Mobile computing is the ability to move around with any computing device without any constraints on its location data center or desktop. Mobile computing involves mobile computer which refers to all computing devices that can be easily moved from one place to another. Recently, different types of mobile computing tools available have quickly increased; whereby computers are everywhere in the world. This has made it easy to access digital information anytime and from any place due to the computers used which are lightweight and most of them are pen-based instead of keyboard-based. The business of mobile computing is indeed beginning to make the demand for content of mobile internet very important. Mobile computers are categorized into several categories depending on the year of development. Initially, most of the mobile computers were laptops or generally moveable versions of desktop personal computers. Laptops are based on the similar hardware type and able to run the same program applications. Nowadays, lighter and very thin laptops are emerging thereby making their portability easier.
A Netbook is another mobile computer category which is smaller than a laptop, but capable of executing same software as the laptops or desktop PCS. The development of mobile computing has led to the emergence of tablet computers that are similar to notebook or laptop, but are lighter, have no keyboard and are operated through a touch screen. An example of a tablet computer is an Apple iPad. More decreased in size mobile computer categories such as smart phones are emerging that have internet connectivity. These developments make mobile computing effective in our daily activities by facilitating portability, social interactivity, connectivity and individuality (Realado 45).
Mobile computing is spreading faster in business world as compared to any other technology in history. It has facilitated location flexibility by enabling users to work from anywhere, so long as there is an established internet connection. In this case, a user is capable of working without having to be in a fixed position. Besides, their mobility facilitates them to carry out several tasks while they still perform other stated jobs. This technology also saves a lot of time in companies whereby the time wasted or spent by travelling from different places or offices has reduced. People are able to access important products or information over a secured channel. As a result, it has improved telecommunication in various companies and business people. This also reduces unnecessary expenses which may be incurred. The nature of productivity has been enhanced in business by the fact that people are able to work efficiently and effectively from whichever place they see suitable and comfortable. On the other hand, business people are able to easily research about a certain product without having to go to the field to look for facts. Likewise, they are able to feed information regarding their products from wherever they are without having unnecessary trips to and from the field to the working place. Again through mobile computing business activities are now readily available through protected connections. In relation to security, enough measures have been enacted to ensure authorization and authentication of the user that access those services. Some business activities can be carried out over secure links as well as information sharing among business partners. Voice and video conferencing has also reduced the lengthy travelling because seminars, meetings and as well as important services can be conducted through voice and video conferencing thereby cutting down travelling expenditure and time.
Cloud computing is a form of computing, which depends on sharing computing resources instead of having personal devices or local servers to handle the applications. This is a form of internet based computing whereby various services, applications and storage are brought to computers and devices of an organization through the internet. The cloud computing is aimed at applying traditional high performance computing and supercomputer power that is used by research and military facilities to carry out millions of computations at a given time in consumer oriented applications like financial portfolios, in delivering personalized information to power immersive computer games or provide the data storage. To make this possible, cloud computing employs networks of large servers’ group usually low cost consumer personal computer technology with dedicated connections to disperse data processing tasks across them. Such shared information technology infrastructure includes large system pools that are joined together. Virtualization techniques are normally used to boost the strength of cloud computing. With this technology, there is a great significant workload change. The local computers do not need any more to do every job when it comes to executing programs. However, the computer networks that make up the cloud computing handle them instead. Besides, the user’s demand for software and hardware decreases. The user’s computer only requires to have ability to run the interface software of the cloud computing of which is simple just like a Web browser, and the rest of the work is taken care of by the cloud’s network (Gruma & Knorr 23).
Cloud computing has already begun to gain great demand in corporate data midpoints as it facilitates the data midpoint to act as the internet by the process of allowing computing resources to be accessed as well as shared as virtual sources in a scalable and secure manner. For a medium and small size business, the significance of cloud computing is presently driving adoption. Normally, in the some businesses, there is a lack of financial resources and time to acquire, set up and maintain infrastructure such as software, storage and server. With this technology, businesses are able to access the above resources and shrink or expand services because the business requires change. Again, from a business point of view, the way companies operate differentiating processes of business and their Quality of Service is a key to the business operating success. Recognizing the process of business and standard product operations will boost the focus of inventive market growth as well as service cost optimization activities that are made possible business types in relation to cloud computing chances. On the other hand, with cloud computing the existing challenges faced by a customer may be proactively solved for every other customer belonging to cloud service by use of shared platform. In this case, amortization of challenges is only an example of how cloud solutions can accomplish more favourable quality of service levels. Hence, value may be influenced by repaying financial economies of scale all over the collective membership capability of a service environment made by the cloud (Griffith 32).
Google is among the known search engine portal that has extended its branches in the cloud computing market. This company showcases its services of cloud computing as Google Apps and Google docs Engine. Therefore, it has been known for its vibrant services such as Google translator, Google scholar, books, calendar and many others. Google application engine service caters the users’ requirements in cloud computing.
Open Source Software
Open source software is a program in which its source code set free to everyone for enhancement or modification if need arises. Source code refers to the portion of a computer program that most users do not ever see and the one that programmers use to modify how software operates. In this case, programmers get access to the source code of particular software when the need for modification arise and add features or fix parts that do not always work properly. Therefore, the authors of open source software to make their source code available to other people who would wish to view, copy, alter, share or learn from it. However, because such computer programs do with proprietary software, clients must adhere to the terms and conditions of their licenses whenever they use open source software even though their legal terms differ considerably from those of proprietary license. Licenses for open source software to promote sharing and collaboration because they let other people to make adjustments to the source code, then integrate the modified code into their personal projects. Other licenses for this software ensure that anybody who changes and then distribute the program to others should also share that software’s source code with no charge of license cost for it. This means that computer programmers are able to access, view as well as make changes to open source software every time they like so long as they allow others to do the same as they share their task. Actually, they could be infringing the terms and conditions of any licenses for open source code if they fail to do this (Cloudtweaks 22).
- Open source software has added control over that type of software. Users are able to examine and make changes in the code to ensure it is doing what they want.
- Users who are not programmers benefit from these types of software because they can use them for any purpose they like.
- The software helps those interested turn to be better programmers because they are able to learn how to create better computer programs by reading the source code written by others.
- It is possible for people to share their task with others and invite critiques and comments.
- Open source software is considered to be more secure as well as stable as compared to proprietary software because anybody can view and make changes in the program, omissions or errors can be spotted and corrected which the initial program’s authors could have missed.
- Some of the software is not simple to use like Linux, which cannot be studied in a day.
- One needs to train or hire trained people to make things simpler and this account for additional costs.
- These applications are normally limited incompatibility with the existing computer programs.
Google is an example of a company that use modified Linux software in many of its servers.
Student attributes are; student’s name, student number, address, phone, birth date, sex, class
Course attributes are; course name, course number, semester hours, level, department
Attributes for the instructor are; instructor number, instructor name, department, subject, address, sex (Jones 13).
Physical Data Model (PDM)
Creating PDM in Access database
- Start the Microsoft Access program
- Under New in the right hand window, click on “Blank database” and save your database under a new name. After doing so, the main Access window appears as shown below
- To start creating tables, click on “Create” tab then click “Tables” button on the toolbar for a new table to appear. Then click on “View” button, in the drop down list click “Design View” option. After clicking you will be prompted to enter the name of the table. Enter the table name and click ok to save.
- A blank table creation window appears whereby you enter the Field name, data type as well as description. Each table carried attributes for every entity as shown below
- The next step is to designate the primary key in the table. This is done by selecting the field by clicking somewhere in its row and clicking on the “Primary key” button on the tool bar at the top of the Main Access window. For Student, the primary key is StntNo.
- Once you are done entering all of the fields for the Student table and setting the primary key, save the table by clicking on the disk button on the toolbar, or “Office button” then click “Save” option. If you attempt to close your table without saving it you will get a prompt to save the table. Also, some of the activities performed in the next step require that the table be saved.
- Repeat step four for the other entities which looks as below
- From the main “Database” window, click the “Design” tab select “Relationships” In the tool bar and then click “Add” button on the small window that appears so as to add all the three tables.
- To establish a relationship between related tables (i.e., tables that have a common field between them), click and drag the primary key field (for example, StntNo in Student table) to the corresponding foreign key in the related table (IntrcNo in the instructor table).
Cloudtweaks. Advantages and disadvantages of open source software. 2012. Web. 22 February, 2014.
Griffith Eric. What is cloud computing? 2013. Web. 22 February, 2014.
Gruma Galen & Knorr Eric. What cloud computing really means. 2013. Web. 22 February, 2014.
Jones Bryan. The importance of business understanding in requirements structuring. 2014. Web. 22 February, 2014.
Realado Antonio. Mobile computing is just getting started. 2013. Web. 22 February, 2014.