English 101 Assignment Paper on Distinction of Bloodstain Patterns from Fly Artifacts

Annotated Bibliography

Benecke, Mark, and Larry Barksdale. “Distinction of Bloodstain Patterns from Fly Artifacts.” Forensic Science International, vol 137, no. 2-3, 2003, pp. 152-159.

Benecke and Larry (152) argue that it is common for forensics experts to come across pure or unpure blood spatter in crime scenes. It is important for forensics experts to determine if blood spatter is pure or is mixed with fly artifacts. Furthermore, Benecke and Larry (157) argue that it is important for forensics experts to identify blood spatters that have a mixture of fly artifacts to reconstruct a crime scene with precision. Failure to take fly artifacts into consideration during crime scene investigations will lead to decreased ability to identify key evidence from the crime scene. Benecke and Larry (146) describe three key cases where blood stain patterns were contaminated and changed by fly artifacts. The authors argue out the importance of distinguishing blood patterns in crime scenes by proving how forensics experts may confuse stains of blood created by flies, such as horse fly and house fly. For example, Benecke and Larry (155) state that flies consume blood deposits and regurgitate the deposits on the surface, which they consume at a later time. Forensics experts should be able to examine and locate the deposits to make a correct determination of the crime scene.

Shen, A. R., Brostow, G. J. and Cipolla R. “Toward Automatic Blood Spatter Analysis In Crime Scenes.” Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, n.d.

Shen, Brostow, and Cipolla (2) argue that all forensics experts need to conduct blood spatter analysis where the impact of a body has caused blood to spatter on surrounding surfaces. Speed, liquid density, and the surface properties affect the blood spatter pattern. Therefore, forensics should identify blood patterns and determine how they occurred to investigate the crime scene. Blood spatter analysis has become a forensic specialization where professionals teach upcoming forensics experts the techniques and data analysis tools that help study blood patterns. Shen, Brostow, and Cipolla (10) propose an image analysis technique that uses algorithms to study crime scenes called the string method. Blood dynamics play an important role in how blood patterns form. For example, blood density is determined by fitness, alcohol, and fatigue. Forensics have an important role in identifying the factors mentioned above to make a conclusive argument about a crime. The strain method that Shen, Brostow, and Cipolla (4) propose, estimates the direct and the impact of a blood drop. Furthermore, the authors use imaging techniques where they capture blood spatter patterns in three-dimensional techniques. The authors further employ the strain analysis method to analyses the data. The algorithms used in the study help forensics experts to determine the direction of impact. However, Shen, Brostow, and Cipolla (7) argue that researchers need to conduct more research to account for other factors that determine blood spatter patterns, such as angle of impact.

Karger, B. et al. “Bloodstain Pattern Analysis—Casework Experience.” Forensic Science International, vol 181, no. 1-3, 2008, pp. 15-20.

According to Karger (17), all forensics experts need to understand the morphology of blood stain distribution at crime scenes. The distribution patterns should give experts the ability to reconstruct crime scenes. However, Karger (16) argue that the number of case reports where forensics experts have used the morphology of bloodstains is few. The authors present four cases where forensics experts were able to reconstruct crime scene patterns using blood morphology. Also, the offender was able to verify the reconstruction through a confession. The authors present a valid argument about blood morphology where they take factors that affect blood patterns into consideration. Such factors include the combination of different blood patterns and environmental conditions. According to Karger (19), forensics experts should start crime scene reconstruction through a comprehensive outlook of the whole picture (crime scene). Secondly, experts should differentiate different bloodstain patterns. However, an expert should conduct an autopsy to determine the main cause of fatality and relate the findings to the crime scene. Also, the expert should also inspect other body injuries that caused blood spatter to have a detailed analysis of the events that transpired in a crime scene. It is easy for crime scene investigators to make forensic errors if they do not take all factors (even the age of the victim) when making a forensic analysis (Karger, 18). Through the presentation of the four crime scene cases, () can provide evidence that the study of blood morphology can help forensics experts to reconstruct crime scenes.

National Forensic Science Technology Center. A Simplified Guide To Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. NFSTC, 2009.

The NFSTC (1) argues that blood behaves by certain scientific principles. Therefore, experts can use scientific principles to discern blood spatter patterns. The ability to analyses blood patterns gives forensics experts the ability to draw evidence-based conclusions in regards to how victims shed their blood. The NFSTC (5) suggests that bloodstain pattern analysis is the best way to investigate blood patterns. The BPA method applies the principles of physics, mathematics, and biology. The principles of the above-mentioned disciplines help researchers to know where. For example, the victim’s blood came from, the weapon that caused body injuries, the position of the victim and perpetrator during a conflict and the number of the potential perpetrators. There are three basic types of blood spatters, which include transfer stains, passive stains and impact stains. Examples of passive stains include pools and drops of blood; transfer stains include bloody shoe prints and blood wipes and impact stains refer to blood that projects through the air when a victim is injured.  Also, the NFSTC (15) provides different bloodshed events that cause different blood spatters. For example, stabbing causes different blood patterns compared to gunshots. Also, injuries caused by hitting create different blood patterns. Therefore, a forensics expert should investigate the blood spatter patterns to recreate the crime scene and understand the cause of death.

Brodbeck, Silke. “Introduction to Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, SIAK Journal − Journal for Police Science and Practice, Vol. 2, 2012, pp 51-57.

Brodbeck (51) defines blood stain pattern analysis as a scientific discipline that uses visual patterns and recognition technique to assess blood stains at crime scenes. Forensic experts use blood stain pattern analysis to reconstruct events, verify statements made by victims and suspects, acquire DNA samples and discern the type of crime. Also, there are different kinds of blood stains in different crime scenes (Brodbeck 56). Examples of bloodstains include passive stains that are often formed by gravity, contact stains and pools. Different kinds of blood stains indicate the level of crime and severity of the impact. Also, there are different types of spatters, for example, cast-off patterns which form when a victim is traveling with an open wound. Therefore, forensics experts should utilize the principles of blood stain spatters to reconstruct crime scenes (Brodbeck 53). The evidence got from the analysis will be admissible in the court. It is important for forensics experts and the police to have a firm understanding of events that transpired during a conflict. The ability to analyze blood patterns makes it easy for the officials to confirm a suspect and present the case in court. Blood stain pattern analysis helps restore justice to victims. Also, the tool makes it easy for experts to confirm theories and therefore, provide better service to the community.

Hanson, Doug. “Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Recreating the Scene of the Crime.” Law Enforcement Technology, vol 31, no 2, 2004, pp 84-90 

Hanson (84) discusses how bloodstain patterns are fundamental to solving major crimes. The author analyses blood stain categories and describes how experts should identify and approach a crime depending on pattern type. Hanson (86) mentions seven blood stain categories that include impact shatter, cast-off, passive wipe blood, projected and transfer blood stains. Different blood stains mean that different types of crimes cause different crime scenes. Therefore, the ability to understand blood spatter patterns will give forensics an idea of what happened in the scene. The reconstruction of crime scenes is important because the courts need evidence to link a suspect to a crime. Also, police officers need evidence collected from a crime scene to identify the culprit. Therefore, forensics experts have a very important role in the legal sector. Blood spatter analyses are widely-used tools by forensics experts around the world when solving crime scenes. Also, technological advancements have simplified the work done by forensic experts during investigations. However, Hanson (86), points out that it is vital to protect the crime scene from any tampering. Poor preservation of crime scenes leads to the loss of key evidence. Therefore, proper crime scene preservation and analysis determines the outcomes of crime scene investigations.

Works cited

Benecke, Mark, and Larry Barksdale. “Distinction of Bloodstain Patterns from Fly Artifacts.” Forensic Science International, vol 137, no. 2-3, 2003, pp. 152-159.

Brodbeck, Silke. “Introduction to Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, SIAK Journal − Journal for Police Science and Practice, Vol. 2, 2012, pp 51-57 

Brodbeck, Silke. “Introduction to Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, SIAK Journal − Journal for Police Science and Practice, Vol. 2, 2012, pp 51-57.

Hanson, Doug. “Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Recreating the Scene of the Crime.” Law Enforcement Technology, vol 31, no 2, 2004, pp 84-90 

National Forensic Science Technology Center. A Simplified Guide To Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. NFSTC, 2009.

Shen, A. R., Brostow, G. J. and Cipolla R. “Toward Automatic Blood Spatter Analysis In Crime Scenes.” Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, n.d.