How to Write a Reflection Paper on a Book
Knowing how to write a reflection paper on a book is very important because your teacher or professor might ask you to write one as part of your coursework. A reflection paper refers to an essay that is two or three pages long and it allows you to share thoughts on your experience after reading a book or watching a movie and applying what you have learned from the experience to your education and life- follow this link for more information.
A reflection paper on a book is mostly academic in nature but it is less formal. It should be based on your experience and it allows you to react to personal feeling after reading a book. While writing a reflection paper on a book, you are expected to provide personal feelings and support them with examples while citing the knowledge of an expert if possible.
Why you should know how to write a reflection paper on a book
Writing reflection papers on books is important because it enables students to evaluate their experiences after reading books. When you know how to write a reflection paper, you can easily compose one analytically when required to do so. Remember that a reflection paper is not just a summary of opinions and experiences. Writing a reflection paper entails deconstruction and analysis. Your teacher or professor wants you to not just recap the events or story line of the book but to dig deeper while discussing specific aspects. The reflections, analysis and discussion should be based on personal opinion.
Reflective writing allows you a chance to connect to and engage with a reading critically. You can opt to focus on a section or passage or respond to the major theme or premise of a book. Although a reflection paper should be subjective or personal, it should have an academic tone- follow the link here for more information.Writing a reflective paper entails maintaining an informal approach while maintaining an organized or coherent structure. To do this effectively, you need knowledge because a reflection paper on a book should be a dialogue between the reader and you regarding a particular book.
A five steps guide on how to write a reflection paper on a book
- Prepare to write the paper
The process of writing a reflection paper should start with proper preparation. If for instance the professor or teacher gave you a writing prompt, consider it thoroughly. Have the prompt in mind as you read the book that you are required to write your reflection paper on. This will enable you to come up with a reflection paper that meets all the specified requirements. After analyzing the prompt thoroughly, organize ideas to form an outline and take notes of the major points that you will cover in your paper. Arrange the points logically in the outline. This will keep you focused while writing the paper.
- Write the introduction
Although a reflection paper has a personal nature, you should not simply put your thoughts on a paper. Since it is an academic assignment, your introduction should be clear with a thesis statement. A good way of writing the introduction of a reflection paper is describing your initial expectations and attitude towards the book that you read. Let readers know what your first impression towards the book was and what your experience was after reading it.
- Include a thesis statement
Just like with most writing assignments, your reflection paper should have a central, unifying idea in the introduction. Therefore, come up with a thesis statement for your reflection paper that reflects your experience while indicating the specific knowledge that you acquired after reading the book. Your thesis statement should be the theme on which your reflection paper is based.
- Build the body
In the body, elaborate the thesis statement that you stated in the introduction. Do not express your experience in generalities in the body. Instead, demonstrate how you reached the conclusions after reading the book citing specific examples from it. For instance, you can quote excerpts from the book directly to support your observations. Such citations will enable you to illustrate the topic in a clearer manner and enable readers to see the importance of the experience as well as the knowledge that you acquired after reading the book.
- Write the conclusion
After supporting your thesis statement in the body using examples from the book that you are reflecting on, come up with a conclusion that ties the major points together. The conclusion should have a brief summary of the concluding feelings on the basis of the provided evidence and points. It should discuss the major points’ implication. Thus, after reading the conclusion of your reflection paper, readers should have a concise idea of the summary of the paper- follow the link classroom.synonym.com for more information.
Generally, when you grasp how to write a reflection paper on a book, you can easily organize your thoughts and opinions methodically in the paper. You also acquire more writing skills by practicing writing reflection papers. This way, you will eventually know how to describe your analysis, opinion and reactions after reading books.
Characteristics of a good reflection paper on a book
Regardless of the setting or purpose of a reflective paper, there are characteristics that can be used to identify it. Once you grasp these characteristics and how to ensure that your paper has them, count yourself among those who know how to write a reflection paper on a book.
They are as follows:
Your reflection paper should not be simple thoughts put down on a paper as they emerge from your head. It should not be like a personal diary. Instead, it should indicate a reflective form of writing that serves an academic purpose. It should be written with a goal which could be to accomplish something, learn, demonstrate, understand better or improve.
A good reflection paper on a book should explore or demonstrate your personal experiences or feelings towards a book that you have read. It should demonstrate your position regarding the book.
A reflective paper on a book should not simply tell or describe a story. It should indicate a higher order or critical thinking. Readers should see that you are analyzing the book, synthesizing its content and evaluating it to determine your attitude or perception towards it. It should meet the main goal of reflective writing which is to express your thoughts and reasons for thinking about the book in a particular way-follow the link trentu.ca for more information.
A good reflection paper should meet quality standards of clarity, precision, correctness and conciseness. Therefore, revise your paper and edit it thoroughly to ensure that it meets these quality standards.
Bonus hints and reminders on how to write a reflection paper on a book
- Although you are allowed to include your reactions and thoughts towards the book that you read or simply your experience, do not rely on them alone.
- Your reflection paper focuses on personal reactions, analysis and feelings towards a book than it would be the case for an analytical essay or formal research but you should ask your teacher or lecturer if you can use first person in writing the paper.
- Do more than simply summarize your reading because a reflection paper on a book is not a mere free-flow of thoughts or ideas-See more at resources.cleary.edu.
- Keep your reflective paper short by ensuring that it includes ideas that you can support with evidence from the book that you read only.
- Before revealing what you learnt from the book, ask yourself if it is necessary. This is important because of the subjective opinions and feelings that are usually expressed in reflective papers.
- Ensure that the main theme of the book that you are reflecting on comes out clearly in your paper. You can know the main theme of a book by reading the notes that you take while reading the book and in the preparation stage before you start writing the paper.
- Use sample reflection paper as a guide for writing because a good sample will enable you to know how to structure your reflection paper on a book properly. Here is a link to an example of a reflection paper on the book, African Fractals by Rogan Eglash that you can use as your practical guide for writing a reflection paper on a book; www.slideshare.net.
Get help with a reflection paper on a book
If you encounter difficulties while writing a reflection paper on a book, talk to us for immediate assistance. You can also visit the homepage of our website for more information regarding our writing services. Alternatively, keep reading for additional guidelines on how to write a reflection paper on a book and sample papers on our blog.
Spanish American War
Spanish American war was the conflict between Spain and US which led to the end of Spanish colonial rule and acquisition of new territories in Latin America and Western Pacific. The war was as a result of independence struggle by Cuban which commenced in 1895 February. Numerous sensational newspapers graphically portrayed repressive, brutal measures exercised by Spain increasing the level of sympathy Americans had for rebels.
The calls for demand that the US should intervene increased after USS Maine battleship was sunk in Havana harbor. The battleship was mandated with the task of protecting United States citizens as well as their property after the breakout of anti-Spanish riots. An inquiry that was carried out by the Navy declared inaccurately that the vessel was damaged by a mine. In the attack, two hundred and sixty six Navy men lost their lives while 2 high rankled soldiers lost their lives as well.
Within weeks after Maine sinking, intelligence operatives moved to intercept a letter between the ambassador to Spain that was directed to the US and friend in Havana. The letter was a disparagement of the United States president McKinley and intimidated on plans of sabotage against property held by Americans in Cuba. Several newspapers made publications of the letter and this served to further agitate public opinion. On 19th, April, 1898 Spanish rule was brought to an end by congress.
The declaration of war on the US by Spain was made following the United States war declaration on 25th. This was retroactive to 21st April. The war that ensued afterwards was pitifully one sided because Spain had not prepared its army or the navy for war with a power that was quite formidable like the US. On 1st May, 1898, a squadron was led to Manila Bay in Philippines by George Dewey destroying a fleet that was anchored there in a leisurely engagement leaving 7 American seamen severely injured. By August, Manila was under the occupation of United States troops.
The Spanish Caribbean fleet, that was quite elusive and under the rule of Pascual Cervera was spotted in Cuba’s Santiago harbor, by the United States reconnaissance. Under General William Shafter a regular troop’s army and some volunteers landed on the Santiago East coast and advanced towards the city in a bid of forcing the fleet of Cervera from the harbor. The fleet was decimated though the US did not sustain any losses. The Spanish also surrendered to the Philippines but the fleet of the US remained and commenced on a campaign that would acquire the island as a territory of the United States. The conflict that ensued afterwards lasted till 1914.
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Mexican American War
Mexican American war was fought from 1846 through to 1848. It was between the USA and Mexico. It was the first United States armed conflict to be fought on foreign soil. Mexico was politically pitied and military unprepared to stand up against the administration of United States expansionist President James K. Polk.
President Polk believed that the US has the “Manifest destiny” of the US to spread throughout the continent all the way to Pacific Ocean. The fighting was triggered by a skirmish regarding Rio Grande border and what followed was a series of victories for the US. Once the dust settled down, Mexico had already lost close to 1/3 of the territory in its possession which included present day, New Mexico, Utah, Arizona Nevada and California.
Causes of the war
There are several factors that led to the Mexican American War. In 1836, Texas had attained independence from Mexico. The US had initially declined to include it in the Union because of interests in northern politics which failed to support new slave state. The government of the Mexicans encouraged border reigns and also issued attempts of annexation that eventually, led to breakout of war.
A couple of days before Mexico could cede land to the US there was a discovery of gold in California. Despite this fact, annexation measures were initiated quickly after the election of Polk in 1844 that had campaigned for Texas to be “re-annexed”. Also, the territory of Oregon was going to be “re-occupied. Polk had interests on California, New Mexico and other parts that today make up the United States Southwest. He made the offer to buy the lands and once it was rejected, he went ahead to instigate a fight. He achieved this by moving his troops to the Rio Grande and Nueces River which were considered dispute zones. Additionally, both countries had made recognition the two were part of the state of Mexico Coahuila.
Start of the war
On 25th April 1846, a United States soldiers group was attacked by a Mexican cavalry. This took place at the disputed region under General Zachary Taylor’s command and roughly, a dozen men were killed. Afterwards, they held siege the American Fort that was along Rio Grande. Taylor made calls for reinforcements and with assistance of superior artillery and riffles, managed to defeat Mexicans at the Resaca de la Palma and Palo Alto battles.
After the battles, Polk said to the United States congress that the forbearance cup was already exhausted long before the United States boundary was passed by Mexico to shed American blood and invade their territory. 2 days later, on 13th May, a declaration of war was made by congress and this despite the opposition raised by northern lawmakers. Mexico did not make any official war declaration.
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Where to Find Good Examples of Research Papers
When you know where to find good examples of research papers, you can easily master the art of writing great research papers. Many lecturers require students to write research papers before they graduate from colleges and universities. Unfortunately, most students are not familiar with research papers. Even most of those who know how to write research papers are not conversant with the styles and formats that are associated with research papers. As such, it is important to have research paper samples to help you determine the best way of writing your research papers. Good examples of research papers are papers or articles that report comprehensive findings with complete citation of the included information to make it easier for readers to track down its source from the referenced sources as discussed here.
Know where to find good examples of research papers to craft good papers
Sometimes, even formatting a research paper can be difficult especially when working with the specified format for the first time. This is because some research paper writing formats such as MLA and APA are usually very strict. When writing a research paper in such formats, you must adhere to certain guidelines which include how you present information on the title page of the paper, how you place the title, include in-text citations, reference the cited works, number pages, and other aspects of writing the paper.
Adhering to all these guidelines when formatting your research papers can be overwhelming especially if you have never written a research paper in that particular style or format before. However, when you have research paper samples, you can easily determine how you should format your paper. You also save the time that you would spend trying to format the paper without being sure of what you are doing. Additionally, some examples of research papers have information that you may need to write your papers. Thus, they act as sources for your research papers.
Places where you can find excellent examples of research papers
Open access journal
There are several open access journals that allow internet users to download sample papers free of charge. You can find such journals from the open access journals’ directory which lists these journals. It is important to note that some of the journals listed in this directory have low impact rating than others. However, these journals can be a good point to start your search for good examples of research papers to guide you in writing your own papers. Th directory for such journals that can help you find a journal with the sample papers that you want is found at doaj.org.
Journals that other blogs and websites reference in their articles
Most reputable blogs and websites refer readers to reputable journals in their articles. These are journals that are dedicated to publishing research findings in their niches or areas of specialty.
NHS website provides scientific health research analysis that was featured by the media.Click here to see more. Click here to see more.
British Psychological Society Research Digest
This is a site that covers psychological nature research. However, there are times when it can cover biological and sociological research- found at bps research digest.
Not rocket science
This is a blog that specializes in different science topics on the basis of the published research found here.
This collects different blogs whose blog posts are based on researchClick here to see more here to see more.
Such blogs are ideal places to start the search for good examples of research papers on different subjects or topics. In most cases, you will find a link to various research papers at the end of their blog posts on which the posts or articles are based. You can use the link to get the sample research paper.
Magazines like the New Scientist that report different research findings will enable you to identify where to find good examples of research papers. The online versions of such magazines provide a link to their sources or research. Some newspapers which publish scientific stories online also provide links to research papers on which their stories are based.
Websites of different universities
Most universities and colleges share samples of research papers while providing manuals and guidelines for writing different assignments. If you visit the website of your university, you are likely to find such samples. However, you may have to search through various departments of your university. If you cannot find the research paper sample that you want, visit the websites of other universities. Here is such a sample research paper, gallaudet education.
This is a tool by Google that you can find by clicking the ‘more’ link on the homepage of Google search engine. This tool enables you to conduct a quick search for research papers, patents and books. Although it might seem like a miss and hit way of looking for research paper samples, it can help you especially if you need a general topic paper or article. However, you can use the tool to find the research paper that you want by being more specific in your query. You can also use ‘advanced search.’
Academic writing centers
There are academic writing centers that have excellent research paper samples that the former students wrote. If your university or college has an academic writing center, visit it or consult its staffs because these might know where to find good examples of research papers and direct you. If you are not sure whether your college or university has one, consult with the university or college staff. Once you find the center, consult the staffs in charge of it. These will help you in finding the best samples depending on what you want.
Your professor or supervisor
Some professors or supervisors have a collection of research papers that they use in teaching their students how to write research papers. Therefore, talk to your professor if you are stuck and looking for sample research papers to guide you. If you approach the professor well, he might even explain to you how you can come up with a good research paper using the example that he will give you.
Reputable academic writing agencies
There are several agencies that offer academic writing services. These have good examples of research papers on their websites or blogs. While some charge fees for research paper samples, others offer them free of charge. You can also buy research paper samples from these agencies.
Among the agencies that offer free, quality research paper samples include:
Do not be surprised to find a colleague with excellent examples of research papers. Most students who score better grades in research papers use sample papers as their writing guides. Such students know where to find good examples of research papers. Once they direct you to a resource where they get good sample papers, ask them about authors or organizations that publish the best papers. Some of your colleagues who score better grades in research papers can also share their papers with you and these can act like your writing samples.
University or college library
Academic institutions led by universities and colleges have subscriptions to several scientific journals. This implies that they receive publications from such journals on regular basis. Fortunately, these publications, which include research papers, are accessible to students and the public. Therefore, you can contact the staff in your university or college library to find out if they have good examples of research papers that you can use as your writing guide. Some universities have libraries that allow students to even photocopy sample research papers and use their copies as references in the future.
Choose where to find good examples of research papers wisely
Knowing where you can find research paper samples alone is not enough. You should evaluate the samples offered by the resource before you use them as your writing guide. It is important to evaluate the sources that the authors of the papers use because some sources offer more reliable information than others.These can be validates at here. Therefore, if you are writing an academic research paper, use academic or scholarly papers or articles as your writing samples.
Do not use examples of research papers with:
- Badly written title page
- Missing or badly written abstract
- Poor language
- Badly written reference page
- Poor in-text citations
These aspects should serve as a red flag for you when trying to identify the best places to get your sample papers from. Note that you should use excellent samples of research papers as your guide if you want to write great research papers. This is why you need to use superior quality research paper samples from reliable sources only. Nevertheless, you can find good examples of research online from different sources that have been listed in this section.
Get help to find good examples of research papers
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Effects of Globalization on America
The effects of globalization on America are both negative and positive. However, positive effects of globalization on America moderately outweigh the negative effects. Most Americans agree that globalization has positive impact on the economy, consumers and American businesses. However, some Americans are of the view that globalization has negative effects on the environment and American jobs.
According to Josh Bivens, the EPI Research and Policy Director, labor intensive companies are off-shoring some of their operations in the developing countries. This has decreased labor demand in the United States. Subsequently, wages paid to non-college educated people has reduced due to globalization.
Globalization has also increased the demand for skilled, professional labor in the United States and capital. This has increased the income earned by college-educated workers in America. The result of this is a widening gap between the poor and the rich.
Trade between America and other countries has grown due to globalization. American businesses are able to trade with poor countries of the world. However, this has negative impact on the American workers. This is because the overvalued dollar makes imports cheaper while making exports expensive.
Due to globalization, investors have established firms in America. Currently, there are many jobs in America that depend on international trade or corporations. The number of foreign direct investments in America has also increased due to globalization. This has greatly contributed towards the globalization of the American economy.
Globalization has also brought different countries together. For instance, European countries are establishing economic ties. China is also establishing regional economic ties. These developments brought about by globalization give these countries bargaining powers that are bound to affect the U.S and how it does business. If the economies of these blocs suffer, the economy of America will also be affected.
Effects of globalization can also be seen in the spread of cultural ideas of other people in America. America is also spreading its culture in other countries. This includes spreading of the popular American films, television shows and music to other countries.
Globalization has also made the American pop culture to become a global culture. Today, people in different parts of the world are practicing pop culture as they see it in movies, television shows, music, and satellite broadcasts.
Globalization has also led to the spread of other cultural aspects of the American culture such as clothing and foods. According to Kim Campbell, the former Prime Minister of Canada, globalization has led to the spread of the American culture to a level where it appears that America has moved to the world instead of the world moving to America. This has made many other people to admire the American culture.
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5-Step Decision-Making Process
Mastering good-decision making is important in business because everything is about decisions. Organizations make profits or losses because of their respective decision. Thus, one has to learn the best method that offers the best solutions. It is worthy noting that stepwise decision-making is not inherent but people acquire it through experience. However, it is also true that experience can breed bad results, especially when people dwell on bad habits that hamper business growth. For this reason, it is important to follow tested and approved method of decision-making, which has give steps as discussed below.
Identify the goal: The first step is to identify the goal. Regardless of the decision you make, you cannot avoid your ultimate goal. In this context, your goal refers to knowing the exact problem that requires a solution. Besides identifying the problem, it is equally necessary to know if you need to address the problem at hand. At this point, you figure out what matters to you in order to reach a final solution. When you appreciate why you intend to take an action, you defend the decision to the end and defend it throughout.
Gather information: The second step is gathering information to way the available options. For excellent decision-making, you need information on the problem at hand. Through this, you establish what you need to do to address the problem and helps you generate ideas for viable solutions. When gathering information, consider working with a range of options and possible alternatives even those that may appear unrealistic in the beginning. Importantly, seek information from reliable sources like experts in a field or from trustworthy friends. The best solution comes from numerous options on the table.
Consequences: Thirdly, consider the effects of the decision. From this, you visualize how the decision will affect you and people around you. Ask yourself probable outcomes of the decision you are about to make. Does it affect you now? How is it likely to affect you in future? The main advantage of this stage is that it helps you weight the merits against demerits of the decision. Moreover, it makes you feel comfortable because it allows you to analyze every possible solution critically.
Make the decision: The fourth step is making the decision. Having identified the purpose of your decision, gathered information and weighed different options, you are good to execute the decision. It raises the level of adrenaline, as one has to believe in his/her instincts. Understanding the feeling at this level is vital even though you may be indecisive about the move. To feel better, ask yourself if the decision works well for you and if you can still adopt it in future when handling related issues that require a similar response.
Evaluation: The fifth step is evaluating your decision. Implementing a decision alone is not enough. You need to review the steps you went through. This is step requires the same measure of attention as the first step. It further allows you to improve your future decision-making skills since you are able to identify the mishaps in your methodology. With this knowledge, you can make changes and adopt better decision-making processes.
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Effects of Income Inequality on Economy
Income inequality is a problem that is today affecting almost every economy across the globe. Income inequality is a phrase that is used in reference to the uneven distribution of individual or household income among a given population. In simple terms, it can be referred to as the gap between the rich and other people forming the population. In most countries today, the gap has been viewed as continuously widening, creating different impacts on their economic muscles.
Income inequality can have various kinds of effects on an economy. However, it should be noted that the greatest effect of income disparity is economic instability. In fact, income inequality greatly curtails the growth of an economy since it creates differences in the spending habits of the entire population. Those who usually earn much less often tend to spend more on consumables compared to those in the high-income brackets. As a result of this, those in the lower income brackets are unable to grow economically since most of their earnings or profits are used up in consumption. Since the low-income earners often use most of their earnings on consumables, they are unable to save or even acquire credit facilities as a means of raising their economic standards.
The above argument has also been cited by some economists who say that in one way, income disparity can fuel economic growth. According to their argument, a greater portion of the rich’s income is not spent on consumable; instead, they tend to save and invest more. As a result of this, there is expected economic growth due to the increased investments made by those with high incomes over the years.
Income inequality is viewed by most people to be a result of government policies that impact an even distribution of income among its population. One of such policies is marginal top tax rates cuts, weakening of unions and persistent unemployment. With cuts in top tax rates, there are minimal wage increases and little capital improvements. However, it facilitates spending on high-end goods, thus widening the gap between the profit seeker and the wage earner. The overall result of this is an increase in the levels of income inequality and suffering on economic growth.
Persistent unemployment is yet another scenario of income inequality. When the rate of unemployment keeps rising, there is a redundancy of earnings, meaning that the wages remain stagnant for a very long period of time. Even if they increase, it is often with a very little percentage. Besides, any labor gains in productivity are simply passed on to those at the helm of the industries. Thus, the low-earners shall remain poor while the owners of the industries continue to enrich themselves. In most occasions, it is viewed that certain governments initiate policies that enable companies to profit by maintaining high levels of unemployment. This continued income disparity can significantly harm economic growth in the long term.
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Difference between First and Second Industrial Revolution
The industrial revolution era means a lot to every human. Whether born during the first or second industrial revolution, there are great innovations made that changed lives for better. However, there are number of similarities and differences that define these eras of industrial revolution. Both First and Second Industrial Revolution saw great development in the world that changed the way humans perceived things. They opened ways for many innovations taking place today.
Without these two industrial revolution eras, the great innovations in the transport, agricultural, economy and technology sector would never exist. All in all, both First and Second Industrial Revolution have vast differences that make it easy to understand what industrial revolution was all about and they include;
- First industrial revolution was the change to new and exceptional manufacturing processes and took place between 1760 and 1870 while the second industrial revolution or technological revolution that corresponded to the latter half of the 19th century until the World War I that is between 1870 and 1960.
- The transition experienced during the first industrial revolution included going from hand production methods to machines, iron production processes, use of steam power and new chemical manufacturing. It also entailed change from use of wood and bio-fuels to coal. In the second industrial revolution, it was characterized by the extensive building out of railroads, far-fetching use of machinery in manufacturing, immense use of steam power, large scale production of steel and iron and electrical communications.
- The industrial revolution started in United Kingdom and spread to Western Europe and North America while second industrial revolution spread to other areas like Russia, japan and Germany and all developed in respective areas of interest.
- During the first industrial revolution developments were made in textile industry where mechanized cotton spinning powered by steam or water took place. Steam power became the main source of power industries as they were more efficient. The use of coke for charcoal during this era lowered the cost of iron making and even allowed vast blast furnaces to be used. On the other hand, during the second industrial revolution iron making was improved by the use of Hot Blast technique as it reduced fuel use. Mass production of steel also took place and better techniques were used.
- At the beginning of the first industrial revolution, inland transport was effective by navigable rivers and roads. Railways and wagon were used for conveying coal to rivers for shipment. Animals were used to motive power to land and sails aided on the sea. Britain transport infrastructure with canal and waterway network, railway network and turnpike road network. When it comes to the second industrial revolution, great changes were made on the existing means of transport due to the advent of electricity. Road transport was also improved through the advent of automobiles making it faster to move from one place to another.
- Lastly, communication became easy during the second industrial revolution due to the invention of telegraph system that was improved to other means of communication like telephone and radio. During the industrial revolution era, many people relied on messengers or other application means.
A lot of economic changes were experienced during these two distinctive eras. There was expansion of factor system, increased unemployment due to eradication of man power, industrial capitalism and led to mass production of goods. Social, industrial revolution increased leisure time, led to development of more cities and increased population. Above all, these eras led to increased power of the industrialized countries.
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Importance of the Nile Delta
The Nile River is one of the greatest rivers with a rich and complex history. It runs back to the Egypt civilization era when it changes the lives of many people and helped the nation developed. It also played great roles in the civilization and development of 10 more countries that include Sudan, South Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The Nile delta made it easy for the river to spread out and drain into the Mediterranean Sea.
It is one of the largest deltas in the world and it has made the coastline of the richest agricultural region. The delta starts down-river from Cairo, Egypt. From the south to north, the Nile delta is about 160 kilometers in length and covers 240 kilometers from west to east. The delta had several tributaries, but the impact of controlled, changing relief and silting has all led to the loss of the delta. The Nile delta is usually described as arc-shaped as it resembles a triangle or lotus flower. People who have lived in the Nile Delta region for thousands of years have at all times enjoy the fertile soils within the region.
It used to flood on yearly basis leaving behind fertile soils and nutrients, unfortunately the construction of the Aswan dam have made it ineffective for farming. About half of the Egypt population of 80 million people lived in the Delta region. Alexandria is the largest city in the delta. The Nile delta has changed many lives. In fact, there are many reasons as to why many people rely on the Nile Delta.
- Wildlife- Nile Delta held the largest concentration of wildlife. Abundant plants grow in the Nile River including the Egyptian lotus. The lower Nile has abundant Cyperus papyrus; hence there is plenty for the wild animals. There is a widespread species of birds in the delta including little gulls and whiskered terns. The delta is also a great home for other bird species like grey herons, egrets, ibises and Kentish plovers. Tortoises, nile crocodile, Nile monitor, tortoises, turtle and hippopotamus habitat within the Nile delta.
- Agriculture- Prior to the construction of the Aswan dam, great fields around the Nile delta act as great site for farming as floods left behind fertile soils for growing crops and many other farm related produces. Reeds were also grown in the Nile basin and many farmers would make good profits from their produce.
- Tourism- Many people visit the Nile Delta to learn more about it was formed and the impact it has on the surrounding areas. More so, foreigners visit to enjoy boating and shipping within the river. Delta towns and landscapes also attracted many people and more so migrants.
- Hunting and fishing- In ancient Egyptian epoch, the Nile delta also translated into an invaluable source of hunting and fishing. Hence, the residents had plenty of food for consumption and sale.
The Nile delta has been quite substantial to the many Egyptian on the upper or lower parts of the Nile. Creation of new cities in the delta region led to development of residential areas, industries, learning institutions, health centers and temples. Unfortunately, construction of the Aswan High Dam and human activities has influenced efficiency of the Nile delta.
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Challenges Posed by Boko Haram in Nigeria
Boko Haram which operates in Nigeria has been performing terror acts since 2009 to create palpable fear not only in country but beyond. Boko Haram is a domestic terror organization that poses a major threat to the property of the Nigerian people as well as their lives.
It participates in nefarious activities and has attracted the attention of the international community following the 2009 July attacks in Nigeria and specifically the attack of the UN at Abuja in 2011.
The sect does not have any clear or known structure of command and is so far responsible for more than 1200 deaths. Boko Haram poses serious challenges key among them capitalizing on religious frustrations, social difficulties, economic difficulties and religious differences in order to undermine the Nigerian government and exploit religious differences for purposes of creating chaos making it ungovernable.
The group does not have any respect for human life and instead, it kills civilians in an indiscriminate manner. In addition to this, there is also an insurgency in the northeast part of the country that has created insecurity throughout northern Nigeria. The group has also created increased tension between different ethnic communities and also interrupted development of activities generated concerns and interrupted development activities.
Nigeria does not have the ability to become a stable leader unless it overcomes the challenges posed by the group successfully. While it is not an easy task, using a comprehensive approach is important in order to articulate engagement rules, socio-economic problems and accountability in order to ensure the future of Nigerians is brightened.
The insurgence also has a great effect on Nigeria’s corporate image within other committee nations. The image of the country is also dented as a result of drug trafficking, crime, high corruption level, fraud and prostitution that has affected the reputation of the Nigerians and Nigeria throughout the globe.
For close to a decade, efforts have been made without any success in order to rebrand Nigeria’s image. There is no image laundering level that will influence the international community to change the negative image they have about the country.
While it will not be easy to get rid of Boko Haram, the diverse people of Nigeria, their spirit and land will make it easy for the regional and national stability to be reestablished. The commitment to human dignity and life should be restored in order to prevent atrocities in the future and build peace.
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Mobile Technology and Its Impact on e‐Commerce
E-commerce plays a major role in the world. However, applications and technologies are shifting towards mobile computing and the wireless web. While this is the case, the advancements have also brought into play a host of challenges, especially concerning wireless electronic commerce. Because of varying preferences of customers, development of these applications is a continuous process to satisfy the market. Mobile electronic-commerce, which uses portable devices to transact business, has become a major part of people’s lives. Common portable devices include laptops, mobile telephones, and vehicle-mounted interfaces among others (Lamersdorf 243).
The only requirement for mobile electronic commerce is to have access to mobile wireless, which is Web or WAP enabled (Lamersdorf 255). It is worth noting that phones and other hand-held gadgets have limitations, including low memory, small screens and few input devices. They do not have traditional computer keyboards and have limited text lines and character entries. To the contrary, laptops support many devices, have huge data storage capacity, have traditional keyboards and have large screens.
The main concern for manufacturers is deciding the most effective way individuals to use apps to access information through the gadgets. For this reason, there is need for manufacturers to go back to application software and operating systems for a range of platforms. Portable devices can support apps including Palm’s PalmOS, Microsoft’s Pocket PC OS, WAP, SMS, Web and I-node (Nickerson & Warkentin 446). While some of these apps meet the needs of most users, they have limited functionality. Thus, manufacturers and app developers have the task of improving functionality of these devices to enhance their capabilities (McConnell, Merz, and Maesano 370).
Mobile e-commerce therefore denotes business to consumer moneymaking activities, conducted sing mobile devices. With wireless technology, there is hope for mobile sub-net in the e-commerce world. Today, most people in the world own mobile phones, which largely rely on wireless technology. Other devices allow voice communication while others concentrate on non-voice functionalities like watching videos, Geo-location data, reading emails and accessing internet (McConnell, Merz & Maesano 378). This has led to change in purchaser payment market. With these devices, e-commerce is simpler and convenient around the globe. Because of developments in mobile e-commerce, there is massive manufacture of handsets, improved technology and affordable data prices. These have encouraged more usage of mobile data than in previous years.
Mobile e-commerce has also led to the rise of consumer benefits and protection to consumer issues. They include mobile payment and banking, premium services, mobile shopping and mobile marketing, just but a few. With premium services, users buy digital content and electronic information via text messages, where the costs add up to the mobile phone expenditure (Tsalgatidou 252). Examples of SMS free-based services are horoscopes, SMS voting system, flight status alerts and dating chat sites among others. Because of development of wireless networks, there is enhanced data transfer and better display capabilities by portable devices. They also have good processing power, which promote internet-enabled services (Tsalgatidou 276). Today, there are content portals, which offer a range of free services like downloading games, videos and ringtones. It is therefore clear that mobile content has massively evolved to meet the changing needs of the market. With mobile payment and banking, financial institutions offer text banking to online clients. Through this platform, a customer can view account balance and recent transactions on phone. On the other hand, mobile payment software allow customers to text their payments, where companies offer traditional trust services via the internet by expanding the functionality of the device. Oftentimes, they improve privacy through encryption and public key management (Nickerson and Warkentin 440).
Besides the advantages above, wireless apps and technologies have a range of demerits in mobile e-commerce worldwide. The absence of mobile device standardization all over the world is a major concern. Mobile devices differ from country to country and even within a particular country. The inequality in acquiring and access wireless web technology also affects mobile e-commerce in the world. It is clear that some countries have low demand for mobile device capacity. For example, Japan and Europe have higher demand for mobile devices than the U.S (Tsalgatidou 268). Very few Americans use wireless devices compared to people living in Europe and Asia. Americans also have lesser usage rates than Asians and Europeans. Experts observe that there will be lower demand for 3G internet to hit critical levels, hindering development of e-commerce within affected countries.
In conclusion, technology development has played a major role in mobile e-commerce development. Today, millions of people all over the world depend on this technology to transact businesses. With rapid advancement in wireless devices, there is need to ensure that the devices function properly. There is also need for development of wireless communication with high bandwidth to meet the demands of mobile e-commerce and wireless apps.
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Lamersdorf, M. Trends in Distributed Systems for Electronic Commerce. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, NewYork, 1998: 220-298. Print.
McConnell, M. Merz, L. & Maesano, M. An Open Architecture for Electronic Commerce. OMG/ECDTF/OSM Response, 1997: 315-387 Print.
Nickerson, R. and Warkentin, M. Wireless/Mobile E-commerce: Technologies, Applications and Issues. Seventh Americans Conference on Information Systems, 2001: 420-477 Print.
Tsalgatidou, A. Business models and transactions in mobile electronic commerce: requirements and properties. Computer Networks, 2001: 221-289. Print.
Benefits and Retirement Plans
Employee benefits are divided into two. Required benefits are those protected by law and must be compulsorily issued to employees without fail whilst optional benefits are those given by employers based on their personal initiative and decision. The following are some of the benefits that are required and compulsory by law:
Social security: Every employer is required to pay social security taxes to the government. This amount must be similar to what is paid by the employee and currently the rates stand at 6% for the employees and employers. In addition, social security is also encompassed in medicare and this is an extra 1.5% for both employer and employee.
Unemployment insurance: This is an employment benefit that is compulsory and is paid at state level. In order to pay up for this tax, one must register their business with the owner’s nation’s workforce agency (Beesley 45) and pay the tax to the location they are situated at.
Workers’ compensation: Also referred to as disability benefit, this mandatory benefit is normally paid by employers to employees who become disabled due to injuries or illnesses that are caused by occupational hazards or accidents. Different countries offer different mandates and regulations regarding this benefit. Currently, employers are required to purchase disability benefits if their workers are situated in New York, Rhode Island, Hawaii, California and Puerto Rico. Nevertheless, employers can opt to offer private benefits if their employees are from other countries and areas other than those mentioned above.
Family and medical leave: Even though regular vacation leave is usually not a compulsory benefit, employers who hire more than 50 workers are compelled to offer leave in accordance with the Family and Medical Leave Act. This mandates that employers provide 12 weeks of work protected, in addition to unpaid leave in any 1 year period to every eligible and covered employees. Such leave can be provided on grounds such as personal healthcare, child care, birth, or immediate family care.
Optional employee benefits
The following benefits are optional and provided depending on the employer’s discretion:
Leave benefits: The federal law does not compel employers to offer most of the common leave benefits. Employers choose to offer these benefits including vacation/holiday, funeral leave, sick leave and personal leave as part of compensation plans. However, the Family and Medicare Leave Act makes it compulsory for employers to provide leave (not leave benefits) to employers.
Healthcare insurance: Again, federal law does not stipulate that employers must give health and life benefits for their employees. Although, some employers at their own discretion may grant full provision of health care benefits, most prefer the co-payment basis that are paid by both employees and employers (Mikhitarian 12).
Paid holidays: While this type of benefit is not enforced by federal laws, it is offered to employees depending on the employer. It basically entails offering full payment for employees who do not work during holidays and full pay premium pay for those employees that work during holiday. Employers who offer paid holidays choose the periods within which the holiday is given.
I regard health care insurance as the most important optional benefits because it indemnifies one during unpredictable circumstances and also helps people to access medical care that can help them improve their health. There is assurance of obtaining relevant treatment in case of health concerns. in particular it is important for children to get both preventive medical care such as immunization and actual treatment for different ailments. By getting access to preventive medical care, adults can also be able to detect health problems early and arrest them before they escalate. Health insurance can guarantee access to both preventive medical care and treatment of actual ailments. It is advisable for people who work in construction jobs, factories, driving jobs and other hazardous jobs to take health insurance because they tend to be susceptible to accidents and health problems (Boutwell 23).
Organizations usually provide their employees with varied forms of retirement plans and these are the fringe benefits that help to retain employees. In some cases, these retirement benefits come with extra tax benefits and offer retiring employees income after retirement. Retirement benefits vary with each organization and are dependent on diverse factors such as the size of the organization and the age of the workers on average. Retirement plans can include any of the following:
The 401 (k) is retirement plan through which employees are allowed to make pre-taxed payments towards a viable retirement savings plan which earns them interest. However this interest is not constant until when withdrawn and in most cases, the employer usually matches up what the employee pays. Saving options under this retirement plan may range from company stock, mutual funds, money and bond market funds, with options for the employee to change the distribution frequencies and plans of his or her savings at selected intervals (Shah 59).
This is a retirement plan which organizations such as public schools and churches prefer. Although it is similar to the 401 (k) in one way, it offers more tax exemption. Employees make tax deductible payments which are then matched by the employer to a specific percentage. The money grows on a tax deferred basis just as is the case in 401 (k) retirement plan. an organization can offer a 403(b) plan that works in similar way to a 401(k).
In the profit sharing plan, employees save up for retirement by investing part of the organization’s profits and sharing this wealth. The employer decides on the amount of funds that can be contributed by the company towards the savings plan but this is determined by the income of the workers. On their part, employees do not make any contributions towards this plan.
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Beesley, C. Employee benefit plans: what law and what’s optional. 7 May, 2009. Web 4 November, 2013.
Boutwell, S. Fixing broken retirement plans under the new IRS procedures. Journal of financial services professionals (2013): 67-23.
Mikhitarian, C. & Wukitsch, J. Revisiting contributory defined benefit plans. Retirement security journal (2001): 57-12.
Shah, G. Incorporating employee heterogeneity into default rules for retirement plan selection. The journal of human resources (2012): 199-57.
Ethical Standards in Research
Ethics is an important resource in research and is used in the definition of norms and moral responsibilities that a researcher should adhere to when performing both quantitative and qualitative research. These ethics determine the quality and credibility of the entire study and will offer guidance to the writer by developing his or her skills in producing the desirable results. There are various ethical standards that should be considered by a researcher in the process of conducting the study. First, the researcher should have respect for intellectual property like copyrighted materials (Orb, Eisenhauer, and Wynaden, 2000). This can be achieved by making sure that reports of research contain all previewed articles, publications, magazines, newspapers, blogs, books, journals, theses and referencing in the required way. For example, if a researcher obtains data from a government website or other credible and pertinent resources, it is important that the information is formatted since the contravention of this practice would impact plagiarism that would render the study as incredible.
Besides, the researcher should also have social responsibility during and after conducting the study. This could involve virtues like ethics, integrity, openness, confidentiality and respect for those taking part in the study. For instance, the researcher should not release the private information of the participant to the public since this would interfere with the integrity of the participant and present disrespect (Onwuegbuzie, Dickinson, Leech and Zoran, 2009). In surveys and interviews, the participants could be asked to respond to questions that are confidential and the researcher is expected to keep them discreet. Finally, the person doing the study should be transparent and autonomous while doing the study and after the entire process. This would hinder the inclination of the researcher towards certain opinions or ideologies that would end up undermining the quality of the study. For instance, if a researcher is carrying out a study on the views of women on abortions before or during marriage, the researcher should avoid expressing his own opinions and remain neutral in order to prevent biasness in the process.
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Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Dickinson, W. B., Leech, N. L. and Zoran, A. G. (2009). A Qualitative Framework for Collecting and Analyzing Data in Focus Group Research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8 (3): 1-21.
Orb, A., Eisenhauer, L. and Wynaden, D. (2000). Ethics in Qualitative Research. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 33 (1): 93-96.
Hindu Views on Cohabitation
The traditional teachings in Hinduism recognized and acknowledged that the most basic instinct of all was the need for companionship, thus, founded an honorable institution called marriage. The early Hindus set out certain guidelines to ensure that the union is a permanent one capable of bringing happiness to the man and woman, and also provide them with a balance such that the family could enjoy the fullness of life within the framework of Dharma, the Hindu code of right conduct.
Self-control is a crucial aspect of Hindu teachings and tradition. At the time stage of Brahmacharya stage in life that is generally form birth to around 25 years of age, young people are expect to concentrate on their education. Sexual relationships at this stage would be a great distraction; they are encouraged to avoid them. Today quite a number of young people are engaging in cohabitation including even Hindus and even from other religious communities. Despite the teachings, it has been very difficult for young Hindus to steer clear of such sexually exploitative relationships.
A live-in relation is currently a major form of lifestyle that is slowly creeping into Hinduism. In the ancient Hindu traditions, though marriage was a general norm, the scriptures give a description and admit that premarital relationships existed as well. Manu details that premarital relationships existed in the Vedic period and even in the times that followed. However, it occurred rarely.
The concept of cohabitation is not new among Hindus, in the ancient times it was referred to as maiti-karar whereby a written agreement was to be prepared between the man and woman so that they would be joined in holy matrimony, marriage. Only if that was done were the two opposite sex expected to live together as friends and take care of each other as husband and wife.
In Gandhavara marriage, one of the Hindu marriages, there are incidences that resemble those that are found in cohabitation. This concept is not defined in the dictionary or in law. Cohabitation refers to a man living with a woman as husband and wife for a reasonable period, without marrying her. These relationships are considered not holy as required by the Hindu traditions.
Despite the plenty of information regarding cohabitation among Hindus, the concept of the institution of the marriage is inherent in every man. The fact is evident from the fact that marriage is a concept that has evolved and exists in every religion and civilized nation. The need for marriage is deeply rooted in the man’s urge for certainty and for achieving stability in life. Such kind of stability and certainty can only be achieved through marriage even if it means cohabitation.
Among modern Hindus who engage in cohabitation, whenever a new relationship between a man and woman is kindled, it is bound to acquire the form and characteristics of a marriage. This is the similar case in live-in relationship. In the early times, it began as something different from marriage, but has gradually evolved into a scenario with the traits of marriage.
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Islam is a religion that holds its values and teachings on all junctures. Many of the things that Muslims do on daily basis are governed or based on the writings of the Quran and the prophet Mohammad’s Sunnah. Islam and homosexuality is an issue that has been raising eyebrows now and then. Debates on whether homosexuality should be legalized have been making headlines on daily basis. Fortunately, Islamic views on homosexuality clarify everything. Sexual behavior towards a partner of same sex or gender is not only a sin, but a crime under the Islamic law.
The Islamic Sharia law is extracted from both the Quran and the Muhammad’s Sunnah [found in the Hadith and Sira]. Islamic study of laws and principles on which laws are based is an expansion of the laws contained within them by Islamic jurist. Thus, Muslims see them as laws of the Allah. Homosexuality under the same laws is a sin and crime against God. Views on homosexuality vary within the four leading schools of Sunni jurisprudence these days. Nevertheless, they all agree that homosexuality is worthy severe consequences.
In the common Hanafi doctrine, homosexual is first punished through harsh beating and if the involved individuals repeat the act, death penalty is worthy. When it comes to the Shafii philosophy, the homosexual receives the same punishment as adultery, if married or fornication, if not married. This means that, if the homosexuals are married, they will be stoned to death or be wiped 100 times if not married.
Another school of thought based on the Quran and various Hadith, hold the opinion that the homosexual should be stoned to death or be thrown from a high building as the best punishment for the act. Scholars maintain the belief that, these individuals should also be imprisoned until death. Another view on homosexuality is that between the two males, the active member should be lashed 100 times if unmarried and killed if married, while the passive partner should be killed regardless of his marital status.
Many champions of the rights of homosexual shift the blame on the harsh treatment of the involved persons onto “the adoption of European Victorian attitudes towards new westernized elite”. However, all the support for the act falls in deaf ears. Within the Islamic school of thought, this attitude was instigated by Prophet Muhammad and it is here to stay as all mainstream Muslims find it to be a perfect example [Uswa Hasana]. Hence, many Muslims find this harsh treatment against homosexuality as justified.
Many Islamic leaders have also condemned homosexuality in history. For instance, Shaykh Muhammad Salih-Al-Munajid claimed that homosexuality is the key cause of diseases such as AIDS and related conditions that affected mankind. Even for the small percentage of Muslims living in more-developed countries see homosexuality as abominable and unacceptable in the society. A Gallup survey carried in 2009 showed that British Muslims have zero tolerance to homosexuality. In accord to the Zogby International survey taken from American Muslims on 2001 shows that, a massive 71% was against the idea of allowing gays and lesbians to marry legally.
The ongoing harassment of homosexuals by Muslims globally rarely makes it to the mainstream newsrooms. The free world has been silenced by the fear of offending Islamic sensibility and the population opposing this act. Many apologists have come out and aired their views on the issue, but it remains a crime and vile in many Islamic countries.
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