History Essays on The First Colonialists and Settlers in America

The first colonialists and settlers from Europe discovered America in the 1400s. Since then, word traveled fast and more Europeans wanted to expand their horizons in the new lands. This paper outlines three groups of colonialists and settlers who set voyage to America at different times. The paper point out the major challenges they faced. It also set out their significant contributions to the vast continents.


Europe and America in 1491

In 1491, America was blessed with a wide range of natural resources including her pristine waters, great forests, flocks of different species of birds and shoals of fish. On the other hand European countries including Spain engaged in trade with Asia. The competition from the Turks led to the decline of this source of wealth leading to the need to expand their horizons.

The Success of Earlier Civilizations   

In 1491 great cities and impressive civilizations rose Across America. Their success was premised on several factors such as the availability of food such as corn and potatoes.

Depletion of Natural Resources

Depletion of natural resources in Europe was the result of a constant demand for space for the growing population and the need for enough space to farm. This era also saw a huge number of construction of magnificent buildings which was made possible by wood such as the oak logs.

The Discovery and Conquest of America

Due to the depletion of natural resources in Europe, Christopher Columbus a European explorer with the support of the queen of Spain set sail towards the west in search of a sea route to India. This expedition led him to discover the Bahamas where he and his crew discovered vast natural resources such as trees and rock unseen in Europe.

The Effects of Conquering America

European colonialist and settlers brought to America agricultural evolution by introducing new plants and animals as well as new farming technics. They too borrowed some crops such as corn and potatoes and introduced them to America. Similarly, they introduced diseases such as smallpox to America and took syphilis home.


The Arrival of the English Colonizers

English colonizers set sail from England in late 1606 with authorization from the Virginia Company of London. These English men chose to settle in a peninsula in the James River for strategic purposes. The first colonizers were investors who the company of London sought to reward when the discovered gold and silver deposits.

Starvation between 1609 and 1610

Between 1609 and 1610, the early colonizers suffered a timeline of starvation. Due to this, they were forced to feed on unorthodox supplies of meat such as horses, mice, and dogs.

Unrest with the Natives

The colonizers and the natives were in constant conflict became of the hardships that they faced as a result of starvation and disease. This state only culminated when Pocahontas the daughter of Wahunsenacawh a Powhatan chief was captured and used to negotiate a peace treaty.

The Mystery of J.R

During the excavation of the Jamestown archeological site, the human skeleton of J.R was discovered. Scientists concluded that his death had been caused by a fatal gunshot wound. The most startling discovery from his skeleton was his bone chemistry which was that of an American and not English.

Evidence of Internal Strife within the Colony

The discovery of J.R raised a theory of internal strife within the colony due to factors such as civil unrest. Other scientists subscribe to the theory that the colonialists might have poisoned each other using arsenic poison.


The Puritan Upheaval

Puritans in England had spent the last half a century before the Mayflower voyage trying to reason with Queen Elizabeth and James I the need for more reforms within the Anglican Church of England. Both monarchs were reluctant to their proposal. In fact to force religion conformity some of them were tortured and killed.

Religious Refuge in Holland

Due to the constant persecution of the Puritans, most of them moved to Holland. The Netherlands was welcoming to all due to her liberal nature and this helped them preach separatism in England through printed pamphlets.

The Journey to the New Colony

The pilgrims set voyage in search of a new colony where they can express their freedom of worship. On the way, they suffered major set downs including diseases and a great storm.

The Colony

While establishing the new colony they encountered the Native Americans. This first-hand encounter helps them disapprove the notion that they are primitive animals and they see them as people to convert into Christianity.


Once the separatists arrived in America, they wrote down a system of governance which ensured unity among themselves and promoted democracy. The group was the first in America to draft a constitution however primitive which set down rights and limitations of the people.


Each group of early colonizers and settlers in America were motivated by different factors. Some were informed by commerce, others were informed by the need for freedom of faith and worship while others saw the Americas as a way out of poverty. It is undisputed that these groups faced major challenges in getting to America. It is also not contested that they brought with them new ideas to the new land. Theirs became a story of faith, courage, and determination.