Intelligence v Intelligence-led Policing
It simply refers to information that has been analyzed to help policy makers in the decision making process, particularly decisions about possible threats to the security of a given country (Dutton, 2014, p.1). The term intelligence is used by FBI and the intelligence committee of the United States in three distinct ways: Foremost, it is a product that comprises of information that has been refined to attain the needs of the policy makers. In addition, it is a process that can enable an individual to identify, gather, and analyze information. Lastly, it refers to the individual organization that converts raw information into a complete intelligence product useful for decision makers and the entire community of these organizations.
It is aimed at finding out the main criminal activities. After identifying and quantifying crime problems through intelligence evaluations, the main criminals can now be investigated and prosecuted. Targeting persons and groups that are accountable for vital wrong activities in Kent resulted in the decline of these activities. The U.S intelligence-led policing have gained from the current progress of fusion centers that caters for multiagency policing requirements. These fusion centers are responsible for offering information to management, patrol officers, and other agencies that take part in particular criminal activities (Ratcliffe, 2008, p.120). For instance, they may hold up anti-terrorism and other specific aims of an offense. The centers may look for various personal and public databases to collect and analyze information. They may also come up with their own intelligence products, giving general idea of terror and criminal activities. Several fusion centers were founded in the United States since 2003. Presently, there are at least 25 states that have fusion centers. The Lowa fusion center is one of the state’s Law that is used to enforce programs aimed at preventing terrorism.
These centers serve as a clearinghouse for all homeland security for the potentially applicable that enables them to interpret data and information appropriately, evaluate, and come up with preventive measures. It has varied goals for instance; having an information management system that is centralized, offering a center for statewide strategic intelligence.
Fusion centers are also provided with finances through state and centralized sources. The major objective of a center can be limited to anti-terrorism, but in most cases it may include important offenses, or targets various categories of crime for example armed robbery, identity theft, money laundering, cigarette smoking, and document fraud. Good policing simply implies good means of preventing terrorism (Ratcliffe, 2008, p.120). This implies that professional policing of any type is significant in uncovering intelligence related with both conventional crimes and terrorists groups. This approach assists in balancing the present emphasis on anti-terrorism activities with the traditional anticrime attempts. Majority of the line officer want to describe their responsibility in terms of fighting terrorism. Intelligence-led policing can assist in expounding their contributions in this view.
It is the essential information to safeguard the nation. The Director of National Intelligence is responsible for establishing intelligence needs basing on the received instructions from the homeland and national security advisors, and the president (FBI, 2014, p. 1). The establishment of the requirements is based on vital information required to defend the United States from criminal intimidation and national security. The Director of FBI and attorney general take part in formulating the requirements of the public intelligence.
Planning and Direction
It entails managing of the whole project, from gathering of information to distributing an intelligence product to the customer. It also involves coming up with plans that satisfy requirements imposed on FBI, as well as looking for particular collection requirements depending on the needs of FBI. The leader of intelligence planning and direction for FBI is the executive assistant director for the National Security Branch.
It refers to assembling of information that focuses on the requirements. Collection of intelligence can effect from activities like discussions, searches, and human resource operation.
Processing and Exploitation
It refers to changing the collected information into a type that is utilizable by analysts. This is carried out through various methods for instance reducing data, translating languages, and decryption. Processing involves recording raw data into databases where it can be used by various analysts.
Analysis and Production
It is described as the changing of unprocessed information into intelligence. It involves incorporating, assessing, and scrutinizing the available data, and preparing intelligence products. The relevance and dependability of information is evaluated and weighed (Lowenthal, 2006, p. 24). The information then becomes useful in producing intelligence. The raw intelligence is called the dots that refer to personal pieces of information circulated independently. Finished intelligence reports “connect dots” by making sure that the information is relevant to the context and coming up with conclusions.
It refers to the delivery of unprocessed or processed intelligence information to the customers whose needs instigated the intelligence requirements. The dissemination of information by FBI is through three ways: Intelligence Information Reports (IIRs), FBI Intelligence Bulletins, and FBI Intelligence Assessments. The intelligence products of FBI are offered on every day to the head of the state, attorney general, and clients in the entire FBI. The FBI intelligence customers come up with information depending on the information they receive (Shulsky & Schmitt, 2002). The choices may result in imposing additional needs which results in a continued FBI intelligence cycle.
Dutton, J. A. (2014). Lesson 7: the intelligence process. Retrieved on 11 March 2014 from: <https://courseware.e-education.psu.edu/courses/bootcamp/lo07/09.html>
FBI. (2014). Intelligence defined. Retrieved on 11 March 2014 from: <http://www.fbi.gov/about- us/intelligence/defined>
Lowenthal, M. (2006). Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy. (3rd Ed). Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Ratcliffe, J. H. & Guidetti, R. (2008). State police investigative structure and the adoption of intelligence- led policing. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 31 (1), pp. 109-128.
Shulsky, A. N. & Schmitt, G. J. (2002). Silent Warfare: Understanding the World of Secret Intelligence. Washington, D.C.: Brassey’s, Inc.