Criminal Justice Article Review Paper on Human Trafficking

Human Trafficking

The 21st-Century Slave Trade by Nicholas Kristof

In this article, Nicholas Kristof asserts that human trafficking has contributed largely to modern day slavery. He writes that human trafficking has not only emerged as a big human rights issue in this century but it has become an awful, convoluted euphemism. To develop this article, he writes how Meena, an Indian girl, was trafficked into a brothel at the age of 13 and forced into prostitution. During her first encounter, she was given excess alcohol so that she could not resist rape. Thereafter, she was forced into having sex with between 10 and 25 ‘customers’. To make sure that she did not run away, her captors forced her to have two children who were later turned into bondage. Meena informed the country’s police numerous times but they could not come to her help. It was only after she had escaped that she was able to raise the alarm.

Kristof writes that there are ten million trafficked children who are forced into prostitution worldwide. However, world leaders have not been as zealous in dealing with it. For instance, the slavers that captured Meena are still operating the brothel even though she had informed the Indian police on numerous occasions. Kristof concludes that this ought not to be the case, since human trafficking is bringing back the sad old days of slavery. Indeed, even though slavery was outlawed many years ago, it still exists in a variety of forms. For instance, forced labor has become a key issue in some parts of Asia and Africa where vulnerable individuals are forced to work in sweatshops and farms at meager wages. Such inhumane practices are going on because most countries lack effective systems to combat the trafficking of disadvantaged persons.

A heavy toll for the victims of human trafficking by Adriana Hauser and Mariano Castillo

In the recent decades, Miami has become a hub for human trafficking since it attracts millions of visitors around the world. The city has a vibrant tourism industry and a very active ephemeral male population. Consequently, prostitution is prevalent. In this article, Hauser and Castillo reveal how this has contributed to human trafficking, where young girls are lured into prostitution to service the transient men. They write that South Florida has a poor reputation, being the third busiest region for sex trafficking in the US. However, the most distressing thing is that a significant percentage of the victims are children.

The sex industry has been growing over the past years since men have become willing buyers of sex. This is demonstrated in the fact that up to 20% of men have paid for sex at least once. This has meant that the sex industry generates $32 billion each year worldwide. The profitability of this industry has been the main driving force for international human trafficking for sexual exploitation. However, domestic cases have become widespread. Traffickers usually use coercion, fraud, violence and threats to force young girls into prostitution. For a long time, law enforcers would arrest prostitutes and charge them for breaking the law. In most cases, they were treated as criminals. What was mostly ignored is that most of them were probably forced into it. With the passage of the Safe Harbor Act, minors and young adults in prostitution would be treated as victims of human trafficking. Such a move would ensure that the real criminals, the pimps and agents of trafficking, are the ones to be reprimanded.

China’s stolen children: internal child trafficking in the People’s Republic of China

One of the countries where human trafficking is a widespread practice is China. Indeed, child trafficking in the nation has persisted for so long such that it has become culturally embedded. Chinese appear resigned to it, considering it a tradition rather than a crime. While child trafficking disappeared somewhat in the 1960s, it reemerged strongly in the 1980s. It is now approximated that 70,000 children are taken captive in the country every year in order to be traded in the black market. This practice has been going on due to a number of factors. First, extreme poverty in some parts has meant that some families cannot afford to raise their children appropriately. Consequently, they sell their children to remove the burden of raising them. Second, the one child policy has meant that a significant number of children are abandoned.

Traditionally, the Chinese favor male children since they are believed to be the ones that carry family name leading to the continuity of family existence. Therefore, a misinformed family will abandon or sell a female child so that it can try getting a male child. Third, child trafficking has become attractive individuals because of its associated low risks and extremely high profits. Finally, loopholes in the country’s laws as well as the reluctance to enforce existing laws fully have facilitated the practice.

As it is the case with other countries, the state of child trafficking in China remains unknown in the public domain. For example, the country lacks a system to monitor and record human trafficking within its borders. Non-official reports indicate that most traffickers prefer healthy boys between the ages of four and five since they generate the biggest profits. To demonstrate the extent of the practice, traffickers nowadays sign legitimate business agreements with buyers. Trafficked children are used in a variety of ways. These include forced marriage, illegal adoption, sexual and labor exploitation, street time, begging and street trading.

 

 

 

Works Cited

Hauser, Adriana, and Mariano Castillo. “A heavy toll for the victims of human trafficking.” CNN Freedom Project, 26 August 2013. Web. 2 May 2014. <http://edition.cnn.com/2013/08/25/us/miami-sex-trafficking/>

Kristof, Nicholas. “The 21st-Century Slave Trade.” The New York Times, 22 April 2007. Web. 2 May 2014. <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/22/opinion/22kristof.html?_r=0>

Shen, Anqi, Georgios Antonopoulos, and Georgios Papanicolaou “China’s stolen children: internal child trafficking in the People’s Republic of China”. Trends in Organized Crime 16 (2013):31–48.