories. When an agreement had been reached, General Trist drew up a draft in English, which was translated into Spanish. The treaty was officially signed on February 2, 1848. Ratification followed the signing by both the American and Mexican congress. This was despite opposition from some quarters in both the US and Mexico.
The Mexicans who found themselves in the American territory after the treaty had to deal with issues of civil and property rights apart from social and political inequality. There have been numerous unsuccessful attempts through the courts by the Mexicans to reclaim their land from the United States. The Mexicans in the ceded territory were also unable to acquire full citizenship. This was contrary to the promise of full US citizenship that was preserved in the treaty. They were later offered citizenship but were still considered as foreigners by the Native Americans. The Mexicans in the ceded regions were treated as a minority.
In summary, the treaty was only good because it stopped the bloodshed that was going on in the war. In terms of tangible benefits, the Mexicans were shortchanged because the promises enshrined in the treaty were not upheld. The consequences of the treaty continue to be experienced to date between the United States and Mexico.