Social Networking and Bookmarking
Over the years, social networking has become an integral part in the lives of millions of people across the globe since it revolves around their jobs, their avocations, their education and personal relationships (Curtis, 2013). Social media such as discussion groups and e-mail offers the individuals with a communication tool to connect, whereas Facebook on the other hand not only allow people to communicate but also visualize on their social lives. In the current era, mapping social networks has become the best way to gather information and examine social trends. Also, change incurred by social media has a significant effect on society, culture and economics(Curtis, 2013). The various conversations among audiences and their media producers is a notable change. Nowadays, social media helps consumers design, select, as well as sharing their experiences with manufacturers (Curtis, 2013).
Furthermore, the formation of elaborate networks in online conversing surroundings have elevated people (Curtis, 2013). Online collaboration is essential because it creates a fresh content, more so the participatory media which has advanced to free software movements whereby programmers write the code source but can be improved and modified by anyone with better knowledge. Last but not least, social media motivate people to design new knowledge and allocate it amongst their online communities. Media literacy and critical thinking are very important since people online make decisions based on the trustworthiness of the information provided (Curtis, 2013).
Social media should be regarded as an elementary shift in the manner individuals communicate. Therefore as a web designer, one can design a profile for themselves to form a network of connections with other individuals within the service. A web designer can take advantage of the social media to reach prospective customers directly at a friendly marketing costs. Facebook site can be the perfect social network to sign up because it has many users, over 250 million users thus there is a higher chance that prospective customers are in this group (Curtis, 2013). By utilizing this site, there can be many ways to build product awareness for instance, one can launch company events, offer promotions, invite customers to learn more about brands and inspire customers to share the information about services or products with their friends.
Headquartered in San Francisco, and with a global reach, Twitter is the largest social networking and microblogging service that has empowered its subscribers to draft, read and apply to tweets. A tweet is a simple text message not exceeding 140 characters (Steven, 2009).
This social network allows only registered users to read and post tweets whereas unregistered users cannot draft texts, but only view those posted by others. Nowadays, social networkers can access these services through SMS and mobile device apps. Tweeter’s popularity has ballooned in the recent past attracting half a million users. In fact, it is estimated that on a daily basis, 340 million tweets are posted. This social network is based on the principle of followers and some call it the internet’s SMS(Steven, 2009). In addition, the basic mechanics of tweeter have been termed as exceptionally simple by technological experts in regard to its Internet Relay Chat (IRC).
Curtis, A. (2013).What is Social Media? Retrieved on 20th Feb 2014 from http://www2.uncp.edu/home/acurtis/Courses/ResourcesForCourses/SocialMediaWhatIsIt. html.
Steven, J. (2009). How Twitter Will Change the Way We Live. Time, pp.1-5.
Troubleshooting is a systematic approach to problem solving used in the field of Information Technology, which involves tracing the root source of a problem before proceeding to try possible solutions and documenting the results. The nature of problems faced in this field, necessitates professionals to develop this skill from the onset. Therefore, it is essential for Information Technologist specialists to learn and perfect this skill in order to achieve any form of success in this field.
It is widely regarded that the main task of professionals in the information technology field is finding solutions to challenging problems relating to technology. It is also equally important to note that these solutions often go wrong or fail to work as expected. This therefore brings up the importance of a well-defined problem solving approach. An effective troubleshooting procedure is systematic, meaning it is organized, thoughtful and methodological (Ranjbar, 2004). Therefore, this makes it very crucial since it ensures the solutions employed are functional and maintained. The importance of this skillset is further exemplified by today’s fast-paced world where even minimal downtime is equated with large losses in revenue and potential loss of customers. It has been estimated that the loss from an hour of downtime for a bank can reach amounts of up to 2.6 million dollars (Ganek, 2004).
A systematic troubleshooting method also includes extensive documentation. This involves recording the problems faced, the steps taken in seeking the solution, and eventually the solution itself. It may also include alternative courses of action in case the solution does not work for one reason or another. This therefore makes it a continuous process which keeps on adding to the body of knowledge on the subject.This is crucial not only to the current users of the particular technology but also to future users. The problems that may have been experienced in the past are quickly solved, saving valuable time and money. In addition, the problems that have not yet been solved are well documented and further efforts can be made by another person to solve the problem. This creates value and progress regardless of whether or not the problem has been solved (Ranjbar, 2004). Being able to accurately diagnose a problem and document results and findings is a common task faced by information technology professionals on a daily basis. Mastering systematic troubleshooting is therefore not only highly valuable to any information technology professional, but also to organizations employing such professionals because of the value it adds in terms of man-hours and revenue saved.
An important component of an effective troubleshooting process is excellent communication skills. This includes both written and spoken communication. It should also be considered that the stickiness of information should be kept at a minimum. Stickiness refers to the incremental cost of transferring a unit of information to an information seeker in a form usable by the seeker (Von Hippel 1994). In both written and spoken communication, this is a beneficial skill and the stickiness of this information should be maintained at a minimum. This stickiness depends on the nature, amount and the providers of information. This is even more relevant today because technology and the internet are a large part of majority of the people’s lives. This means that the cost should be negligible since there are more users of the information and good communication skills contribute greatly to reducing the information stickiness.
One of the components of effective troubleshooting skills is high attention to detail. This is especially important in the stage of gathering problem symptoms or indicators before proceeding to seek possible solutions. It is very important to pay attention to detail and to consider all factors that may be pertinent to the problem at hand, no matter how minute they may be. This is especially relevant in technology because most of the times what is often ignored ends up being the root of the problem (Pinnock, 2004). This is an essential part of the troubleshooting process and is crucial to information technology specialists.
The concept of having an open mind and impartiality also play a big role in a successful troubleshooting process. This involves being prepared to discard any previous bias and being ready to discard possible causes that are not backed by tests (Pinnock, 2004). Developing this specific skill is crucial because it reduces the time that may be spent seeking problems in areas where they may not be found. It promotes an objectivity-based process where anything that is not pertinent is put aside and the points backed by facts are focused on. As an information technology specialist, it is important not to waste valuable time and resources on misguided reasoning since the timely working of systems is of utmost importance. It is therefore a necessary skill to develop, to enhance maximum productivity and preventing potential wastage of time and resources.
Systematic troubleshooting is indeed a crucial skill for today’s information technology specialists. The various factors making up a good systematic troubleshooting process have been discussed. Other relevant skills related to this such as the ability to divide a workload into multiple smaller and manageable tasks is also very relevant in today’s information technology sector. Every information technology specialist should seek these skills to remain relevant in today’s environment.
Ganek, A. (2004). Troubleshooting Computing Problems.Scientific Computing & Instrumentation, 21(2), 29–29.
Pinnock, S. (2004).The Art of Systematic Troubleshooting.Lulu.com.
Ranjbar, A. S. (2004). CCNP CIT Exam Certification Guide: CCNP Self-study. Cisco Press.
Von Hippel, E. (1994). “Sticky information” and the locus of problem solving: implications for innovation. Management science, 40(4), 429-439.
IPhone 5, Galaxy S3and BlackBerry 10 technology management examples
Table of content:
iPhone 5’s Disruptive Innovation …………………………………………………………….3
Samsung Galaxy S3’s successful innovation …………………………………………………4
Blackberry 10: Surviving Innovation …………………………………………………………6
IPhone 5, Galaxy S3and BlackBerry 10 technology management examples
Technological innovation control requires the application of control techniques to the development, operation, and proper utilization of technology. Technological innovation supervisors help create value for their organization by using technology as well as other resources to fix problems and improve effectiveness and efficiency. In short, 21st century technology supervisors help ensure that technology makes a better future for all. The most vital effect of technology on control planning is the accessibility to bulk of information on revenue, stock, and manufacturing. Technology can be used to collect external information from revenue groups, division offices, retail stores, providers and strategies partners (Mohr, Sanjit & Stanley 13).
The system to an effective digital item is the recognition of the marketplaces needs combined with a part of creativeness and advancement. Successful digital items do not need a guide to be able to show customers how it is used, but rather, comes out simple to be able for convenience of use. When it is garnished with the quality and satisfies to the client’s desire for immediate satisfaction, then that item will absolutely stand apart. In purchase for items to sustain a highly effective lifecycle and highly effective competitors in a market, it has to go through four essential stages namely the creation of new concepts, research, and growth and lastly affiliate marketing. These actions are a procession since the main component of an effective item is advancement. In this review, I will discus three current technological innovation control illustrations namely iPhone 5, Blackberry mobile phones 10 and Galaxy S3. The three illustrations were launched in the last 12 months. I desired my illustrations to be in the mobile phones classification. Therefore, I grabbed the most highly effective items in the market (Michell 12).
iPhone 5’s Disruptive Innovation
Disruptive innovation explains a process by which services or goods takes root initially in simple applications at the end of an industry and then constantly goes up industry, gradually displacing established opponents. As companies tend to innovate faster than their clients’ needs develop, most companies gradually end up producing services or goods that are actually too innovative, too expensive, and too complicated for many clients in their industry. Companies engage in these “sustaining innovations” at the higher levels of their marketplaces because this is what has traditionally helped them succeed: by asking for the highest prices to their most challenging and innovative clients at the top of the industry, companies will achieve the greatest productivity.
However, by doing so, companies unknowingly open the door to “disruptive innovations” at the end of the industry. A disruptive advancement allows a completely new population of clients at the end of a industry access to items or solutions that was traditionally only accessible to clients with a lot of money or a lot of skill. Features of disruptive businesses, at least in their early stages, can include reduced total edges, smaller target marketplaces, and simpler items and solutions that may not appear as attractive as current solutions when compared against traditional performance analytics. Because these reduced levels of the industry offer reduced total edges, they are unpleasant to other firms moving way up in the marketplace, creating space at the end of the industry for new disruptive opponents to appear (Mohr, Sanjit & Stanley 19).
Apple’s initial iPhone did not work well with the conventional Smartphone launched in the marketplace. Traditional Smartphone had excellent efficiency while the iPhone was revealed to have inadequate indication and regular decreased phone calls. The rate of conventional Smartphone’s was operated by 3G market requirements as opposed to 2G offered by the apple company. The functions of the Digicam were not that excellent as well as the iPhone offered only 2MP with no video clips as opposed to available Smartphone’s with a 3-5MP potential and able of video clips. Traditional Smartphone’s were also able of running local programs in which the iPhone was missing (Kodama 9).
Because of these drawbacks, Steve pressed on to enhance the product and did not only make sure that met the market’s objectives but it surpassed this as well. It included more to its functions and because of the ongoing enhancement, the iPhone was not only just a Smart phone but it became a convenient portable computer as well. Traditional Smart phone producers offered web internet explorer that were quite difficult to use but the new iPhone created web surfing around very simple. Its customer interface was simple and because of its contact delicate cup, one could easily access the texting, e-mail services, photography, charts, activities, guides and mobile with a contact of a hand. In my perspective, after the apple company launched the second years of iPhones, iPhones became Competence-Enhancing advancement (Michell 16).
Apple pressed on to structure a process that targeted on improving the functions of the iPhone and including to its efficiency that met client’s needs. In 2008, the iTunes was presented which created the iPhone even more multi-functional since it offered music, video clips, and activities on requirement. This year, the newest iPhone, iPhone 5, was published with a little of enhancement from the later iPhone 4S. Thus, it is believed that the iPhone 5 is a systematic advancement. The display of the new iPhone 5 was larger yet still simple to hold while it was 20% less heavy and quicker as it was able of linking to LTE systems. You enhanced as it could take images in low light and presented simple surroundings. However, experts have revealed that the iPhone 5 was not really advancement since it just included functions that were already available in other major Smartphone (Kodama 22). Despite that, the iPhone 5 marketed more than 2 thousand people in the first 24 hours when it was published, the iPhone 5 was said to be a failing for the apple company. The apple company had to present IPhone 5 way previously than predicted. That occurred because new Samsung had launched their new Universe S3, and the apple company did not want to loss some of her business to new Samsung.
Samsung Galaxy S3’s successful innovation
Successful innovation can be described as something that pushes professional value. To evaluate and research successful advancement, CIMS particularly looks at the following kinds of innovation: products, procedures, services, and business structure. Regardless of how “successful advancement,” is figured out, part of the unavoidable procedure is to figure out whether preliminary thoughts/hypotheses have practical possibilities to carry top range development to a company. The main point here is that successful advancement is indeed possible to accomplish and compared with the lotto, should you ‘hit it once,’ you actually have good possibilities at reaching it again. In order to do so, you must identify that advancement can be calculated and therefore handled, and that it must consist of the whole company’s attempt and power, not just a single personal or department. There are primary renters of advancement that combination primary capabilities, ecological aspects, and control professions. Your results will most certainly differ but real advancement achievements comes from adopting your own natural strong points and originality, and then comprising business limitations to find alternatives to provide the market alerts being obtained (Mohr, Sanjit & Stanley 24).
The New Samsung Galaxy S3 shows a wide range of exciting impressive functions. It follows the Universe S2, which had succeeded in the mobile market and which is why it has gone through a big advancement to live up to its compliment. The build of the S3 has a 4.8-inch Extremely AMOLED HD show. It is thin from back to front side, which creates it controllable to use. Its body has a shiny cover that creates the overall look better. The show is an enhancement as opposed to S2 with a high definition AMOLED show that gives successful shiny shades. The GS3 uses the newest edition of the Android operating system, which is the 4.0.4 Ice Lotion, which is said to be the best editions of Goggles’ operate system. The whole user interface of the OS has been remodeled and included awesome new functions such as face open up. The ICS also delivers new programs to the GS3 and contributes a few developments such as taking a show taken by cleaning the hands across the show. Operating features of the GS3 has gone via many developments and enhancements as well (McClure, Wallace& Scott 27).
The new GS3 S-voice has a wide range of projects, which range from acknowledging speech instructions and executing the projects needed with the use of a suitable local program. The s-voice works with the Touch Wiz, which is used to create a new concept, switch, call or even show a climate prediction. It also helps in writing e-mails by forcing if the text/mail designed is precise and verifies if the customer wants it sent. The main operate of the s-voice is to help people who are active bring out projects without the need to surf through the cell phone himself. Another exciting impressive operate of the GS3 is the Intelligent Stay operate, which uses the top side camera to monitor the motions of the person’s sight. Whenever the customer is looking at the cell phone, Intelligent Say is able to recognize the customer and stops the show from being closed regardless if the secure is set at a specific time.
Blackberry 10: Surviving Innovation
Blackberry cell cellular phone 10 provides clients with Wi-Fi additions of both individual and executes messaging accounts. The Wi-Fi devices are regarded the main income stream of the RIM. Its attractive feature provides clients with the ease of receiving and sending Wi-Fi information and messages. It also allows clients to incorporate in the cell phone private information manager that synchronizes information from contacts, projects, schedules memorandums and such with the desktop program and web capability.
In 1992, the first range of Blackberry cell cellular phones was introduced as a Wi-Fi handheld computer. Its cellular phones were equipped with voice and information signals, which lead to its achievements and demand. One of the strong points of the Blackberry cell cellular phones products is that its high customer commitment creates a lasting company, which enables RIM and Blackberry cell cellular phones to be an established brand. However,, the organization understands that one of its weak point is its creation of a narrow production. RIM is mostly dependent on the achievements of Blackberry cell cellular phones as their major item and they lack other products that could add to their consistent revenue (Michell 21).
In range with this weak point, Blackberry cell cellular phones have designed a strong platform for item advancement. The first range of Blackberry’s came with a full QWERTY keyboard plus a black and while LCD display. It was a push technology that was regarded as an e-mail only item, which consistently and instantly tracks e-mails. Now, Blackberry’s are not just Smartphone’s, but they became colored screens as well. Unlike most Smartphone’s such as the iPhone or Samsung universe, the Blackberry cell cellular phones serves professionals and company managers more because it allows them to leave their notebooks because they is capable of doing the important projects they need with the cell phone.
The Blackberry cell cellular phones have gone through several enhancements from style, look, and functions up to its Os. The new Blackberry cell cellular phones 10 that is launched this 2013 is not a restore or reprise, but it is initially designed from scratch. The item of a new production of Blackberry cell cellular phones and its OS 10 is designed on a QNX primary program, which gives clients with a completely new experience. The new version of the Blackberry cell cellular phones Messenger allows clients to movie call, movie chat and do display discussing. The new OS interface allows faster web browsing and improved social networking incorporation (McClure, Wallace& Scott 34).
The new Blackberry cell phones Hub offers clients with the capability to execute multi-tasking, which has the capability of running eight programs at the same time. The Blackberry cell cellular phones Balance allows clients to separate the functions of the cell phone for individual use and execute. This allows clients with the capability to differentiate programs suited for execute entertainment and individual use. The new OS 10 also supports 70 thousand programs, as compared to the old ones, which now provides clients with the chance to download programs without reducing down the device (Mohr, Sanjit & Stanley 33).
Many experts state that Blackberry phones are falling down the industry because of its failure to differentiate its clients and it failure to innovate. RIM has lost sight of its clients because of its failure to contest with its primary clients. The value and company strong points of RIM failed to convert to client’s value because as its functions focused to the company clients it began pursuing popular clients as well. In addition, over the last five years, the Blackberry cell cellular phones became flat in their efforts to innovate. This was perhaps because of RIM’s confidence that they were unbeatable because of good products that they first launched (Michell 32).
The failure of an organization to innovate comes from an internal harvested culture. The rapid pace of technological improvements and a free industry society forces companies to innovate because if not, they would not be able to catch up with the changing demands of the industry. Despite that, many experts say that RIM is losing its game in the cellular industry; the releasing of the new Blackberry cell cellular phones 10 might prove its ongoing willingness to fight in the mobile market (Kodama 62).
Product advancement is essential for not just technical organizations, but all organizations as well because the modification in the styles of the industry will influence the client’s choices and requirements. Clients who do not succeed to innovate will not endure the modifying periods. Apple’s iPhone over the decades has gone via a sequence of developments, as it was able to capture up and control the cell phone industry. However, its newest advancement was more of a “remake” since there were no any significant developments seen. It stays to its patter of disruptive advancement as some of its new functions control the industry. However, the New Samsung Galaxy S3 shown its place in the marketplace, as there were many recognizable changes from its products. New Samsung has done a spectacular job in enhancing its product and guaranteeing that it does not dissatisfy the requirements of its clients (McClure, Wallace& Scott 57).
Kodama, Mitsuru. Competing Through Ict Capability: Innovation in Image Communication. , 2013. Print.
McClure, Wallace B, and Scott Olson. Wrox Cross Platform Android and Ios Mobile Development. Indianapolis, IN: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2012. Internet resource.
Michell, Tony. Samsung Electronics and the Struggle for Leadership of the Electronics Industry. Singapore: Wiley, 2010. Internet resource.
Mohr, Jakki J, Sanjit Sengupta, and Stanley F. Slater. Marketing of High-Technology Products and Innovations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2010. Print.
|Galaxy S3||IPhone 5||BlackBerry 10|
|Type of Innovation||Incremental advancement||✔||✔||✔|
Technological joblessness denotes the job loss largely because of advancements in expertise. Present-day supporters of the effects of expertise on unemployment affirm that effectiveness has been dissociating from employment all through the 21st century, as rising numbers of segments are gradually implementing technology. The quarters that are generating job loss are greater than the ones generating employment opportunities. Robots in addition to mechanized structures will improve efficiency comparable to the manner it happened in past industrial advancements. Though expertise has had its gains, it has significantly affected human job loss. With progressions in expertise, transformation will come more rapidly and control a much bigger fragment of the financial system. The quantity of technological improvements has become tremendously swift in the zone of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the adverse essential impacts of production on employment could surpass job improvement in economies greatly reliant on the advancement of the economic grounds. Job loss, regardless of whether it is redressed is disquieting, dehumanizing and improper. Since technical progression is the difficulty that is impacting human employment, the declaration could be to try to control or hinder new technological developments. Successful policy interventions should address both short-term and long-term intentions and ensure that short-range actions are coordinated with long-standing intentions.
Technology and Its Effects on Human Unemployment
Technological unemployment denotes the joblessness mainly because of advancements in technology. Early interest concerning technology and its impacts on human unemployment was typified by the Luddites, textile employees that dreaded that automated looms could create greater productivity but decrease the number of employees thus resulting in mass joblessness. Nevertheless, whereas advancements in technology resulted in textile employees being on unemployment, fresh jobs in other sectors arose. Attributable to the change of work from mechanized sectors to non-computerized sectors, the effects of technology on human joblessness has been referred to as the Luddite fallacy (Marchant, Stevens, & Hennessy, 2014, pp. 26-30). Contemporary supporters of the effects of technology on unemployment affirm that efficiency has been uncoupling from employment all through the 21st century, as rising numbers of sectors are progressively adopting technology. They demonstrate that researches illustrating that human unemployment are greatly intense in professions entailing regular physical and psychological labor, the occupations that are the cheapest to automate. Though technology has had its benefits, it has greatly affected human unemployment.
- What are the effects of technology on employment and what could be done to ensure that the negative effects are eliminated and the positive effects enhanced?
There are numerous rationales behind the thinking that technological advancement will be more intense than agricultural revolution. With advancements in technology, transformation will come quicker and influence a much bigger section of the financial system. The sectors that are creating unemployment are more than the ones generating jobs. The general-rationale factor of technological advancements signifies that even the sectors and the jobs that are generated are not without end. With the continuation of the present tendency, it might turn out that a decade from now, 25% of middle-aged men will be unemployed at any particular time. Unemployment-causing technological advancements could be categorized under the topics of automation, computerization, and process advancement (Marchant et al., 2014, pp. 30-38). Automation and computerization fundamentally entail shifting roles from employees to machines while process advancement entails the eradication of tasks altogether. The common theme of the three topics is that roles are shifted from employees thus reducing employment. Actually, the classifications normally overlap: process advancement could encompass a mechanizing or automating aspect. The distinction between automation and computerization is as well skewed since at times computerization could entail adequate management to be taken as a section of automation (Bajcsy, 2014, pp. 42-43).
Increased unemployment because of enhancement in productivity creates an expectation that no fresh jobs, or not a lot of jobs, will occur to fill the emptiness or cause negative effects of unemployment. Robots as well as mechanized systems will boost productivity similar to the way it happened in past technological advancements, with the substitution of steam engines by electric power (Bajcsy, 2014, p. 42). The opponents of this perspective are as many as the proponents (Lyons, 2011). The standard-working hours have reduced considerably since the introduction of contemporary effectiveness yielding expertise and keep on falling with a reduction of labor required to satisfy the demand. If the technological advancements of a company lead to decrease of labor inputs, the company’s cost of production decreases thus shifting the company’s supply curve outward and decreasing the cost of the products and services. The extensive implementation of technological advancements could result in market entry by different companies, partly making up for the dislocated labor, though the major advantage of the technological advancement is the augment in collective demand that emanates from price reduction. Provided that actual prices reduce (thus boosting actual incomes), the extra buying power offers customers the capability to buy more goods and services. Attributable to technological developments, there are normally goods and services novel to the customer, for instance, wireless communications gadgets and advanced health care.
The augment in collective demand makes most economists have conviction that advancements in technology, though disruptive of individual professions and some companies, cannot result in complete joblessness, but raises joblessness because of its expansionary impact on the financial system. The machines are employed as a tool to boost the productivity of employees and some employees will have a chance and ability to control the machines (Drum, 2013). Such augment in technological developments could affect employment in a troublesome way, with the new opportunities being out of reach of the abilities and chances of the majority of employees. Dissimilar opinions have been articulated on the degree of technological advancement with most people affirming that it greatly affects employment while others highlighting its benefits. Studies reveal that the degree of technological developments has become extremely fast in the sector of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the unfavorable underlying impacts of output on employment could exceed job development in economies highly dependent on the advancement of the economic fields.
Some people believe that someday the economy will thrust into gear. They also believe that joblessness will finally decrease to less than 6% and that generation of chances of employment will go back to its pace and even be more. Nevertheless, it seems the world is gradually getting trapped in a new norm of high joblessness and reduced job creation with the continued technological advancement. The initial position was that technological advancement created many new jobs for the people that were displaced from their old jobs.
Mlot (2014) presents the advantages and disadvantages of having robots rule the high ranked jobs and leaving humans for the low paid ones. It is robot revolution because it could literally change the world. But the question is: will people agree to the idea or no? If well handled the world could reap the benefits of technology and prevent the disadvantages.
After the computerization of the farms, the US shifted to computerization of industries (Rotman, 2013, pp. 27-35). When the cost of manufacturing reduced, partially because of technological advancement that dramatically decreased the cost of production and transportation of raw material, technological advancement was directed to service sectors. Lyons (2011) talks about how above all the unemployment that is already happening in the United States; a new threat is seen to come very soon which is the invasion of the robots to all working factories and business offices. Like in the other sectors, technological advancement has been causing increased unemployment in service sectors too. The employees at gas station points have greatly reduced, and employees in banks (tellers) and telecommunication companies have followed suit. Other employees facing the threat of unemployment are secretaries, publishers, office clerks and any other employee in positions that can be easily automated.
Despite the technological advancement, there are still many employees in retail sales, learning institutions, and health facilities, though these represents the least proficient sections of the economy and demands are mounting on the reduction of costs. In these sectors too, technological advancements are fast approaching. It appears possible that in the next decade, online sales employees will overpower the majority of retail sales employees (Rotman, 2013). The next decade could as well witness a wave of online courses as well as classrooms thus displacing a good number of educators. Moreover, the health care sector might as well become more technological where patients will be carrying their medical documents on smartphones and laptops. Personal health application programs could as well arise and allow self-diagnosis.
Even though technological advancement is beneficial in some way, the employees are putting themselves out of place. With the current pace of technological advancement, half a century from now, a small machine might meet all the requirements, which might be referred to as iEverything. Ichbiah (2005) talks about how virtual ideas of having robots do practically everything in our lives to it becoming something that can actually happen in the near future. However, the greatest challenge that the world will be facing is that very few people will afford it since just a few people will be employed.
Extent of the Problem
With respect to technology and its effects on unemployment, a couple of factors of the resulting difficulty encompass social and economic dimension (from both a personal and shared perception). To start with, from an economic viewpoint, rising prevalence and permanence of joblessness and underemployment offer the problem of the manner in which the affected people will sustain their existence and that of their dependents. Employment is a fundamental through which income, and thereby buying power, is distributed to the individuals that use all that the economy generates. If in the future machines permanently take up most of the work currently undertaken by people, then that will be a hazard to the very establishment of the economic structure. The economic challenges from joblessness do not just distress the people that are jobless, their families, and their dependants (Rotman, 2013). If a considerable (and increasing) level of the working-age people is not able to get sufficient work to maintain them with a sensible standard of living, the challenge would not just signify a personal disaster for the individuals. It would as well signify a great burden on the entire economy if the jobless cannot actively take part as customers of available goods and services.
In addition to what machines are presently and ultimately capable of providing, there is more fruitful and valuable work that could be carried out by human employees, for instance, restoration of infrastructure, tidying up the environment, taking superior care of the ill and aged, or assisting individuals in developing nations amid other activities. The challenge is getting an economic formation to offset, or recognize, such efforts. The present political and economic systems appear unable to reward or recompense individuals to carry out these commendable tasks (Drum, 2013). For the majority of individuals, an employment caters for not just sustenance, but is as well associated with individuality, sense of worth and focus. Though it would be possible to get ways for individuals to finance the basic requirements of existence, if occupations and professions vanish, it might create or lead to great emotional and social stresses. This would be because of stigmatization or an incapacity to deal with the realism of long-term joblessness, encompassing anxiety, despair, mortality, poor self-worth, suicide, chronic diseases, divorce, and drug abuse to mention a few. Human beings must take part in some income generating tasks since being fruitful is fundamental to their welfare.
Unemployment, irrespective of whether it is redressed is unsettling, dehumanizing and unbecoming. In this regard, employment and work ought to be deemed not things people do to live, but the things that people live to do. Extensive joblessness could also lead to shared distractions. There are problems created by the social interruptions that are probable of arising if the wealthy individuals keep on thriving and prospering while an increasing proportion of the residents are left behind in lasting poverty and desperation. A significant factor of the unemployment challenge is establishing whose employment will be terminated by technological advancement (Drum, 2013). A persistent theme amid researchers, scholars, and economists is that the middle-skilled category, rooted in the contemporary demands, has vanished and what has remained is a divergence between the highly-skilled (the rich) and the low-skilled (the underprivileged). The coring out of the economy through elimination of middle-class employments, and compelling employees into either poorly-paying manual work that cannot be totally carried out by machines (for instance construction and restaurant work) or higher-ranking employments entailing higher proficiencies and remuneration would have a tendency of dividing the populace into two contrasting categories.
Nevertheless, more current studies imply that the influence of technological joblessness may focus mainly on low-class employees. Through the economic problems, the world will witness a new pressure to develop the learning and training of employees to have the ability to carry out skilled, well-paying jobs that at least are currently at times going unoccupied. When mulling over the near future and its financial and social consequences, it would be wise to think about the cohorts affected by the expected dislocation. When mainly the aged employees are affected, the economic element could be the most significant (Drum, 2013). People that have been employed for many years have already established their social rank and have mostly carried out their role to make the community fruitful.
For the people that desire continuing with employment, re-learning and re-training would be vital. For the people that could be incapable or unconcerned with carrying on with employment, the concentration would be on the way they could retire with decorum and an excellent quality of life. This mainly relies on the formation of economic precautions, founded on the person’s savings or from other supplies of external backing. In contrast, if technological advancement affects mostly the employment of the youthful individuals, the challenge might be highly social and economic. The shortage of chances of employment for youthful individuals, who are probable of having freshly attained the most efficient edifying training, is on the verge of causing incredible disenchantment and aggravation, which could result in social trouble.
Gender might as well have an essential function with respect to expectations associated with unemployment and dislocation (Harris, 2014, pp. 48-50). Technological unemployment creates both victors and losers since it affects the nature and opportunities for employment. Females in most industrialized nations have significantly surpassed males in the achievement of higher learning and are hence better placed to getting high-ranking jobs. Sure enough, the persistent subject anchored in different studies is that the effects of technological unemployment cannot be distributed uniformly (Weissman, 2014). Though technological advancement will eradicate many chances of employment leading to joblessness or dislocation the majority of individuals that will be victim to this occurrence will be the less learned, whose present employment roles are more vulnerable t substitution by machines. Possibly, the concern primarily is the way to unevenly but not unjustly maintain the low and middle-skilled category while inducing them to willingly turn out to be more learned and participate in the community in payable and purposeful approaches.
With the constant development of capacities of non-natural aptitude, robotics, in addition to other technologies, more areas of employment will embrace automation and leave just a few chances of employment where human beings are required. Such effects of technology on human employment generate extensive, long-term inquiries concerning the kind of future community and lives people desire (Harris, 2014, 48-50). The effectiveness and affluence generated by technologies, though they affect human employment, form a window of opportunities to enforce strategies that could employ that affluence to assist every citizen acquire sufficient material support to take pleasure in a good life with better leisure and fulfillment. Policy interventions should handle both short-term and long-term objectives and make sure that short-range activities are aligned with long-standing objectives.
It is vital to seek the application of legal interventions to safeguard employment opportunities that could otherwise be eliminated by technological advancement. Since technological advancement is the challenge that is affecting human employment, the resolution could be to attempt to regulate or obstruct new technological advancements. Nevertheless, such strategies often capsulated by powerful editions of the precautionary principle are bound to fail for a number of explanations. For instance, limitations on technological advancement would make a country anticompetitive in the rising international markets as other nations would intervene to dislocate slackers and attain technological development. Moreover, technological innovations are being generated and commercialized very fast due to the requirement for and advantages of the technologies (Harris, 2014). Thus, forfeiting such technological advancements would possibly be harmful to entire social well-being. The hindrance of progress is not a triumphant or politically practicable policy and goes contrary to human nature and ambitions.
Distribution of Work
Sharing of payable tasks amid many employees is believed to be beneficial. Though such strategies are mainly short-range, they could assist in delaying or lessening the negative effects of technology on employment. Setting a compulsory retirement age is a proposed manner of distributing employment opportunities amid many individuals. Some bosses (for instance, in airlines) have already enforced such a policy, and it could be employed more extensively across the financial system. The major benefit of such a strategy is that it could free up more employment opportunities to the gain of youthful individuals that are progressively being obstructed from the labor force due to unavailability of jobs (Ichbiah, 2005). Nevertheless, such a strategy would have considerable unfavorable effect on people and the community. With many individuals living longer, most individuals desire to keep on operating past the characteristic retirement age for emotional and economic explanations. Furthermore, it does not seem to be in the community’s approval to force the retirement of skilled and industrious employees on the basis of age. This is backed by Brynjolfsson and McAfee (2012) in their affirmation that “no country, however rich, can afford the waste of its human resources” (p. 28).
Research Design and Variables
This study will use the secondary method of data collection where data will be obtained from Google, Google scholar, and online libraries like EBSCOhost and ProQuest and the research design will be qualitative. The dependent variable will be human unemployment while the independent variable will be technology, and the demographic variables will berace, level of education, income level, and gender.
Relevant material, such as books and peer reviewed journal articles, from the sources will be carefully selected and used for this study. The chosen materials will be recent and reliable.
Results, Findings, and Data Analysis
Since the data analysis plan depends on the research method and type of data used, a qualitative method of data analysis will be utilized for this study. The analysis of the nominal data for the research will be descriptive and will help in probing technological advancement and its impact on human employment with the intention of assisting in the elimination of negative effects and enhancement of positive impacts.
Attributable to developments in technology, change will come quicker and influence a much bigger segment of the financial system. Irrespective of its disadvantages, technological advancement has advantages too. For instance, the usual-working hours have lessened noticeably since the introduction of technological expertise and keep on falling with a cutback of labor necessary to satisfy the demand. Nonetheless, advancements in technology have also resulted in loss of employment. For the majority of persons, employment caters for not just nourishment, but is as well associated with distinctiveness, self-respect, and focus. Though it would be achievable to obtain ways for individuals to fund the basic requirements of survival, if occupations and professions fade away, it might lead to unspeakable emotional, monetary, and social stresses. Loss of employment, no matter whether it is redressed, is disconcerting, dehumanizing and unbecoming. If not checked, technological unemployment will generate negative economic and social consequences. Thus, it is vital to establish effective policy interventions to handle this challenge.
Bajcsy, R. (2014). Robots Are Coming. Communications of the ACM, 57(5), 42-43.
Brynjolfsson, E., & McAfee, A. (2012). Thriving in the automated economy. Futurist, 46(2), 27-31.
Drum, K. (2013). Terminated. Mother Jones, 38(3), 36-64.
Harris, S. (2014). Robots are coming. Engineering & Technology, 9(1), 48-50.
Ichbiah, D. (2005). Robots: From science fiction to technological revolution. New York: Harry N. Abrams.
Lyons, D. (2011). Who needs humans? As if American workers don’t have it rough enough, with unemployment skyrocketing and jobs moving overseas, now there’s another threat: Robots. New York: The Newsweek/Daily Beast Company LLC.
Marchant, G. E., Stevens, Y. A., & Hennessy, J. M. (2014). Technology, Unemployment & Policy Options: Navigating the Transition to a Better World. Journal of Evolution and Technology, 24(1), 26-44.
Mlot, S. (2014). Will a robot revolution lead to mass unemployment? Retrieved from http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2462210,00.asp
Rotman, D. (2013). How technology is destroying jobs. MIT Technology Review, 116(4), 27-35.
Weissman, W. (2014). How robots will kill tax administration and the funding of Social Insurance–Part II. Employee Benefit Plan Review, 69(1), 23.
Enterprise systems refer to those computer applications that are designed to integrate the business processes and information flows across all units or departments of an organization (Dessler & Phillips, 2008, p. 127). Organizations often implement enterprise systems in order to benefit from company-wide access to business information and knowledge, enhance employee productivity, and further minimize the duplication of the firm’s data. Enterprise systems are also helping businesses reduce their costs of information technology, and further minimize the manual input of data that is quite tedious.
Enterprise systems have proven useful in improving supply chain management. A supply chain is comprised of a collection of people, tasks, equipment, data, and other resources that are essential in producing and moving products from a vendor to a consumer. The efficiency of a supply chain largely relies on the efficiency of information from the vendor to the consumer. Enterprise systems improve the supply chain through extending the supply chain in real-time by connecting suppliers and customers with the firm’s business processes (Sehgal, 2009, p. 181). These systems also deliver embedded analytics that monitor or track supply chain performance, thereby facilitating adjustments as conditions and business goals change. Enterprise systems also have some integrated spend management tools that helps a business make informed decisions that result in cost reduction across the entire supply chain.
Enterprise systems have also proven useful in human capital management. The systems’ functionalities can help a business improve its human resources productivity and accelerate the business performance (O’Brien & Marakas, 2006, p. 270). It can help a business proactively manage its human resource operations while simultaneously allowing it to focus on its strategic business goals. A business that has implemented an enterprise system can effectively forecast, deploy, track, and manage its labor (O’Brien & Marakas, 2006, p. 270). It appears that enterprise systems make such improvements through making business information a critical source of competitive advantage. These systems can generate useful information that businesses can utilize in making informed decisions that that streamline business process to help it achieve strategic initiatives.
Dessler, G, & Phillips, J. (2008). Managing now. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
O’Brien, J. A., & Marakas, G. M. (2006). Management Information Systems. Irwin Professional Pub.
Sehgal, V. (2009). Enterprise supply chain management: Integrating best-in-class processes. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
Analyzing the Impact of Cultural Values on
Cybercrime in Mexico
Despite the beneficial effects associated with technological growth, numerous countries have suffered from a plethora adverse effects including cyber crimes (Nelson, Philips, & Steuart, 2010). Mexico is one of the countries that have recorded far reaching effects as a result of increased cyber crime related cases. The causes and the scope of cyber crimes in Mexico are directly linked to its cultural values (Bonnie & Brenner, 2012). This paper discusses different cultural values and beliefs that are promoted in Mexico and account for the tremendous increase of cyber crime issues in the country and compares them with America.
Cultural Beliefs and Values Promoted in Mexico versus the United States
Research indicates that the proliferation of cyber crime cases in Mexico is a result of the national cultural beliefs and values(Nelson, Philips, &Steuart, 2010). First, Mexico suffers from high unemployment rates which force a plethora of its citizens to engage in illegal activities such as cyber crimes for economic purpose. Besides Mexico seems to be lacking practical policies that can be implemented to address the issue of cyber crime (Brenner, 2012). Secondly, cyber crime in Mexico is directly linked to personal reasons since country’s cultural values acknowledge revenge as one major way of venting its anger as well settling disputes. Lastly, cyber crimes in Mexico are usually politically-ideologically motivated and are executed as a way of protesting against people, communities, corporations as well as the ruling governments (Bonnie & Brenner, 2012).
On the other hand, the cultural values present in the US are critical to the abolishment and control of cyber crimes. First, the US Constitution acknowledges all form of diversity including ideological, political and racial differences and encourages its people to condemn cyber crime and related vices in the strongest terms possible (Bonnie & Brenner, 2012). Additionally, United States has set favorable policies that seek to protect the entire country and its citizens against all risks associated with cyber crimes. Lastly, most of the business organizations operating in the US have developed their cultural and cyber crime related policies to help in the efficient control of the vice (Nelson, Philips, &Steuart, 2010).
Cultural values and beliefs of a particular
country can play a critical role in controlling or increasing cyber crimes.
Cybercrime is globally rated among the top five threats to the successful
operation of a given country regardless of its geographical location. Mexico’s
cultural beliefs and values need to be revised and copy from the United States
experience in ensuring that crimes are exclusively controlled
Bonnie & Brenner, S. (2012). Cybercrime and the Law: Challenges, Issues, and Outcomes.
Brenner, S. (2012).Cybercrime and the Law: Challenges, Issues, and Outcomes. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
Nelson, B., Philips, A., &Steuart, C. (2010). Guide to computer forensics and investigations. (4th Ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/.
MANAGEMENT OF INFORMATION SECURITY
Management of Information Security
According to Holt and Malcic (2015), the use of remote data storage has increased exponentially resulting in citizen and consumer awareness. Industry, education, cultural and governments sectors are continuously storing remote data from citizens and consumers through the use of the internet. Digital content distribution relies on cloud storage infrastructure, access to big data and streaming platforms. Many of these sites store personal information making citizens and customers wary of their privacy concerns. Furthermore, the access of digital data by governmental and private companies has increased raising concerns and anxiety among unsuspecting people (Cranor 2003). Therefore, protectionist movements have increased to protect citizens and consumers from unwanted privacy intrusions by big companies and governmental organizations through their websites. Furthermore, many citizens are raising concerns about government intrusion and monitoring of internet communications and phone calls. Holt and Malcic (2015) argue that managing and securing privacy protection rights is a complex process that is affected by clear laws in global trade, health care, and intellectual property. However, Holt and Malcic (2015) argue that it is the responsibility of government organizations and companies to develop privacy policies that allow users to know what type of information that the websites collect and also how they will use the information.
When people use the internet, they entrust a lot of sensitive information about the daily activities when using the internet to internet carriers (Clement and Obar 2017). Internet service providers transmit a lot of private information about people when they visit their popular sites over the internet. For example, people spend a lot of time on social media sites, websites and emails. The personal information that internet service providers carry are susceptible and can reveal a person’s nature and habits. Therefore, it is clear that a person’s privacy is affected because of personal information stored in websites. While the use of the internet to communicate and do business has increased in the last decade, privacy concerns have also increased. Major companies that run private websites, social media sites and government sites have developed privacy policies that stipulate how they collect, use and disseminate the information collected from users. According to Clement and Obar (2017), data privacy transparency is the act of being open about in regards to data privacy protection. Also, the privacy policies developed by companies and governments indicate how they manage, store, retain, disclose and distribute sensitive information about users. Clement and Obar (2017) argue that it is important for people to choose reliable internet service providers based on privacy concerns because they can hold them responsible when third parties access users’ private information. Transparency is important; companies, organizations and governments sites that do not safeguard transparency should re-evaluate their privacy policies to protect users’ right to privacy.
According to Han (2017), information technology has helped shaped means of communication around the world. However, information technology has developed a growing concern over privacy concerns because it threatens the social and political lives of individuals. Cranor (2003) argues that the growing concern of privacy is the ability of technology-based systems to track people and analyze their information. Furthermore, technology based systems can disseminate the information, therefore, inhibiting people’s right to privacy. People should have a right to privacy, which should not be equated to the right to secrecy or control, but a right to determine the flow of information about a person. Therefore, privacy policies are important because they protect an individual’s right to privacy (Cranor 2003). Through privacy policies, an individual is convinced that a particular website will not transmit sensitive information to third parties.
Users should know what information the website will collect and how it will be used. Also, different laws suggest how companies should collect data from users who are below 13 years of age. Therefore, when developing the policy, key stakeholders should take the legal implications of privacy breach into consideration. It is ethical for a company to ensure that it meets the stipulated legal requirements when developing privacy policies. Also, companies and organizations should refrain from using a lot of legal jargons when developing the policies because it reduces the interest of users to read the policy. Furthermore, it puts users at risk because they will not understand how the company/organization will use their data (Barth 2008).
Technological advancements have changed how people communicate and do business. The use of the internet has become widespread in both developed and developing countries. As a result, many companies and organizations that run public websites contain a lot of sensitive information about their users. Furthermore, many citizens have accused the government of monitoring their calls and internet activity. The Constitution protects the right to privacy; therefore, many companies have developed privacy policies that indicate the type of information collected and how the information will be used. Privacy policies are a necessity because they assure the public that third parties will not access the personally identifiable information.
Barth, A, 2008, Design and analysis of privacy policies. Stanford University.
Clement, A and Obar, J, 2016, Keeping Internet Users in the Know or in the Dark. Journal of Information Policy, 6, p.294.
Cranor, L, 2003, P3P: making privacy policies more useful. IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine, 1(6), pp.50-55.
Dhillon, G, 2002, Social responsibility in the information age: issues and controversies. Hershey, PA, IRM Press.
Dreyer, S and Ziebarth, L, 2014, Participatory Transparency in Social Media Governance: Combining Two Good Practices. Journal of Information Policy, 4, pp.529-546.
Goldberg, I and Atallah, MJ, 2009, Privacy enhancing technologies: 9th international symposium, PETS 2009, Seattle, WA, USA, August 5-7, 2009: proceedings. Berlin, Springer.
Holt, J and Malcic, S, 2015, The Privacy Ecosystem: Regulating Digital Identity in the United States and European Union. Journal of Information Policy, 5, p.155.
Paterson, N, 2014, End User Privacy and Policy-Based Networking. Journal of Information Policy, 4, pp.28-43.
Sumeeth, M, Singh, R, and Miller, J, 2010, Are Online Privacy Policies Readable?. International Journal of Information Security and Privacy, 4(1), pp.93-116.
Zhu, L, 2011, Privacy in Context: Technology, Policy, and the Integrity of Social Life. Journal of Information Privacy and Security, 7(3), pp.67-71.
TETRA PAK INFORMATION SECURITY STATUS
The success of Tetra Pak Company in its market can be attributed to its ability to develop highly innovative and competitive products and efficient information security programs in mitigating the risk of data loss. The management of Tetra Pak operates on the understanding that eliminating the challenge of data breaches is possible by developing a technique of grappling with balancing the risks of loss, interruption, and exploitation of profound data with the profits realized when the company is involved in storing, analyzing, and sharing information. This implies the need of adopting a comprehensive approach to securing data that in transit or at rest.
Key words: information security, Tetra Pak, data, breaches, customers, value,
Tetra Pak Information Security Status
Technological development in the contemporary society has made it necessary for companies to develop plans for enhancing the security of information assets. Through information security programs, enterprises have the opportunity of developing frameworks which will keep them at the desired security level. They do so through an assessment of the risks that they face, developing mitigation strategies on the safety practices, and updating programs. The success of Tetra Pak Company in its market can be attributed to its ability to develop effective information security programs in mitigating the risk of data loss. The company operates through a definite and efficient way of managing the safety of the information and technology within the company.
Tetra Pak company is the leading food processing and packaging solutions company. Since its establishment in 1959, the company has been successful through mutual relationships with its suppliers and customers. Tetra Pak is considered a highly competitive company because it provides safe, environmentally friendly, and innovative products that meet the needs of millions of people in more than 170 countries (Tetra Pak 2011). Moreover, it employs about 24,000 employees with outlets in about 80 countries. The organization operates on the motto Protects What Good which is a reflection of its vision and dedication to making safe food and making it available everywhere (Tetra Pak 2011). Additionally, it operates on the belief that competitive advantage and success in its business initiatives can be realized through responsible industry leadership and sustainable approach to the development of business objectives and policies.
In its activities, Tetra Pak offers an array of services with the aim of assisting food and beverage companies in realizing effective and quality operations. Tetra Pak provides products and services surpassing the provision of machine parts and maintenance. This is because the company also offers full plant service and training from its specialists. The company provides services a variety of products including consumable upgrades, customized training, consulting, personnel evaluation, and remote support (Tetra Pak 2011). Tetra Pak’s expanded services provides assistance to food and beverage plants which is critical in delivering safe and high quality products at affordable costs which is critical in the reduction of environmental effects (Tetra Pak 2011).
By the expanding of its service portfolio, the company has been able to leverage its decades of experience in packaging and processing hence offering innovative products and services whose design is to help the customers realize excellent manufacturing. These expansion initiatives ensure that the customers benefit from increased productivity and efficiency (Tetra Pak 2011).Consulting is a major service package offered by Tetra Pak. Through this service, the company integrates expert advice in the benchmarking and developing modified and uninterrupted development program. This program covers the areas of information management in production, effective performance, environmental conservation, quality supplies, and logistical management (Tetra Pak 2011). The effectiveness of Tetra Pak services is enabled by innovative digitalization and technologies, which facilitate customer remote support, training, access to information and data, and condition monitoring. The company uses its full systems in offering end-to-end solutions (Tetra Pak 2011). This explains the continuous commitment of the company in investing in new technology for innovative operation (Tetra Pak 2011). The company also incorporates technological tools in the creation of new elucidations and enhancing service provision.
Analysis of Risks
Innovation and the need to secure company and customer data are driving Tetra Pak into the identification and access to management solutions, which secure digital identities and information. Just like any other corporate entity securing data, Tetra Pak not only complies with legislations but also uses its information security program in enhancing its competitive advantage and enabling the realization of new business processes (Tetra Pak 2011). The existence of high-level openness and accessibility has become the main stimulant of the adoption and subsequent growth of the web, private networks, and the internet. These developments not only threaten the discretion of individuals but also the concealment of business information and the integrity of business transactions. For companies that thrive on innovation and monopoly in the realization of their competitive advantage, openness and accessibility of company data raise concerns. These concerns are inclusive of the risk of modification, larceny, distribution, and interruption of private data by undeserved individuals (Tetra Pak 2011). Additional apprehensions include the probability of monetary loss, impaired reputation, and deception-related cases. The source of danger to information security in an exceedingly competitive market emanates from exterior foundations such as computer hackers and opponents. Internally these coercions arise from discontented or inquisitive contractors and personnel (Tetra Pak 2011). An additional challenge for Tetra Pak is the ability to develop information security programs that can ensure sufficient protection of digital information to enhance regulatory compliance while at the same time preventing and countering possible threats from cyber-attacks.
The need for an effective information security programs in companies such as Tetra Pak is based on the realization that the quantity of risks associated with confidentiality breaches and data theft often cause disruptions in the operationalization of an organization over time (Tetra Pak 2011). Failure to incorporate an effective security program threatens the effectiveness and efficiency of a company because the process of remediating and investigating a data breach may result in loss of trust among customers and suppliers and this exposes the business to losses and direct cash expenditures in mitigating any security incident (ITS Identity & Information Security 2013). The success of Tetra Pak can be associated with the ability of the company to provide high class and customized services to their client such that their operations are not only exemplary but also unique in the food and beverage industry. These aspects make the customers highly competitive. However, any form of breach of such confidential information exposes the customers to their competitors, and this may not only lead to losses regarding market share and customer base, but it also affects the competitive advantage of such organizations (ITS Identity & Information Security 2013). This is an indication that the decision of investing in information security system is primary for the success of tetra Pak and its customers.
Despite the underlying need for secure systems, there are challenges associated with securing data. In a company, data can be stored in a plethora of locations such as company desktops, employee laptops, and company servers among other electronic devices. Furthermore, regular replication and movement of data from point to point within an organization, among customers, regulatory agencies and partners implies a complexity in initiating effective approaches to data security. An understanding of issues related to data vulnerabilities requires Tetra Pak to understand the overall life cycle of its important data assets. The understanding is considered possible when the company can track data from the time of its creation to its destruction, and this includes all the points of data transfer in between creation and destruction (ITS Identity & Information Security 2013). When data is stored for a longer period, Tetra Pak has the responsibility of figuring out the best storage technique that enhances data security.
The information system security adopted must ensure that data stored can be accessed even after a decade when there will be changes in the system, the evolution of applications, or when the current team of managers and employees will have left the company. This requires the information security system to be integrated with sound key management and recovery techniques. Tetra Pak is currently involved in the expansion of services such that it can offer cloud base condition monitoring integrated with predictive analytics and augmented realities, and this is an indication that the company is in the process of adopting modern information technology approaches in its operations. The enterprise considered this approach to technology adoption as an important strategic step in the improvement of the quality of its service operations. Within these technological platforms, it has been efficient in storing data that is vital for its success over time. Cloud computing exposes Tetra Pak to numerous security threats related to accessibility of data. These security threats explain why it is important to develop and adopt an information security program that not only guarantees the safety of company information but also improves on the strut of company customers and suppliers on its ability to ensure continuity and effectiveness of its innovative programs.
were taken by Tetra Pak
The reputation established and maintained by a company does not deter computer hackers and other malicious computer users from developing programs for unwarranted access of company information. Such unauthorized access may be damaging to the company’s reputation, affecting its ability to establish a competitive advantage and generate revenue. The management of Tetra Pak operates on the understanding that eliminating the challenge of data breaches is possible by developing a technique of grappling with balancing the risks of loss, interruption, and exploitation of profound data with the profits realized when the company is involved in storing, analyzing, and sharing information (ITS Identity & Information Security 2013). For the management, in circumstances whereby the threats overshadow the possible achievements for a given set of data, the Company should refrain from engaging (ITS Identity & Information Security 2013). The company also operates on the realization that striking this balance occurs over time because it requires the incorporation of many factors affecting the balance of risks and the openness of information. Authentication is one of Tetra Pak’s capabilities in addressing data vulnerabilities. For Tetra Pak, substantiation improves the integration of rules and guidelines governing the personnel capable of seeing, transforming, or otherwise accessing information. These rules are strongly related to the personality of the requestor (ITS Identity & Information Security 2013). This approach enables the company to verify the identity of users, application, and devices using a suitable verification procedure, making it dire in safeguarding data within the company.
Information on company clients and innovations are considered sensitive, and therefore, there is need to protect them to ensure that only authorized personnel can access them. The company uses policy based control measures in enriching the traditional identity and roles-based access control framework. Through this access control mechanism, Tetra Pak has been able to use complex rules-based criteria that incorporate time specific restrictions of the requestor. Encryption is an additional information security measure used by Tetra Pak in securing its data. Through this technique, the company transforms data into a format that can only be understood by the intended recipient (ITS Identity & Information Security 2013). The company uses encryption in situations which absolute access of data is unavoidable. The effectiveness of this technique lies in the ability of the company to incorporate Common Criteria that is a standard-based encryption product (ITS Identity & Information Security 2013). The government and specialists in the security industry because of its effectiveness in protecting sensitive material recognize this product.
Digital signatures and content analysis are also risk mitigation strategies that Tetra Pak continues to employ in the mitigation data breaches. Through verifiable digital signatures, Tetra Pak has been able to incorporate verification and accountability of participation attributes which play an important role in the provision of data audit and control. Moreover, digital signatures provide Tetra Pak with the ability to detect data tampering and this allows the company to maintain data integrity (ITS Identity & Information Security 2013). Content analysis is an effective tool that can help Tetra Pak in managing its data. This helps the company in developing answers to questions about the amount of sensitive data within its network. Through content analysis, it is also possible for the company to identify the location of such data before developing strategies and priorities on how such data should be protected. Content analysis, therefore, allows Tetra Pak to engage in the development sound information security programs that target relevant organizational needs (ITS Identity & Information Security 2013). Such programs enable the company to identify data content that requires protection from unauthorized users.
for Improving On Information Security
An effective information security program provides a wider and holistic approach on how a company envisions keeping its data secure. It also provides an overview of the role of every part of the company in the database. The technological evolution that is characterized by gradual development implies that an information security program cannot be perceived as an incident handling guide that provides instructions on how an organization is to manage a security breach or a periodic assessment tool despite its ability to dictate when to conduct a security assessment. Additionally, a secure information program provides a definition of the data that is covered by assessing the dangers that a company faces and the plans for mitigating the threats. It also provides details of the frequency of re-evaluating and updating the program (ITS Identity & Information Security 2013). The information security approach adopted by Tetra Pak can be considered effective in ensuring that sensitive data is protected from unauthorized access. However, the dynamic nature of technology and the constant desire by the company to embrace the latest technology in its operationalization implies the need of adopting a comprehensive approach to securing data that in transit or at rest (ITS Identity & Information Security 2013). Through a comprehensive data security approach, the company will be able to develop a program that can be deployed to secure data throughout its lifecycle in the company.
One of the greatest challenges facing Tetra Pak lies in its inability to ensure effective protection of data stored on employee laptops, computers, and removable media. Such data is considered vulnerable, and its protection can be enhanced through the introduction of an improved information security system that provides enhanced device data security capabilities. Such a program will be integrated with stronger user authorization, authentication, and data encryption (ITS Identity & Information Security 2013). Through such integration, it will be possible for the company to ensure adequate protection of confidential data and applications stored in these devices. For Tetra Pak, building security into merged applications and protecting data in the company’s records and sources can be facilitated by introducing a set of standard-based application programming. The interface that can be used by developers for prompt incorporation of data security services within the company’s devices (ITS Identity & Information Security 2013). The measure will ensure the storage of encrypted data in backend repositories.
Tetra Pak is a food processing and
packaging solutions company established in 1959. The success of the Company is
attributable to the creation of mutual relationships with its suppliers and
customers. Information security threats facing the company include unauthorized
access to company data which may be damaging to the company’s reputation and
affect its ability to establish a competitive advantage and generate revenue.
In essence, authentication, policy based control measures, access control
mechanism, encryption, digital signatures, and content analysis are risk
mitigation strategies that Tetra Pak continues to employ in the mitigation of
data breaches. However, to improve its efficiency, the company must incorporate
applications that protect data in back-end data archives and repositories.
Tetra Pak 2011, Tetra Pak Magazine: 100 Issues of Inspiration and Knowledge.
ITS Identity & Information Security 2013, Information Security Program.
Computer security threats have become widespread in the contemporary organizations owing to the use of Internet technology. If the organization does not invest on effective tools to safeguard its computer system from malicious software (also referred to as malware), it may become vulnerable to cybercrime, which is a serious threat to the organizational data. Any organization can be susceptible to malware. When one discovers that malware has attacked the organizational computer system, the best thing to do is to carry out an effective response to handle the incident (Ahmad 752). The following steps should be taken after detecting malware attack:
- Back Up Personal Files: Although office administrators may have been backing up the files, copying personal files to another place can help in enhancing safety of the data. However, it is not advisable to back up all the files, as some of them may have been infected by malware. Appropriate back up is necessary for easier retrieval.
- Disconnect the Computer from the Internet: Before taking any other step, it is essential to disconnect the computer from the internet to prevent the malware from stretching to the private data. When the computer remains connected to the internet, attackers can find ways to connect to the computer through millions of other computers that use the same internet (Kent and Steiner 2). A virus may try to enter the computer through Internet connection, thus, unplugging the Ethernet cable on a desktop or disabling the WiFi on a laptop can help in preventing more attacks.
- Boot into Safe Mode or Use an Antivirus Rescue Disk: if an office administrator detects that his/her computer may have been attacked by malware, the best thing to do is to boot it into Microsoft’s Safe Mode. Booting into Safe Mode enables one to prevent non-core elements from running, thus, creating a chance to identify the problems faster. Safe Mode allows only a few basic programs to be loaded (Geier and Norem 1). Additionally, Safe Mode allows easy removal of files, as they are not running or active. If the computer tends to run faster in Safe Mode, it implies that the system has already been infected by malware, or has numerous programs that start together with Windows. If one is using Window 7, pressing F8 key when the computer is starting will lead to a boot options menu, where one can select “Safe Mode.”
- Delete Temporary Files and Download Malware Scanners: After opening the computer in Safe Mode, one can delete temporary file to speed up the process of scanning, to free up the disk space, as well as getting rid of some malware. Running a scanner is necessary to get rid of most standard infections. If the computer had been installed with an antivirus that was active, it should not be used. A different scanner is required to detect what the already installed antivirus program failed to detect. Downloading Malwarebytes requires reconnection to the internet, and then disconnect again when starting the actual scanning.
- Scan the Computer using Multiple Programs to Remove All Infections: When it becomes impossible to recognize malware, one can try other tools, which include antivirus or general antimalware programs. Threat scan is the most appropriate in analyzing the most commonly infected files in a computer (Geier and Norem 3). After scanning all the files, Malwarebytes will illustrate the results. If Malwarebytes discover infections, it will portray what they are, and one can click the selected items to remove them from the system. Malwarebytes can instruct the user to restart the computer to complete the process of removing malware. Removing unnecessary software can help in preventing possible attacks by intruders (Kent and Steiner 3). One can remove any software that is not usable to keep the computer safe.
- Fix Post-Malware Removal Problems and Change Passwords: When removing malware from the computer, one may interfere with important programs that help in undertaking day-to-day tasks, such as clearing of the cache that assist in accessing the Internet, homepage, as well as missing desktop icons. In some cases, Windows may fail to work properly; hence, one may require reinstalling Windows (Geier and Norem 5). One should ensure that all passwords, which could have been used to access the computer, are changed in order to prevent information that was stolen from the computer to be utilized again and cause more damage to the computer. It is recommendable that one should develop a strong password that combines letters with numbers, as well as use of special characters.
The organization should ensure that it has an effective antivirus to protect its computer system. Installing an antivirus software program can assist in detecting the presence of malware through the memory of the computer (Kent and Steiner 2). Although most organizations have invested on anti-malware, as well as other technology tools to secure their computer stems, users information security has became a new challenge to such organizations (Safa et al. 68).
In a situation where numerous computers are connected to a server to undertake diverse assignments, malware incidents need to be perceived as constituents of holistic security incident series.
Mitigating and preventing malware attacks should be carried out in several stages so that users can understand effectively how to protect personal information from hackers. The holistic security incident series incorporates for steps, namely, planning, resisting, detecting, and responding. Planning involves understanding the threat landscape (Zeltser n.p). The user should be familiar with his/her malware software, which helps in identifying unfamiliar activity in the computer. Most browsers are capable of resisting malware attacks; hence, they will offer a warning when one tries to open a site infested by malware. The user should focus on the budget that could be used to protect organizational information.
The second step involves resisting, where one implements policies to resist malicious software attacks. This incorporates protecting web browsing and keeping ip with security patches. The third stage incorporates detecting the presence of malware through antivirus software. This stage also involves educating other users on how to identify signs of malware attacks and report them.
The last step is responding to a confirmed malware incident through containment, eradication, and recovery. Containing malware assists in inhibiting the attempts by malware to compromise the organizational data while eradication involves the removal of malware artifacts (Zeltser n.p). Recovery is the return of normal operations, which is supported by a continual examination of IT infrastructure.
Ahmad, Ateeq. “Type of security threats and it’s prevention.” International Journal of Computer Technology & Applications, vol.3, no. 2, 2012, pp. 750-752.
Geier, Eric, and Josh Norem. “How to remove malware from your Windows PC,” PC World, June 20, 2017, http://www.pcworld.com/article/243818/security/how-to-remove-malware-from-your-windows-pc.html. Accessed 28 July 2017.
Kent, Jennifer, and Katie Steiner. “Ten ways to improve the security of a new computer.” United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team, 2012, http://corpsecgroup.com/pdf/computer_security.pdf. Accessed 28 July 2017.
Safa, Nader Sohrabi, Mehdi Sookhak, Rossouw Von Solms, Steven Furnell, Norjihan Abdul Ghani, and Tutut Herawan. “Information security conscious care behaviour formation in organizations.” Computers & Security, vol.53, 2015, pp. 65-78.
Zeltser, Lenny. “4 steps to combat malware enterprise-wide,” Zeltser Security Corp, 2015, https://zeltser.com/malware-in-the-enterprise/ Accessed 4 August 2017.