Education Research Paper on Special Education

Special Education

Introduction

A learning debilitation is a condition that makes it difficult for a person to acquire knowledge as it interferes with basic learning skills; reading and writing. For example, a learning disability refers to instances when some students have difficulties with organization, time planning, and even paying attention for extended periods. Some learning disabilities are usually overlooked until adulthood because people with learning disabilities have average to above average intelligence (Kremenitzer, 2005). However, learning disabilities should not be confused with learning problems which stem from visual impairment, hearing problems. Whereas an individual with a learning disability can learn in a class with normal students, those with learning problems usually have challenges that make it impossible for them to learn with normal students. A student with learning disabilities can pass as perfectly normal since they are bright and they portray intelligence. It can, therefore, be referred to as a hidden disability. Examples of learning disabilities include dyscalculia (which makes comprehension of math symbols hard), dysgraphia, dyslexia, language processing disorder, and dyspraxia among many others. Though learning disabilities cannot be cured, it is possible for those affected to be successful both in schools and in their workplaces with proper support and intervention measures. Indeed, students with learning debilitates can focus their attention on academic success, especially with the help of their teachers in ensuring they are granted enough attention that will guarantee their academic success.

Theory

Some children suffer significantly from learning debilitates silently because some parents and teachers find it hard to diagnose a problem if the student is seen as intelligent when they pass exams. Undoubtedly, parents and teachers assume that as long as a student passes exams, then the student cannot have learning disabilities. According to Jean Piaget, who was a cognitivist, a student develops knowledge through years of sequential processes involving recognition, application, and evaluation. However, these processes are complex to students with learning difficulties. Hence, special education is important in such a case as it enables the students to obtain an education that is equivalent to the normal students. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act has further helped in promoting the education of students with special needs.

Evaluation

Child Assessment

The first step in ensuring that a child is classified as normal or has difficulty in learning is through an assessment. It is done through a diagnosis which entails interviews, observations of the student, rating the child’s behavior in relation to that of other learners, a psycho-educational assessment. It is critical to discuss a sample condition to correctly understand the assessment stage of a child. An example of a special needs child is one suffering from attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). It is a condition that causes hyperactivity and inattention thus making the affected students have difficulties in reading and writing (Greenhill & Ford, 2002).  In essence, such students struggle to recall and comprehend words that they have seen before because of the tendency to skim without placing meaning to words (Van de Weijer-Bergsma, 2012). In the classroom, these students find it hard to sit still, work independently, or be involved in discussions (Greenhill & Ford, 2002). The impulsivity in class often affects the students’ ability to socialize as they have a natural difficulty in interpreting social cues and controlling their anger. It also makes it difficult for them to be team players. Additionally, since these students cannot make rational ideas on their own, their teachers can help play a crucial role in their academic lives.

Increasing Parental Comfort during Meetings 

After carrying out an assessment, it is mandatory for teachers and the parents to develop a relationship as it has been discovered that a collaborative effort is useful in achieving the success of special needs children. The teacher can arrange for meetings with the parents in a comfortable setting so that they can device problem-solving measures that can help the concerned students (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008).  Moreover, teachers that teach children with special needs are well equipped with strategies that can work for every effected individual. So the teacher should provide the parents with the topics to be discussed day or two in advance so that they have time to research them. Since the parent is in a position to monitor the child from home, the teacher should always find out if there are new changes in the student’s program or even medication. 

Teacher Attitude

The attitude of every special needs teacher is essential as it leads to the formation of a healthy environment for students with learning disabilities. Special needs students have environmental triggers that worsen their conditions, thus a teacher needs to avoid the triggers and has a positive attitude to ensure the success of a lesson (Tattum, 2006). Additionally, the teacher should establish a caring relationship with individual students and learn their needs which will lead to success in their performance. Name calling and disrespectful remarks should not be used by teachers at any time (Pierce, 2004). A special needs student can benefit from a teacher who is highly organized and a functioning classroom routine whereby learning is learner-based. Teacher handling the special needs students’ have to be enthusiastic and have a positive attitude. A child with the dyscalculia condition, for instance,  needs a lot of patience from the teacher thus the teacher needs to develop a flexible way of teaching them (Umbreit et al., 2004). Additionally, the teachers should take up the role of working with the parents to ensure the academic and behavioral roles are achieved. They should have constant consultations with psychologists and monitor the child’s response to the approaches that they implement. Most importantly, they should keenly observe, note down, and report areas of progress and behavior concerns to the child’s parents. Therefore, it is apparent that collaboration between teachers and the parents of children with special learning needs is crucial in helping them.

Communicating about the Child’s Needs

Since a teacher must observe and document a child’s behavior, it is also important to communicate the child’s needs to the parents. A special needs teacher should be non-judgmental and focus on describing the child’s weakness to the parents (Fonagy & Kurtz, 2002). It is important for every special needs teacher to understand that negating the child’s weaknesses hurts the parents. Moreover, the teacher should consistently communicate with the parents and clarify their concerns. A step by step involvement of the parents is important as through it they can implement the same strategies at home to ensure the student improves. Furthermore, teachers should not neglect any change in the learners. Also, hostility or aggressiveness should be reported to the parents so that the student does not harm himself or herself.

Homework as a Means of Communication

Teachers should strive to offer the special students homework as it will ensure they have enough time with the parents. Meaningful assignments will help the parents devise a proper way of communicating with their children as they will have to form a rapport with them as they discuss (Cooper & Tiknaz, 2006). Additionally, teachers should provide clear guidelines to parents concerning how to carry out the assignments. On the other hand, parents should set a regular time where they follow up the child’s homework. It is the role of the teacher to encourage the learner to be independent as they do their class work. Special needs learners need constant encouragement so that they feel like they are making progress. The parents can do the same even as they help their children at home.

Limiting Distraction in the Classroom

Some of the students with special needs are easily distracted. Therefore, it is important for the teacher to eliminate distracters for successful classroom sessions (Myers & Pianta, 2008). For example, buzzing sounds from the air conditioners and heaters can easily distract some learners. Hence, schools opt to provide children who have ADHD with headphones as they do their assignments so that they can maximize their attention.

Establishing class rules

The teacher should create rules and stick them on the board to enable the students to achieve the best from classroom sessions. The rules should focus on reminding learners that the classroom is where learning takes place and nothing else. Children with special needs may be impulsive and become violent or extremely happy (Tingstrom et al., 2006). The teacher should remind them that hitting others when they are angry is forbidden and that instead they should learn to be kind. The teacher can use role-play to pass the message that it is possible for one to be kind at all times. Moving around the classroom when a session is ongoing should not be encouraged. The teacher should encourage all the students to participate in physical activities so that they get an energy release.

Selecting Specific Areas for Improvement

The Individualized Program Plan (IPP) can be used by a teacher to identify a student’s areas of need (Ducharme &Shecter, 2011). The teacher can then develop a strategy to be used to help improve each learner’s success. Various special needs students are weak in various areas. Some might be weak in academic work; others might be poor in social interactions while others lack independence that is needed in life. For example, when handling a learner who has dyslexia, a teacher needs to know that patience is necessary (NICE, 2008). Hence, for example, the teacher may create a daily report and feed the student’s report and later analyze it to come up with solutions to each child’s problems. Improvement of every child is only guaranteed if the student is also involved because, in the long run, the student’s independent choices will play a significant role in the overall improvement. 

Establishing a Reinforcement System

Teachers can consult parents so that they come up with an effective reward system that will ensure the academic success of the learner. Special needs children love attention as it makes them feel loved and part of a family. Hence, if they are rewarded for their achievements the students will be encouraged to repeat the action and learn in the process (McCluskey, 2002).A dyslexic child, for example, can be motivated by words such as “good” or “well-done.” Some may be motivated when allowed to watch television when they correctly complete a specific number of sums. Teachers should also put in place strategies that can be used to demonstrate consequences of failing to comply with rules (Twemlow & Fonagy, 2005). Additionally, home-based rewards can be combined with the school-based ones for efficiency.

Helping Students To Develop Coping Skills

Students with various learning difficulties have problems with controlling their behavior. Self-evaluation is a problem as some often find it hard to sustain direction as they are consistently impulsive. Depression, anxiety, and anger management are also common problems experienced by these students (Embry, 2004). It is the role of teachers to establish a relationship with their students and communicate to them the value of self-control. Additionally, they can help the students by offering them positive models and demonstrating that it is possible to exercise self-control.

Involving Students

Ensuring the involvement of students in different activities is another mechanism that can be used to help students with learning difficulties as the students’ peer group has an influential role in determining the quality of student behavior (Cooper &Jacobs, 2011). Teachers can create a platform for positive peer reporting whereby the students are rewarded for reporting each other’s positive behavior. By rewarding both the person reporting and the nominees, they will be encouraged to explore of positive behavior (British Medical Association, 2006). The teacher can also encourage buddying whereby students are paired up and one serves as a guide to the other. The buddies can help each other to develop excellent social skills such as interacting with others and controlling their anger so as not to hurt other children (Topping, 2005).

Summary

According to Sutherland et al. (2000), academic success is the main reason why psycho-social interventions are carried out in schools. Children with difficulties in learning owing to either neurological disorders, physical disabilities, or learning impairment all have the desire to be the best in schools. Therefore, it is crucial for every parent to keenly monitor the development of their children and their interaction with other people to enable them to notice the problem early enough. Parents should also provide their children’s histories when called upon by teachers and other physicians because such information helps to find solutions (Benn et al., 2012). In essence, some parents often report that they are unable to make their children to be respectful at home. In this case, teachers can provide school-based solutions for them to be used in managing the concerned children’s behaviors. Teachers should have a beneficial relationship with the parents so that it is easy to consult each other when necessary. Collaborative efforts are also required for teachers, psychologists, and parents for an efficient plan to be put in place for the sake of the special learners (Benn et al., 2012). Attention deficit/hyperactive, conduct, oppositional deficit, autistic, anxiety, and depressive disorders are some of the conditions that cause learning disabilities that teachers may come across in schools (Barrett et al., 2006). Undoubtedly, a positive attitude is required for anyone who will be dealing with students with learning disabilities. Additionally, it is important to understand that the students often do not know how to help their peers to understand them thus the reason why the teacher should be present to guide them (Kazdin, 2002). In a school system, emotional difficulties may be portrayed in the form of defiance to staff, truancy, and disruptive behavior in class as well as bullying. Schools should not typically respond by excluding the learners or suspending them (Flem et al., 2004). Instead, they should carry out background checks and involve the parents so that they can find a solution that will ensure the success of the learner.

Conclusion

The best solution to the problems of learners with learning debilitates is to find a way of identifying their triggers of negative behavior and remove them. For instance student who is continuously absent from school could be running away from a bully or hostile teacher. Additionally, teachers are encouraged to have a positive attitude and form a beneficial friendship with the learners. The teachers are the class managers, and hence they need to ensure that the environment they create in the classroom is favorable for learning to take place. This begins with how they interact with the learners and form relationships with them. Effective teachers have to build the confidence of their students by encouraging and motivating them to learn independence. The teacher should also eliminate visual and auditory stimulation that may distract the learners with learning disabilities. Moreover, Involving students in the learning experience will make them gain independence and achieve overall success in learning. Learning has to be learner-centered for the aim of schooling to be accomplished in the life of every student. Those with special needs require more attention than those without for success in their academics. The involvement of their parents is as important as the involvement of teachers and the other professionals like psychologists for the overall goal of success to be achieved.

References

Barrett, P, Farrell, L, Ollendick, T.& Dadds, M. (2006). Long-term outcomes of an Australian universal prevention trial of anxiety and depression symptoms in children and youth: An evaluation of the friends program. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35(3), 403-411.

Benn, R., Akiva, T., Arel, S., & Roeser, R. W. (2012). Mindfulness training effects for parents and educators of children with special needs. Developmental psychology48(5), 1476.

British Medical Association. (2006). Child and adolescent mental health–a guide for healthcare professionals. BMA, London. Retrieved October 20, 2017, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281282933_Child_and_Adolescent_Mental_Health_A_Guide_for_Healthcare_Professionals

Cooper, P., & Jacobs, B. (2011). From inclusion to engagement: Helping students engage with schooling through policy and practice. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved, from https://www.um.edu.mt/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/183876/Reviews.pdf

Cooper, P., & Tiknaz, Y. (2007). Nurture Groups in school and at home: Connecting with children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties (Vol. 1). Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Ducharme, J. M., & Shecter, C. (2011). Bridging the gap between clinical and classroom intervention: Keystone approaches for students with challenging behavior. School Psychology Review40(2), 257. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/openview/1ad29306eb65d6e8fafa9a5251029428/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=48217

Embry, D. D. (2004). Community‐based prevention using simple, low‐cost, evidence‐based kernels and behavior vaccines. Journal of Community Psychology32(5), 575-591.

Flem*, A., Moen, T., & Gudmundsdottir**, S. (2004). Towards inclusive schools: a study of inclusive education in practice. European Journal of Special Needs Education19(1), 85-98.

Fonagy, P. &. Kurtz. Z. (2002). Disturbance of conduct. In P Fonagy, M., Target, D., Cottrell, J., Phillips, A. and Z. Kurtz (Eds.) What works for whom? A critical review of treatments for children and adolescents. New York: Guilford Press.

Greenhill, L. L., & Ford, R. E. (1998). Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: pharmacological treatments. A guide to treatments that work2, 25-55. Retrieved October 20, 2017, from https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=yjB-hstWSc8C&oi=fnd&pg=PA25&dq=Childhood+attention-deficit+hyperactivity+disorder:+Pharmacological+treatments+A+guide+to+treatments+that+work&ots=n6dxLDXhsQ&sig=HvuRZC1BbRGNHBHWK7xpA79V4cA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Childhood%20attention-deficit%20hyperactivity%20disorder%3A%20Pharmacological%20treatments%20A%20guide%20to%20treatments%20that%20work&f=false

Kazdin, A. E. (2002). Psychosocial treatments for conduct disorder in children and adolescents. A guide to treatments that work2, 57-85. Retrieved October 20, 2017, from https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=yjB-hstWSc8C&oi=fnd&pg=PA57&dq=Psychosocial+treatments+for+conduct+disorder&ots=n6dxLDXixP&sig=wt5OQd-Pt0upIxBXbV8a4zwIVC8&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Psychosocial%20treatments%20for%20conduct%20disorder&f=false

Kremenitzer, J. P. (2005). The emotionally intelligent early childhood educator: Self-reflective journaling. Early Childhood Education Journal33(1), 3-9.

McCluskey, G., Lloyd, G., Stead, J., Kane, J., Riddell, S., & Weedon, E. (2008). ‘I was dead restorative today’: from restorative justice to restorative approaches in school. Cambridge Journal of Education38(2), 199-216.

Myers, S. S., & Pianta, R. C. (2008). Developmental commentary: Individual and contextual influences on student–teacher relationships and children’s early problem behaviors. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology37(3), 600-608.

NICE (National Institute for Clinical Excellence) (2008). Guidance on the use of methylphenidate for ADHD and Conduct Disorder, London.

NICE Young, S & Amarasinghe, J. (2010). Practitioner Review: Non-pharmacological treatments for ADHD: A lifespan approach, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(2), 116–133.

Pierce, C. D., Reid, R., & Epstein, M. H. (2004). Teacher-mediated interventions for children with EBD and their academic outcomes: A review. Remedial and Special Education25(3), 175-188.

Sutherland, K. S., Wehby, J. H., & Copeland, S. R. (2000). Effect of varying rates of behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders8(1), 2-8. Retrieved October 20, 2017, from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/106342660000800101

Tattum, D.(2006). Disruptive pupils in schools and units. Chichester, UK: Wiley

Tingstrom, D. H., Sterling-Turner, H. E., & Wilczynski, S. M. (2006). The good behavior game: 1969-2002. Behavior modification30(2), 225-253.

Topping, K. J. (2005). Trends in peer learning. Educational psychology25(6), 631-645.

Twemlow, S. W., & Fonagy, P. (2005). The prevalence of teachers who bully students in schools with differing levels of behavioral problems. American Journal of Psychiatry162(12), 2387-2389.

Umbreit, J., Lane, K. L., & Dejud, C. (2004). Improving classroom behavior by modifying task difficulty: Effects of increasing the difficulty of too-easy tasks. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions6(1), 13-20.

Van de Weijer-Bergsma, E., Formsma, A. R., de Bruin, E. I., & Bögels, S. M. (2012). The effectiveness of mindfulness training on behavioral problems and attentional functioning in adolescents with ADHD. Journal of child and family studies21(5), 775-787.

Wannarka, R., & Ruhl, K. (2008). Seating arrangements that promote positive academic and behavioural outcomes: A review of empirical research. Support for Learning23(2), 89-93.

Special Education

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Special Education

Introduction

A learning debilitation is a condition that makes it difficult for a person to acquire knowledge as it interferes with basic learning skills; reading and writing. For example, a learning disability refers to instances when some students have difficulties with organization, time planning, and even paying attention for extended periods. Some learning disabilities are usually overlooked until adulthood because people with learning disabilities have average to above average intelligence (Kremenitzer, 2005). However, learning disabilities should not be confused with learning problems which stem from visual impairment, hearing problems. Whereas an individual with a learning disability can learn in a class with normal students, those with learning problems usually have challenges that make it impossible for them to learn with normal students. A student with learning disabilities can pass as perfectly normal since they are bright and they portray intelligence. It can, therefore, be referred to as a hidden disability. Examples of learning disabilities include dyscalculia (which makes comprehension of math symbols hard), dysgraphia, dyslexia, language processing disorder, and dyspraxia among many others. Though learning disabilities cannot be cured, it is possible for those affected to be successful both in schools and in their workplaces with proper support and intervention measures. Indeed, students with learning debilitates can focus their attention on academic success, especially with the help of their teachers in ensuring they are granted enough attention that will guarantee their academic success.

Theory

Some children suffer significantly from learning debilitates silently because some parents and teachers find it hard to diagnose a problem if the student is seen as intelligent when they pass exams. Undoubtedly, parents and teachers assume that as long as a student passes exams, then the student cannot have learning disabilities. According to Jean Piaget, who was a cognitivist, a student develops knowledge through years of sequential processes involving recognition, application, and evaluation. However, these processes are complex to students with learning difficulties. Hence, special education is important in such a case as it enables the students to obtain an education that is equivalent to the normal students. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act has further helped in promoting the education of students with special needs.

Evaluation

Child Assessment

The first step in ensuring that a child is classified as normal or has difficulty in learning is through an assessment. It is done through a diagnosis which entails interviews, observations of the student, rating the child’s behavior in relation to that of other learners, a psycho-educational assessment. It is critical to discuss a sample condition to correctly understand the assessment stage of a child. An example of a special needs child is one suffering from attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). It is a condition that causes hyperactivity and inattention thus making the affected students have difficulties in reading and writing (Greenhill & Ford, 2002).  In essence, such students struggle to recall and comprehend words that they have seen before because of the tendency to skim without placing meaning to words (Van de Weijer-Bergsma, 2012). In the classroom, these students find it hard to sit still, work independently, or be involved in discussions (Greenhill & Ford, 2002). The impulsivity in class often affects the students’ ability to socialize as they have a natural difficulty in interpreting social cues and controlling their anger. It also makes it difficult for them to be team players. Additionally, since these students cannot make rational ideas on their own, their teachers can help play a crucial role in their academic lives.

Increasing Parental Comfort during Meetings 

After carrying out an assessment, it is mandatory for teachers and the parents to develop a relationship as it has been discovered that a collaborative effort is useful in achieving the success of special needs children. The teacher can arrange for meetings with the parents in a comfortable setting so that they can device problem-solving measures that can help the concerned students (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008).  Moreover, teachers that teach children with special needs are well equipped with strategies that can work for every effected individual. So the teacher should provide the parents with the topics to be discussed day or two in advance so that they have time to research them. Since the parent is in a position to monitor the child from home, the teacher should always find out if there are new changes in the student’s program or even medication. 

Teacher Attitude

The attitude of every special needs teacher is essential as it leads to the formation of a healthy environment for students with learning disabilities. Special needs students have environmental triggers that worsen their conditions, thus a teacher needs to avoid the triggers and has a positive attitude to ensure the success of a lesson (Tattum, 2006). Additionally, the teacher should establish a caring relationship with individual students and learn their needs which will lead to success in their performance. Name calling and disrespectful remarks should not be used by teachers at any time (Pierce, 2004). A special needs student can benefit from a teacher who is highly organized and a functioning classroom routine whereby learning is learner-based. Teacher handling the special needs students’ have to be enthusiastic and have a positive attitude. A child with the dyscalculia condition, for instance,  needs a lot of patience from the teacher thus the teacher needs to develop a flexible way of teaching them (Umbreit et al., 2004). Additionally, the teachers should take up the role of working with the parents to ensure the academic and behavioral roles are achieved. They should have constant consultations with psychologists and monitor the child’s response to the approaches that they implement. Most importantly, they should keenly observe, note down, and report areas of progress and behavior concerns to the child’s parents. Therefore, it is apparent that collaboration between teachers and the parents of children with special learning needs is crucial in helping them.

Communicating about the Child’s Needs

Since a teacher must observe and document a child’s behavior, it is also important to communicate the child’s needs to the parents. A special needs teacher should be non-judgmental and focus on describing the child’s weakness to the parents (Fonagy & Kurtz, 2002). It is important for every special needs teacher to understand that negating the child’s weaknesses hurts the parents. Moreover, the teacher should consistently communicate with the parents and clarify their concerns. A step by step involvement of the parents is important as through it they can implement the same strategies at home to ensure the student improves. Furthermore, teachers should not neglect any change in the learners. Also, hostility or aggressiveness should be reported to the parents so that the student does not harm himself or herself.

Homework as a Means of Communication

Teachers should strive to offer the special students homework as it will ensure they have enough time with the parents. Meaningful assignments will help the parents devise a proper way of communicating with their children as they will have to form a rapport with them as they discuss (Cooper & Tiknaz, 2006). Additionally, teachers should provide clear guidelines to parents concerning how to carry out the assignments. On the other hand, parents should set a regular time where they follow up the child’s homework. It is the role of the teacher to encourage the learner to be independent as they do their class work. Special needs learners need constant encouragement so that they feel like they are making progress. The parents can do the same even as they help their children at home.

Limiting Distraction in the Classroom

Some of the students with special needs are easily distracted. Therefore, it is important for the teacher to eliminate distracters for successful classroom sessions (Myers & Pianta, 2008). For example, buzzing sounds from the air conditioners and heaters can easily distract some learners. Hence, schools opt to provide children who have ADHD with headphones as they do their assignments so that they can maximize their attention.

Establishing class rules

The teacher should create rules and stick them on the board to enable the students to achieve the best from classroom sessions. The rules should focus on reminding learners that the classroom is where learning takes place and nothing else. Children with special needs may be impulsive and become violent or extremely happy (Tingstrom et al., 2006). The teacher should remind them that hitting others when they are angry is forbidden and that instead they should learn to be kind. The teacher can use role-play to pass the message that it is possible for one to be kind at all times. Moving around the classroom when a session is ongoing should not be encouraged. The teacher should encourage all the students to participate in physical activities so that they get an energy release.

Selecting Specific Areas for Improvement

The Individualized Program Plan (IPP) can be used by a teacher to identify a student’s areas of need (Ducharme &Shecter, 2011). The teacher can then develop a strategy to be used to help improve each learner’s success. Various special needs students are weak in various areas. Some might be weak in academic work; others might be poor in social interactions while others lack independence that is needed in life. For example, when handling a learner who has dyslexia, a teacher needs to know that patience is necessary (NICE, 2008). Hence, for example, the teacher may create a daily report and feed the student’s report and later analyze it to come up with solutions to each child’s problems. Improvement of every child is only guaranteed if the student is also involved because, in the long run, the student’s independent choices will play a significant role in the overall improvement. 

Establishing a Reinforcement System

Teachers can consult parents so that they come up with an effective reward system that will ensure the academic success of the learner. Special needs children love attention as it makes them feel loved and part of a family. Hence, if they are rewarded for their achievements the students will be encouraged to repeat the action and learn in the process (McCluskey, 2002).A dyslexic child, for example, can be motivated by words such as “good” or “well-done.” Some may be motivated when allowed to watch television when they correctly complete a specific number of sums. Teachers should also put in place strategies that can be used to demonstrate consequences of failing to comply with rules (Twemlow & Fonagy, 2005). Additionally, home-based rewards can be combined with the school-based ones for efficiency.

Helping Students To Develop Coping Skills

Students with various learning difficulties have problems with controlling their behavior. Self-evaluation is a problem as some often find it hard to sustain direction as they are consistently impulsive. Depression, anxiety, and anger management are also common problems experienced by these students (Embry, 2004). It is the role of teachers to establish a relationship with their students and communicate to them the value of self-control. Additionally, they can help the students by offering them positive models and demonstrating that it is possible to exercise self-control.

Involving Students

Ensuring the involvement of students in different activities is another mechanism that can be used to help students with learning difficulties as the students’ peer group has an influential role in determining the quality of student behavior (Cooper &Jacobs, 2011). Teachers can create a platform for positive peer reporting whereby the students are rewarded for reporting each other’s positive behavior. By rewarding both the person reporting and the nominees, they will be encouraged to explore of positive behavior (British Medical Association, 2006). The teacher can also encourage buddying whereby students are paired up and one serves as a guide to the other. The buddies can help each other to develop excellent social skills such as interacting with others and controlling their anger so as not to hurt other children (Topping, 2005).

Summary

According to Sutherland et al. (2000), academic success is the main reason why psycho-social interventions are carried out in schools. Children with difficulties in learning owing to either neurological disorders, physical disabilities, or learning impairment all have the desire to be the best in schools. Therefore, it is crucial for every parent to keenly monitor the development of their children and their interaction with other people to enable them to notice the problem early enough. Parents should also provide their children’s histories when called upon by teachers and other physicians because such information helps to find solutions (Benn et al., 2012). In essence, some parents often report that they are unable to make their children to be respectful at home. In this case, teachers can provide school-based solutions for them to be used in managing the concerned children’s behaviors. Teachers should have a beneficial relationship with the parents so that it is easy to consult each other when necessary. Collaborative efforts are also required for teachers, psychologists, and parents for an efficient plan to be put in place for the sake of the special learners (Benn et al., 2012). Attention deficit/hyperactive, conduct, oppositional deficit, autistic, anxiety, and depressive disorders are some of the conditions that cause learning disabilities that teachers may come across in schools (Barrett et al., 2006). Undoubtedly, a positive attitude is required for anyone who will be dealing with students with learning disabilities. Additionally, it is important to understand that the students often do not know how to help their peers to understand them thus the reason why the teacher should be present to guide them (Kazdin, 2002). In a school system, emotional difficulties may be portrayed in the form of defiance to staff, truancy, and disruptive behavior in class as well as bullying. Schools should not typically respond by excluding the learners or suspending them (Flem et al., 2004). Instead, they should carry out background checks and involve the parents so that they can find a solution that will ensure the success of the learner.

Conclusion

The best solution to the problems of learners with learning debilitates is to find a way of identifying their triggers of negative behavior and remove them. For instance student who is continuously absent from school could be running away from a bully or hostile teacher. Additionally, teachers are encouraged to have a positive attitude and form a beneficial friendship with the learners. The teachers are the class managers, and hence they need to ensure that the environment they create in the classroom is favorable for learning to take place. This begins with how they interact with the learners and form relationships with them. Effective teachers have to build the confidence of their students by encouraging and motivating them to learn independence. The teacher should also eliminate visual and auditory stimulation that may distract the learners with learning disabilities. Moreover, Involving students in the learning experience will make them gain independence and achieve overall success in learning. Learning has to be learner-centered for the aim of schooling to be accomplished in the life of every student. Those with special needs require more attention than those without for success in their academics. The involvement of their parents is as important as the involvement of teachers and the other professionals like psychologists for the overall goal of success to be achieved.

References

Barrett, P, Farrell, L, Ollendick, T.& Dadds, M. (2006). Long-term outcomes of an Australian universal prevention trial of anxiety and depression symptoms in children and youth: An evaluation of the friends program. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35(3), 403-411.

Benn, R., Akiva, T., Arel, S., & Roeser, R. W. (2012). Mindfulness training effects for parents and educators of children with special needs. Developmental psychology48(5), 1476.

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