People live different types of live in different parts of the world. The differences in life occur based on conceptual frameworks such as lifestyles, social class, work or division of labour, gender, and ethno methodology. Such concrete methods of life usually lead to people living a different kind of life in many parts of the world. A closer look into such organizations also marks the distinction between men and women. Thus, it clearly shows the everyday life lived by men and women based on work (labour), class, gender and occupation. This article is a discussion of everyday life between men and women. It focuses on how they conduct their daily lives.
The paper first looks at the scenario in which a mother expects her three grown children to be at her home for the weekly family dinner. She states that the work is usually too much as it involves lots of other chores such as cleaning and washing dishes among others. The children also notice that their father will never help their mother in doing some if not all the house chores. Therefore, they offer to host the family dinner at their own homes in turn so that their mother may get to relax. To their surprise, their mother affirmatively states that she is very capable of cooking for her family. Mostly this article analyses the scenario from conceptual framework of labour. Thus how labour is divided among partners and the rationales governing such frame works.
The scenario depicts a family routine, the type that is most common in western cultures. The practice is one in which all family members gather for dinner. As usual the mother of the children, who also is the wife is trusted or rather trusts herself with the job of preparing the required meals all by herself. When the meeting is over, the mother continues to the laborious process of cleaning plus doing all the dishes (NY Magazine 35). As usual, the father will not be involved in doing the labour in the house. Looking at the scenario from the conceptual framework of labour, the scenario depicts a difference in the division of labour. The difference or indifference of the division of labour in heterosexual families is a doing of the past but is still stack with human beings of the current generation.
Lupton (173) states in her finding that most household chores are gender based. For example, the preparation of food in Australia and other western countries is still seen as a woman’s duty. Thus, the scenario described above tends to disprove the common thought that people posses about division of labour in many western households. Currently most people believe that there if a 50/ 50 method of sharing house hold duty in the western world. While in real sense, some chores are stuck with women as they were many centuries ago. Some faculties of the home still belong to women in the same way they did before civilization or before the Beijing gender equality campaign (Lupton 173).
Research by Lupton (174) reveals that some department of the home such as the kitchen is still a woman’s special place. Contrary the common opinion, it is quite clear that most women prefer being in the kitchen as compared to their male counterparts. In fact, women see it as their sole duty to prepare meals for their family and carry out other chores such as cleaning and washing dishes. On the other hand, most men find such avenues a no go zone since they do not possess the expertise needed in such areas. This is an indication that civilization experienced from the 1980 up to date has not done much to change the way men and women vie division of labour.
It is also clear that the type of work done by either the man or the women in the house has nothing to do with the level of education, employment status, amount of income or age of the partners. For example, a survey carried out by the Australian Bureau of Statics in 1992 indicated that some educated/ non educated, employed/ unemployed and young and old men, though a smaller percentage equally took part in cooking and other chores around the house (Friberg 160). However, the majority of the work done by these men came as a result of being asked to do so by their female partners. Only a small number of men preferred doing the chores without being asked and they did not feel bad about it.
The scenario brought about numerous social processes and other social factors that were found many years ago and are still valued to date. For example, just like in the 1980s backwards, the modern family still value family reunions. They view this as an only way of staying together, especially in cases where all children are grown up and moved out of the house (Lupton 95). The normal life back then revolved around the family and they were expected to be as close as possible. The same occurrences still exist in modern families as they struggle to maintain unity. The scenario as well illustrate that like the old days, mothers still take pride in cooking and serving their families while expecting the husband to be the main provider. The man still holds the mantra of being the head of the family and should not be subjected to feminine duties.
There is an indication of a social belief that children will always be children, whether they have grown up or not. Many unemployed women around the world just like the mother in the case scenario hold the belief that their working husbands should not carry out household chores such as cooking, cleaning and others since they work hard at their jobs. They also provide for the family in every dimension, as such the wives feel that it is only fair, for them to exempt their hardworking men from household duties (NY Magazine 34). Children on the other hand should help in finishing some household duties. The scenario portrays them as being ready to host the entire family for the weekly dinner without demanding extra help from any of them.
This is an indication of responsibility that is long gone in the western world. Without much ado, many will realize that currently children prefer eating out than cooking at home. This is in order to avoid household chores, which they otherwise find tiring. Most grown and young children will easily do with a house help who does all the cleaning, cooking and washing for them (Gong 83). On a smaller percentage of grown working children will perform household chores. In this scenario, it is noted that the farther does not appear anywhere to make decision and contributions into the preparation of the family dinner. This is a show that most men considers food preparation a woman’s affair.
The situation portrays the existence of ability to exercise power and authority in people’s perceived line of duty. For example, the mother vehemently rejects the suggestion made by one of her children that they should host the family in turns. She strongly states that she is very much capable of cooking for her family thank you (Working Mother 60). This is a clear indication that she is not ready to relinquish her powers around the kitchen to anybody, not even to her own children. This setting also paints a picture of the lack of trust that the mother has towards her children hosting dinner. She probably does not have faith in their children’s cooking abilities. She believes that no one can cook better than she can. She still holds the power of organization and management of the family gathering affairs, and will not pass on the button that easily. There too exercise the authority of being the head of the house and thus will not be involved in cooking and other kitchen affairs (Lupton 177).
Thus, there is an apparent exercise of inequality in this situation. The first form of inequality becomes known when the mother denies her children the opportunity to organize family dinner. She believes that no one can rival her cooking. Therefore, according to her, every other person’s cooking ability is way below hers. There is also in equality in the division of labour. This most probably is brought about by the mother’s attitude. This is evident again when she refuses to let her children be the hosts for the ceremony (Lupton, 665). The children try to erase in equality in the amount of work done by their mother but she is adamant to let them take control of the occasion.
Despite the fact that most women around the world have fought for equality in many areas, equality in sharing house chores remains an unbalanced affair. Research by Gong (84) indicates that duties within the house are still considered the job category of the female folks. This is irrespective of whether the woman in working or not. In fact, an area such as parenting is one that most women contend with on their own. Very few men take part in raising the children and most often opt not to take maternity leaves as observed by Gong. However, it is not in order to lay the blame solely on men. This is because; some women do not believe that men can do most of these jobs. Therefore, they opt to have their male partners stay at work instead of having them doing nothing around the house (Gong 84). Some men also believe that they are not good at performing such errands and would rather be out looking for finances to support their families.
In this case is a conviction of lack of division of labour. For instance, the father does not help with household chores as well as the preparation of the dinner. The mother feels she is the boss in that sector and does not seem to believe that anybody can do it better. She believes that she can shoulder the duties single handedly (NY Magazine 35). Clearly, the children also just go to enjoy the dinner and leave. No one bothers to stay behind and help his or her mother with all the cleaning involved. Most women around the world hold a traditional belief that they are the ones who can cook better. They assume the duty of motherhood to heart. They would rather struggle than have their loved ones do the hard labour around the house.
The daily lives lived by both men and women in their homes and at work exhibit different meanings and assumption. Even today and in the case presented in the scenario, men do not want to be involved in cooking, cleaning and washing dishes. A good number of people who make up the world population have the assumptions that just like the old days, men and women should have distinct duties in the family. Massey (38) shows that people believe that men should provide for their families, they should be the head of the house and should assume total power and authority as well as being the top decision makers. On the other hand, people are for the opinion that cooking, laundry, dishes and caring for the baby should be the mother’s sole job (Working Mother 64).
This has been depicted in the scenario and has been evident in many other cases around the world. Human beings have not realized the much desired achievement of gender equality and equality in the division of labour within the family. However, it is not possible to point out whether this is due to the actions of men and women, since both of the genders practice resistance of some sort (Massey, 35).
Friberg, T. (1993). Everyday life: Women’s adaptive strategies in time and space, issue 55. Stockholm, Sweden: Lund University Press
Gong, M. (2007). Status relations and marriage in the United States and in a cross-national context. New York, NY: ProQuest
Lupton, D. (2000). The heart of the meal: food preferences and habits among rural Australian couples. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/Pauline/Downloads/21220863_LUPTON_-_THE_HEART_OF_THE_MEAL_3.pdf
Lupton, D. (2000). Food memory and meaning: the symbolic and social nature of food events. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/Pauline/Downloads/21220863_LUPTON_-_FOOD_MEMORY_AND_MEANING_4.pdf
Lupton, D. (2000). Where’s me dinner: food preparation arrangement in rural Australian families. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/Pauline/Downloads/21220863_LUPTON_-_WHERES_ME_DINNER_2.pdf
Massey, D. (1995). Spatial divisions of labor: Social structures and the geography of production. London: Psychology Press
New York Magazine (1985). Marriage in the 80s retrieved from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=I-UCAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA30&dq=Understanding+Everyday+Life+of+food+preparation+and+division+of+labour+between+male+and+female+partners&hl=en&sa=X&ei=C0dBU8nuHcmI7AbF_IDICg&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
Working Mother (2000). Friends of the family. Retrieved from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=vQc11pd_aFoC&pg=PA60&dq=Understanding+Everyday+Life+of+food+preparation+and+division+of+labour+between+male+and+female+partners+in+australia&hl=en&sa=X&ei=oIhBU9qwF8rC7Abeq4CADQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
Response to Race and Crime the Color of Punishment by David Cole
The reason why this assignment is important is to understand the disparity that exists in the justice system in treatment of black and white offenders. There is a great difference that cannot be ignored between black and white people that are arrested and prosecuted for drug related crimes.
From the class reading, knowledge and information on discrimination that occurs in the society was gained. Sociology is fundamental in understanding the welfare of human beings and contributing positively to solutions for problems faced in communities.
Class concepts related to sociology
Sociological class concepts that have been illustrated in this reading include functionalist theorists related to race and society. In order for relationships between different races to function, all the races in the society should be accepted and integrated. On reading this article, I was surprised by the reluctance and blatant refusal of political and justice leaders’ to change the discriminatory laws on drug charges against black people in the community. Reading this content assisted me to appreciate this class at a higher level especially in relation to race matters. I would like to be part of the change that would increase the awareness on current high racism levels in the society.
The article talks about differences in arrests made to black and white people in the United States. The justice system in the US separates the punishment between individuals charged with possession of cocaine and crack cocaine. Crack cocaine is a form of cocaine that has sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) added to it. Crack cocaine is cheaper, and holds a high prison sentence of up to five more years in comparison to cocaine charges. Most African Americans are usually arrested and charged on possession of crack cocaine primarily because it is cheaper, while a higher number of white people are found in possession of cocaine; which is more expensive. Statistics from prisons all over the country show a very high number of African Americans sentenced to high prison sentences.
If I was teaching this class, I would also have assigned this reading. It is important for people in the world to be aware of the existence of racism even in the 21st Century. Individuals all over the world assume that the United States of America is perfect in all areas. This article by David Cole proves that the country still has a long way to go if people are charged and prosecuted differently based on their skin color.
Pillars of Islam
The Five Pillars of Islam
There are five mandatory principles and acts practiced by religious persons inclined to Islam. The five pillars of Islam lay a foundation for believers to lead a valuable and quality Muslim life. They include Salat, Zakat, Shahadan, Sawn, and Hajj. They represent daily ritualistic prayers, being concerned and caring for the less advantaged persons in the society, Muslim life under the leader of Muhammad, self-control,purification, and pilgrimage respectively. Thus, the five pillars describe different principles, expectations, and purposes among persons practicing Islam aligned to the Islamic religion and culture (CCA, 2011).
I was born and raised as a Christian (Catholic) in an island located in Philippines. Although I was able to witness Muslims in my neighborhood and the large cities in Philippines, I learnt very little on Islamic cultures and traditions. However, my interest in learning and understanding Islam developed after my family migrated to the United States. The interest was attributed by my close friendship and interactive periods with a Muslim man from Syria residing in United States. However, our friendship did not last long due to diverse cultural differences aligned to the Christina and Islam religions. Although, I tried to fit in his religious and cultural beliefs, the experience was too overwhelming. For example, I wore a Hijab covering my chest and hair as a sign of respect before entering the mosque for prayers every Friday. I learnt it was compulsory piece of clothing for Muslim women under Muslim or Sharia law (Hooker, 1999). It was however very uncomfortable as I could hardly breathe or access fresh air amidst profusion sweating. Although the experience was exciting, I could neither continue wearing the Hijab nor attend prayers at the Mosque. I made this decision after I compared the five pillars of Islam against the Christian teachings and believes I have learned under the Catholic Church.
The five pillars represent similar believes and values as Christian teachings. For example, Islam under the Shahadan pillar asserts that Muhammad is the God’s messenger. In Christianity, we believe God is the immortal superpower. The second pillar Salat asserts that believers ought to conduct ritualistic prayers five times in a day. Although Christians believe and practice prayers, the bible does not ascertain the actual number of times a believer ought to pray in a day. The third pillar Zakat is aimed at showing concern and caring for the needy, poor, and less advantaged members of the society. In Christianity, we believe in giving a tithe comprising of ten percent. In Islam, Zakat asserts believers ought to give 2.5 percent of a person’s total savings towards meeting and fulfilling this promise (Hooker, 1999).
fourth pillar advises Islam believers to fast and pray during the blessed month
of Ramadhan to achieve self-control. Conversely, Christians aligned to Catholic
teachings practice lent to mark the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ for
a period of six weeks. Thus, this period is also utilized to teach Christians self-control
and purification. Finally, the last pillar in Islam is pilgrimage known as
Hajj. It is a pilgrimage to Mecca occurring during the Islamic month of Dhu al
Hijjah. All Muslims are required to make to the pilgrimage to Mecca at least
once in their lifetime (CCA, 2011). It is difficult to compare and contrast
this pillar in relation to Christian teachings and believes. This is because
Christians do not have a pilgrimage they are obliged to make a visit to before
they pass on. I therefore concluded that before I am committed to a relationship
with another person practicing different religious and cultural beliefs, I
should learn and understand their practices, principles, values, and beliefs.
Creative Commons Attribution (CCA). (2011). Five Pillars of Islam, The Creative Commons Attribution Organization Report.
Hooker, R. (1999). Arkan Ad-Din: The Five Pillars of Religion, Washington State University.
Sociology: Case Study Paper on The Lumbee Indians of North Carolina: Why Their Struggle for Federal Recognition
The Lumbee Indians of North Carolina: Why Their Struggle for Federal Recognition
Lumbees are absolutely genuine Local Americans. They rose as a notable country when various tribal remainders amasses in the Southern Atlantic waterfront district met up in the 1600s and early 1700s in the wake of the genocidal European assault (Blu, 1980). The Lumbee presumably began from leftovers of a few indigenous gatherings that looked for asylum in the swamp lands of southeastern North Carolina, where they were joined by liberated slaves and a couple of poor Whites. Their fight for Distinguishment has taken years. In 1956, Congress recognized the Lumbee as American Indians, yet it explicitly denied the authority recognition that might permit them to get federal administrations through the Department of Indian Issues. Pundits contend that the Lumbee don’t constitute an honest country, as they are of blended root and fail to offer a local dialect. The Lumbee themselves have proposed a few distinctive tribes as their principle forebears. Numerous link their heritage to the Tuscarora, an Iroquoian aggregate that to a great extent relinquished North Carolina for New York in 1700 (Sider, 2003). The Tuscarora tribal government, in any case, rejects the association and has restricted authority Distinguishment. Right now, the generally supported hypothesis joins the Lumbee to the Cheraw, a South Carolina tribe that was for all intents and purpose obliterated by a smallpox pestilence in 1738.
Most Local American tribes in what’s known as the United States are “Federally distinguished” – generally through formal settlements with the U.S. government; and in a few cases through Congressional statute or regulatory methodology or, in a not many cases, by means of legal incidents. Some, for different reasons frequently historic, are “state distinguished.” And some, through no flaw of their own, have no formal legislative Distinguishment of any sort. Federal Distinguishment gives various significant profits to tribes and their members: e.g., financial, instructive, wellbeing, welfare, criminal equity, trust insurance. Most tribes that have essentially “state Distinguishment” get far less undoubtedly – and some of the time not a lot whatsoever (Brooks, 2002). No formal administrative Distinguishment of any sort dependably implies any legislative Indian profit.
The Lumbee have so far been unable to discover composed documentation which consummately demonstrates where the tribe began and where they lived throughout authentic times. This prerequisite is identified with the provision process for Distinguishment through the BIA which the Lumbee are unable to do on the grounds that they fail to offer this report. In 1956, tribe members were angered by the Lumbee act that was passed .Inside this bit of assembly, the central government really did distinguish the Lumbee as an authority tribe; on the other hand, they then continued to end obligations, saying that the tribe might not receive any of the profits of federal Distinguishment. This archive keeps the tribe from requesting Distinguishment through the BIA, leaving congress as their just feasible choice.
Yet even inside congress, the Lumbee tribe has been met with resistance and rejection much of which is because of the vast size of the tribe. Lumbee is the biggest tribe east of the Mississippi Waterway and right now incorporates upwards of fifty five thousand members. In that capacity, giving the profits that are offered through federal Distinguishment might oblige a lot of financing and might potentially influence the financing of other federally distinguished tribes (Den Ouden & O’Brien, 2013). One of the primary adversaries to this is the Cherokee tribe, the main federally distinguished tribe in North Carolina. Members of the Lumbee tribe illustrated that the Cherokee regularly campaign against them in congress in light of the fact that Lumbee Distinguishment might diminish the benefits the Cherokee get from the central government.
With these inconveniences, one may ponder whether federal Distinguishment is worth the exertion for the Lumbees. The members of the tribe expounded on what they needed from federal Distinguishment. The Lumbee said that they didn’t need a lot of budgetary backing. The tribe has a decently extensive wellspring of income which is utilized to give numerous critical assets to members of the tribe, including lodging, power, and administrations for the elderly. They did say that they might acknowledge help from the legislature with education and restorative forethought programs. Nonetheless, they didn’t need “handouts,” and they would not like to live on a reservation.
The Benefits of Distinguishment
For the Lumbee, full federal Distinguishment will permit their tribe to be well known, to be acknowledged completely as a gathering of Local Americans who can acquire government control for their kin alongside getting numerous different manifestations of administrations for the enhancement of the Lumbee. To be judged on whether they “act Indian enough” or what amount of immaculate Indian blood goes through the veins of a Lumbee is totally pointless in separating themselves as an Indian bunch completely meriting Distinguishment. They are a unified gathering with enrollment traversing in excess of forty thousand who have their social character with or without a rich history dating many years (Lowery, 2010). They have needed to reproduce themselves close by their neighbors, knowing who they are, yet battling against losing the last of their character. With federal Distinguishment they will have the capacity to at long last declare themselves as they’ve for the longest time been itching to do.
In conclusion, Rep. Mcintyre, a Democrat from Lumberton, is a co-patron of the Indian federal Distinguishment administrative Methodology Act. The bill might create an independent requisition to assess provisions for federal Distinguishment. The bill is pending in the House resources Advisory group. The bill is set for a hearing but the date is yet to be set. It could be years before the assemblies get federal Distinguishment, if at any point. The Lumbees have been looking for federal Distinguishment for more than twenty years.
Blu, K. I. (1980). The Lumbee Problem: The Making of an American Indian People. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Sider, M.G. (2003). Living Indian Histories: Lumbee and Tuscarora People in North Carolina. North Carolina: The University of North Carolina press. Retrieved from books.google.com/books?isbn=0807855065
Brooks. (2002).Ed. Confounding the Color Line: The Indian-Black Experience in North America. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Retrieved from books.google.com/books?isbn=0803261942
Den Ouden, A. E., & O’Brien, E. (2013). Recognition, Sovereignty Struggles, and Indigenous Rights in the United States. North Carolina: University of North Carolina press. Retrieved from books.google.com/books?isbn=1469602156
Lowery, M.M. (2010).Lumbee Indians in the Jim Crow South: Race, Identity, and the Making of a Nation. North Carolina: University of North Carolina press. Retrieved from books.google.com/books?isbn=0807833681
Symbolic Interactionism and Dramaturgy
Symbolic interactionism and dramaturgy are sociological perspectives used in explaining human behavior in the society. Symbolic interactionism perspective rests on three premises, with the first one stating that humans act towards things (symbols) depending on the meaning that those things have for them. In this case, the term “things” refers to everything that humans can note in their world, for instance, physical objects, other humans, institutions, activities, and situations they encounter in their daily lives. The second premise states that the meaning of such things or symbols develops from the social interaction that individuals have with others. The final premise is that these meanings are upheld or modified through an interpretative process that individuals use to deal with things they encounter. Dramaturgy perspective explains human behavior using the metaphor of theater. It suggests that the world is a theater and life is a play, where people are the actors. Therefore, dramaturgy is perceived as the way individuals present themselves in the everyday life. People are ushered onto the stage of everyday life through birth, and the socialization process entails learning to perform on the stage. At the center of the performances is the self, as everyone has a role to play when interacting with others. The roles are determined by the society and can vary with performances, as influenced by the individual’s social status, situation, or circumstances. Since what is expected of individuals (their role) in one status is often incompatible with what is expected of them in another, the individuals will experience role conflict. The role conflict is normally avoided through segregation of statuses, which may be accomplished through continued realignments. If the same status is comprised of incompatible roles, the situation is referred to as role strain.
It is evident that the study of human behavior is largely based on the interpretative process, where people develop the meanings of things, events, or behaviors they encounter in their daily lives. These meanings influence how people communicate and interact with one another in the society. Secondly, the action of individuals is often aligned to that of others in the society. Therefore, the study of social behavior should view such behavior in its collective character, rather than in its individual component. The process of interactive interaction produces the social behavior. The study of social behavior should also recognize the importance of rules and expectation in the development of individual and collective behavior. The behavior exhibited by individuals is dictated by the society through its respective social institutions. The society can develop rules that guide social behavior to ensure that it commensurate with its established values and beliefs. People will embrace particular behaviors because they valued by the society and may be rewarding. They will also conform because exhibiting contrary behavior may attract punishment for violating established behavioral standards. Since the society expects its members to behave in a particular way, people will often strive to show others the idealized or best image of themselves as a means of gaining approval and higher status. However, they will tend to hide their undesirable behavior from the public. Therefore, the study of social behavior should recognize that individual and collective behavior is a product of impression management, where people control how others perceive them. All identities and behaviors are influenced by the society in which they perform their roles, as they are governed by societal rules, expectations, and interactive interaction.
Broader Social Changes in Behaviors
In the past years, same-sex marriage or homosexuality was considered an abomination and unthinkable act within the society. However, it is currently categorized under the acceptable behaviors in most states, although it has not been fully accepted in all areas. Because of this, there has been a change in the way the behavior has been labeled from a deviant behavior to an acceptable. This is largely a consequence of the broader social changes that have occurred within certain communities. Some of these are the increased rate of interactions between different races, tribes, and ethnic groups. As such, there has been an increased level of awareness in relation to the causes of same-sex inclinations towards marriage. Individuals are beginning to realize that homosexuality is not a result of choice but the consequence of natural orientation.
The key parties that were involved in this shift are the homosexuals who have been fighting for their own rights for a long time. They have been greatly supported by scientists, researchers, and medical personnel who are making the conditions understandable to other people. As a result, some persons have been greatly disadvantaged by this change in perspective about same-sex marriages. They include the heterosexuals who are inclined towards opposite sex marriages. The religious leaders are also affected due to the compromise on religious values. The shift in social perception about this behavior has brought a major rift to the society. This is caused by the view that the acceptance of homosexuality within the society will lead to deviation from social norms. Most of those involved are convincing even those who are not naturally inclined towards the behavior.
Child labor relates to the economically energetic persons below fifteen years of age, who are working in a variety of industries. Lately, child labor has grown to be a big subject of deliberation; although very depressing in most instances. The idea that globalization is promoting the mistreatment of children is turning to be a critical dilemma for the international community and industry. This paper explains how child labor is a worldwide problem requiring universal solutions (Anup, 2001).
Child labor is among the largest concerns in the globe as it puts children under threat; it denies them education, is prevalent, and habitually concealed or undetectable particularly in agriculture, huge companies, and mines, particularly in less developed nations.
This type of labor presents difficulties in the fiscal market (Cigno & Rosati, 2006). Child labor is a social difficulty with the increase of trade and free enterprise. There are numerous types of child labor, but the international community must provide greater concentration to its most evil types, such as child trafficking, child bondage, child combatants, and child prostitution (Arnold & Hartman, 2005). The world must come together and assist each other in battle, and stamp out child labor. All nations must work jointly to salvage the children of the world and to offer them a brighter future for they are the hope of our future world (Elizabeth, 2012).
Child labor is an insidious setback all through the world’s economy, particularly in the developing nations (Edmonds & Pavcnik, 2005). Although the majority of people are ethically horrified by child labor and against the mistreatment of children, the international abolition of the most horrible types of child labor is the only feasible option (Basu & Tzannatos, 2003).
Anup, S. (2001). Child Labor. Retrieved from http://www.globalissues.org/article/62/child-labor
Arnold, D. G., & Hartman, L. P. (2005). Beyond sweatshops: positive deviancy and global labour practices. Business Ethics: A European Review, 14(3), 206-222.
Basu, K., & Tzannatos, Z. (2007). The global child labor problem: what do we know and what can we do? The world bank economic review, 17(2), 147-173.
Cigno, A., & Rosati, F. C. (2006). The economics of child labour. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 60(2), 86.
Edmonds, E. V., & Pavcnik, N. (2005). Child labor in the global economy. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(1), 199-220.
Elizabeth, W. (2012). Christmas Ornaments, Child Labor. New York Times, p. 9. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/25/opinion/christmas-ornaments-child-labor.html?_r=0
Attorney: Sale of Controlled Substances
The story is about a student, who is currently an attorney. He joined the college as a shy student, but everything else changed when he received his first student loan and met a friend by the name ‘Luke’. Luke was interested in making fast cash for running drug deals, and as such, he resolved to finance Luke’s activities since he had the money. He earned a percentage of the profits that were obtained from the drug syndicates and started living an incorporated lifestyle with lots of friends, most significantly girlfriends. With time, he started smoking as much as Luke could sell, but at the end, he managed to halt smoking without being caught. After college, he went to a law school and now works as an attorney in a firm and practices in another. His name has been run through various background checks, but he has nothing to worry about, because he was never caught and no records will show. Since he was never caught, nobody would label him as a chain smoker, therefore non-deviant. This explains the clearance that he enjoys while working, and the image his employers have about him is that he never participated in the sale of drugs.
The parallel story is about a lady who was in need of money to buy college books. She got employed to prepare and serve tea while dressed scantily, or in a bikini, but she felt harassed. Since her cousin moved to town, she helped him expand his drug peddling market to college students. Within a short while, she was arrested and she pleaded guilty to the charge. Consequently, she could not reside in the dormitory or with her Mom in a public house. She dropped out of college and now spends the night on her friends’ couches, in addition to strenuously attending forced classes and appointments ordered for by the court. During the previous week, she got a call from one of her former clients who was never caught or charged. Her client would be graduating from college in May. This lady is deviant because the society she was caught and police officers, together with judges have already labelled her a drug dealer, that is why her former clients still call her for supplies. She is unable to complete her school and now lives a strenuous lifestyle because of her negative image or picture as defined by the society.
The phrase ‘carceral culture’ gives the connotation of a restricted or controlled lifestyle. Using surveillance as a mechanism of social control would mean monitoring how rogue individuals or probable rogues behave, socialize, and communicate. To a larger extent, it would mean tapping their calls or monitoring the mails, messages, telegrams, and electronic mails that they send with the help of electronic devices or surveillance cameras and television sets. This makes the lifestyle of these individuals restricted, thus, they live a carceral culture. Since technology becomes more and more sophisticated, more so mobile or handheld devices, the chances of having surveillances meant for social control also become higher, and as such, it is becoming easier to identify and label individuals as deviant by authorities or police officers.
Student: Sale and Possession of Controlled Substances
This main story is about one student who got to college and started dealing with drugs as a freshman. He was privileged, amongst some few freshmen, to be a smoker of weed and similarly knew an individual who was sold or supplied him with the weed. Because of this link, this student begun buying weed from his supplier on behalf of his friends, and then expanded his network to include the friends of his friends that were already using his link. Given time, the student begun buying ounces once in a while, and then expanded his supply to include acid. By the time he reached the junior year, he became less interested in the convenience of availing weeds, both for himself and his friends. Consequently, when he cleared his last batch of weed, he started redirecting his clients to a different supplier. He was never caught.
The parallel story is about a girl who occasionally sold her ADHD drugs or medications to some popular girls in school after realizing that it made her more attentive while walking around school. She sold these drugs until she was caught, which led to her suspension from college and loss of scholarship after being charged with a criminal act. One year later, while in the school of nursing, she realized that she was not eligible to be licenced as a nurse. The student in the main story is non-deviant because deviance depends on the opinion or label that an individual is given by strong personalities in the society such as policemen. Since he was not caught peddling drugs, he cannot be labelled a drug addict. However, the girl in the parallel story is deviant because she was caught and police officers, judges, and professional bodies (possibly the ones that licence nurses) already have developed a negative opinion about her. That is why she is denied the license, and any time individuals talk about her or sees her, the image picture created is ‘a criminal lady’.
Using surveillance as a technique of ensuring social control involves monitoring peoples’ conversations, actions, movements, or associations. When surveillance is used as a tool for ensuring social control, it means that individuals who are thought to be wrong doers or just about to do something wrong would have all aspects of their lives monitored (from phone calls, letters, to electronic mails) through electronic monitors and closed-circuit television sets. Through this, they would be forced to conform their lifestyle and associations according to the societal norms, as such, a restricted lifestyle exists thus the name a ‘carceral culture’; their lifestyle resembles that of an imprisoned person. Since technology is advancing and handheld devices are becoming common, chances are becoming minimal each day that an individual can be free from surveillance, and as such, authorities such as police officers and criminal investigation departments would be labelling many people as criminals or potential criminals. The result is an increased number of deviant individuals.
Education and Crime
Education has been held as a strong pillar in the growth of the economy. Scholars have also studied effects of education on other aspects of life. This paper looks at the effects of education on crime by establishing how education impacts on crime. It evaluates the three significant impacts of education on crime mainly, the income effect, time availability and patience and risk aversion nature of educated people. The major benefit of education has been to increase the ability to earn legit income. This reduces the probability that one will be attracted to criminal practices.
The United States of America and the Kingdom republic of Saudi Arabia are two different nations whose policies on education are greatly varying. International reports have portrayed Saudi Arabia as a relatively safe place in comparison to the US. This paper compares and contrasts the incidences of crimes in the two countries. It also evaluates their policies on education and relates them to prevalence of crime. The paper seeks to find out whether education has contributed to reduced crime rates in Saudi Arabia.
Traditionally, education has been endorsed for its benefits to the individual student by enhancing their future earnings. Many people have ignored the social returns to education, and instead, uphold the private returns. The society has had the notion that benefits of schooling can only be drawn from the curriculum course studied. People underestimate the values acquired from the hidden school curriculum that includes honesty, hard work and good citizenship. Other than expanding an individual’s income capacity, education has also been proved to have elements of social returns to the society. One of the social benefits of education as proved by Machin and others is its contribution in reducing crimes (2010). Although many scholars are enthusiastic to establish the private returns on education, as opposed to the social returns, analysts have proven that the level of education attained has a negative correlation to the probability of committing crime (Lochner & Moretti, 2001). This research paper will relate the effects of education on crime. It also provides a comprehensive comparison of education and crime in the United States of America (USA) and Saud Arabia.
How Education Impacts on Crime
Socio-economists have deduced that education may have a negative impact on crime; however, it may not necessarily change one decision to participate in crime (Lochner & Moretti, 2001). To begin with, the income effect of education is an uncontested theory in explaining how schooling reduces incidences of crime. According to Lochner and Moretti, education increases the returns from legitimate sources; increasing the opportunity cost of crimes. An educated person has a higher probability of being in a salaried employment or a successful business venture. Thus, he/she is not likely to be tempted by easy income from crimes. The dual further notes that educated people would find the time spent in custodies more costly with respect to the high wage that they would otherwise be earning.
In addition to higher future income, schooling ensures that children and young adult spends a lot of their time in a learning institution. They, thus, have little time to loom in the streets where they can acquire criminal behaviors. A study by Witte and Tauchen (1994), established that the time spent at school or work in a year is negatively correlated to the probability of getting arrested in that year. Since the need to commit crime is an acquired attribute, exposing young children to criminal activities will increase their likelihood of obtaining the crude behavior. After graduations, moreover, educated people are more likely to join formal employment where they identify themselves with a particular social class. Among the educated class in the society, criminals are despised; thus, the stigma from an earlier imprisonment is high. A person may not be fully accepted back to the society after serving a term in prison. Individuals will, therefore, avoid any crime in fear of being segregated by their fellows.
Education has also been proved to shape a person’s attitude, making them more patient and risk averse. Lochner and Moretti explain that educated people are patient and ready to wait for future returns (2001). They also tend to be risk averse and thus tend to be cautious about the cost of future punishments. On the other hand, school dropouts are myopic and only think instant result. For example, they view schooling in terms of strict curricula, exhausting tests and foregone earning opportunities, as opposed to how it prepares them for future careers.
Conversely, education has also been found to increase particular forms of crime. There are specific crimes that require skills to implement such as cybercrimes and electronic frauds. These crimes- also referred to as ‘white collar crimes’ are organized by highly qualified professionals. According to Machin et al (2010), education may also increase the earnings from criminal activities while reducing the probability of getting caught since the culprits have a high mastery of the technical procedures involved. It is estimated that a rise in average education level may lead to an associated 11 percent increase in white-collar arrests (Witte & Tauchen, 2004). However, this positive effect of education on crimes is marginally insignificant.
Education and Crime in the US
The rates of crime in the US have reduced considerably over the last decades. According to the annual Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) Uniform Crime Report (UCR) the rates of crime in the past 20 years had reduced by half by the 2012 (2013). However, the FBI reports that the prevalence of both violent and property crimes around in the US is alarming. Some states are more prone to crime than others are; in addition, various crimes such as rape, homicide are more prevalent in some states. For example, the homicides with firearms in California were 12 times as much as those reported in Washington in 2012.
The cost of crimes in the US is substantially high and a real burden to the government budget. According to the Alliance for Excellent Education, the local governments spend over $200 billion on crime related cases per year (2013). This excludes the overall burden of crime in the society, which includes loss of properties, lives, expenses of medical care and the unquantifiable trauma following criminal attacks. The government has also registered huge losses comprising of a decline in tax as a result of crime related deaths, bloating police payrolls and the cost of administering the increased number of criminal court cases. The country is, obliged to look for ways to minimize crime activities. One of effective method of curbing the rates of crime in the US has been by increasing the number of post high school graduates, increasing the self-reliant population.
Distribution of violent crimes around the states in the US is negatively correlated to the level of education attained by the residents. According to an analysis by the Justice Policy Institute (JPI), states with high proportion of the population with high school diplomas had lower incidences of violent crimes (2007). In their study, the JPI further established that states with higher rates of college enrollment reported less violent crimes. The overall JPI analysis reveals that the more a given state invests in education, the lower the amount spent on crimes. For example, North Carolina realized a 5.9% decline in crimes between 2000 -2005, the period within which it increased its average cost of education by 45%. Over the same period, Tennessee, which had increased its investment in education by 1.7%, reported an increase of 6.4% (JPI, 2007, p.5).
Studies have identified a significant contribution of public education in reducing crimes since majority crime convicts are uneducated. For example, 75 percent of prison inmates in the US in 1997 had not completed high school education (JPI, 2007). According to the Alliance for Excellent Education, investing in public education would go a long way in solving crime challenges than investing in security personnel. The typical cost of educating a single student in the US today approximates to $12,643. This is relatively low compared to the average annual cost of maintaining an inmate, which is $28,323. The Alliance for Excellent Education further established that increasing the male graduation rate by 10% could reduce murder and assault case by at least 20% and theft and robbery cases by 13% (2013 p2). This can save the nation a devastating figure of $19.7 billion annually.
The US federal government has devolved its education system, in which education policies and curriculum are set at a state government’s level. However, the respective state policies are geared towards ensuring that the maximum social returns to education are enjoyed. To begin with, various states have set a compulsory age starting from 5 to 8 and ending at 16 to 18 years through which a child should be confined in a school (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2013). This ensures that children are not only taught good morals in school, but also have minimal exposure to the wrong doers in the streets. Obligatory education has also been found to increase the literacy level in the US to approximately 99%. According to analysts, increased literacy is among the factors that have contributed to reduced crime rates in the US.
Education and Crime in Saudi Arabia
The crime rates in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have been reporting low due to their strict observation of the Muslim religion. However, the crime analysts Sheptycki and others’ research work has disputed this presumption (2012). In their book Transnational and Comparative Criminology, Sheptycki et al has revealed that crime rate in Saudi Arabia is not as low as reported by the country’s government. According to him, several crimes go unreported since the citizens have no trust with the rudimentary judicial process. However, foreign ministries of different countries are in concurrence that crime rate in Saudi Arabia is low compared to other developed countries.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, despite the heavy punishment on crime offenders, reports cases of, drug trafficking, murder, theft and terrorism. However, the rate of these crimes in Saudi Arabia is relatively lower than in the US. While the crime index in the US stands at 50.52 %, in Saudi Arabia it is only 31% (Peiffer, 2004). Nonetheless, some crimes are more common in Saudi Arabia than in the US. For example, rape is among the most prevalent crimes in Saudi Arabia but least reported in the US. There is scant information about rape cases since majority of the victims do not report. This is because, victims do not anticipate getting justice from the court cases, in some cases, the rape victim may be punished while the culprit is set free. . For example, a 19-year-old rape victim was found guilty of immorality and jailed for six months, and with 100 lashes when she alleged having been raped by seven men.
The Saudi Arabia’s major methods of curbing crimes are through strict rules and regulations, imposing tough punishment to offenders and investing on police forces. According to Peiffer (2004) judicial system of Saudi Arabia has been criticized by human rights activists all over the world. The Kingdom is among the few nations that practice human execution to date. If arrested of what they categorize as major crimes, which includes drug trafficking, sorcery and witchcraft, the law authorizes your execution. Other crimes also attract a fine of instant hand chopping. Of concern, are the claims that crime suspects are not given fair hearing. They are denied the opportunity to be represented by an attorney and are often tortured and forced to plead guilty.
While various governments identify the power of education in curbing crimes, there is no available data to prove that the government of Saudi Arabia recognizes the effect of education on crime. They, however, emphasize on the need of quality education for the growth of the economy. Their education curriculum is highly dominated by the Islam teachings aimed at equipping the learners with a deep knowledge of Qu’ran. The religious focus of the Saudi Arabian education system is, according to sociologists, propagating the philosophy of hate towards non-Muslims. It is designed to make the learners believe Muslims are at war with other religions. Thus, it increases the rates of crime in the Kingdom through promoting Islamism terrorism.
Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is controlled by three different authorities namely the Ministry of Education, the General Organization for technical Education and the Ministry of Higher Education (Hamdan, 2005). Unlike in the United States where education is compulsory, education in Saudi Arabia is optional. Parents are at liberty to decide whether to send their children to school. This has contributed to high illiteracy level in the country where only 84.7% of men and 70.8% of women are literate. Studies in other parts of the world have concluded that high illiteracy level in the community may increase crime rates (Peiffer 2004). Illiteracy could, therefore, be a causative factor of crimes in Saudi Arabia.
Until recently, education arrangement in Saudi Arabia was segregated along sex divide. According to Hamdan (2005), boys are regarded as according to the Muslim teachings and are thus given special education. Contrary to the US where boys and girls are taught in the same class, education in Saudi Arabia is administered as three different systems, which include boys, girls, and the traditional Muslim education for boys. This division instills the vice of gender discrimination in young boys, which they are likely to hold on to adulthood. The view that women are inferior and should be subjective to men has been cited as a factor that contributes to high incidences of rape crimes in Saudi Arabia (Hamdan, 2005). Notably, the kingdom of Saudi Arabia needs to work on its education systems and its response to crime. Although the rates of crime are considerably low in Saudi as compared to the US, their approach and the policies that have seen reduced crimes are not recommendable. The punishments of chopping hands and killing are uncivilized and inhumane. Furthermore, studies on human execution have not proved that it significantly reduces crimes. Their justice system has also been flawed to its unprocedural practices. Generally, any human being should be given a fair hearing and suspects need to be treated as innocent until proven otherwise.
The government of Saudi Arabia’s main objective of the education system is to leap the private returns on education. They aim at developing religion, values while expanding their children’s capacity. However, they need to wake up to the social returns to education. Instead of the high cost of increasing police presence in the streets as a way of curbing crimes, they can increase their investment. This will see them kill two birds with one stone since increasing the literacy level will benefit the country both economically and socially.
Education is a powerful tool in the reduction of crime rates. Investing in education may considerably reduce the incidences of crimes in a country. The effects of education on crimes is a long term venture since educating today’s generation culminates to a safe and secure tomorrow. Education contributes to reduced crime rates by increasing one’s income from legitimate sources, reducing the time available to learn and execute crime and changing one’s attitude towards crime. While education itself has not proven to affect one’s decision on whether to participate in crime, several studies have established a negative correlation between education and crime.
The education system in the US is slightly different from the system in Saudi Arabia. The major difference identified in this paper, however, is their attitudes towards education. The US is consciously trying to leap both the social and economic benefits of education. They use education as a tool to fight crimes among other social vices. In contrast, Saudi Arabia uses education to propel their religious culture, a factor that has indirectly fuelled crimes. Although Saudi Arabia is allegedly among the religions with reduced crime rates, it is important to note that most of the crimes in this kingdom are not reported. Their methods of controlling crimes are outdated and needs to be reformed.
Alliance for Excellent Education (2013). Saving Futures, Saving Dollars: The Impact of Education on Crime Reduction and Earnings . Retrieved from: http://all4ed.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/SavingFutures.pdf
Federal Bureau of Investigation (2013). FBI Releases 2012 Crime Statistics. National press releases.Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/news/pressrel/press-releases/fbi-releases-2012-crime-statistics
Hamdan, A. (2005). Women and Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Achievements. International Education Journal, 6(1), 42-64. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ854954.pdf
Justice Policy Institute (2007). Education and Public Safety. Retrieved from: http://www.justicepolicy.org/images/upload/07-08_rep_educationandpublicsafety_ps-ac.pdf
Lochner, L., & Moretti, E. (2001). The Effect of Education on Crime: Evidence from prison inmates, arrests, and self-reports (No. w8605). National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from: http://www.nber.org/papers/w8605.pdf?new_window=1
Machin, S., Marie, O., & Vujić, S. (2011). The Crime Reducing Effect of Education. The Economic Journal, 121(552), 463-484. Retrieved from: http://arno.unimaas.nl/show.cgi?fid=20638
Peiffer, E. (2004). Death Penalty in Traditional Islamic Law and as Interpreted in Saudi Arabia and Nigeria, The. Wm. & Mary J. Women & L., 11, 507. Retrieved from: http://scholarship.law.wm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1132HYPERLINK “http://scholarship.law.wm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1132&context=wmjowl”&HYPERLINK “http://scholarship.law.wm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1132&context=wmjowl”context=wmjowl
Sheptycki, J., & Wardak, A. (Eds.). (2012). Transnational and comparative criminology. Routledge.
Witte, A. D. & Tauchen, H. (1994). Work and Crime: an exploration using panel data (No. w4794). National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from: http://www.nber.org/papers/w4794.pdf
Lifestyle Disparities between American and International Students
The disparities being experienced by university students are attributed to different sources stemming from the different lifestyles of both the international and American students. Based on the research, three key factors were identified as being responsible for explaining the differences in lifestyles between these two varying, yet similar groups. These were educational background, religion, and economic factors. The American students surveyed chose religion and educational background as being overwhelmingly responsible for these lifestyle differences. In the American culture, majority of the population socializes and relates with each other using a common language and culture that is devoid of any influence of a divine nature, but rather by one’s own beliefs and personality.
This analogy is contrast with international students whose religious backgrounds are partially responsible for determining their culture and behavioral attributes. For instance, the African students surveyed considered morality in behaviors, attitudes, and mannerisms as being a key determinant of their social welfare. Consequently, it is common to see African students dressed in conservative manners since their cultures identify morality with spirituality, and hence skimpy or revealing dress codes are in contrast with their religious beliefs. This analogy is almost similar to the culture of the American society during the period prior to the 1960s where our culture defined morality among women as being paramount to their acceptance to the society. Therefore, religion plays a significant role in determining the lifestyles of the international students, which is different from the culture and mannerisms of the American students.
The educational background is another key determinant for the varying lifestyle disparities between the international and American students. Majority of the American students are usually exposed to an environment that is tech savvy from the onset of their childbirth. Therefore, they grow up completely dependent on technology to accomplish their daily tasks, and have converted it to become an effective lifestyle tool used for communication. Social media, Internet, smart phones, video games, and the mainstream media are responsible for influencing the mannerisms of the American culture. Contrastingly, majority of the international students are from developing countries that are less exposed to these kinds of technology. Therefore, their education and knowledge is limited to the meager resources available in their host countries and will thus be less likely to use technology as a communication and education tool. This will result in their feeling and acting different among their peers due to their technological inferiority and will influence their lifestyle as being dissimilar as compared to the American students.
Among the international students, the majority consider economic factors as the primary for the disparity in lifestyles between these two groups. The international students are mostly from developing countries where the per capita GDP is lesser as compared to the US. This means that commodities and services are cheaper in their countries, and hence the income levels are lesser that the Americans. Therefore, majority of the international students being supported by their parents or sponsors from their host countries consider the American education expensive and only send very little money. This means that the students have just enough to service their basic needs. This is unlike their American counterparts that have more money and can thus indulge in lavish and luxurious lifestyles that are indifferent as compared to the lives of the international students.
The Influence of Television on Children
The Influence of Television on Children
- Social Imagination
- Influences of television on children based on social values.
- Need to understand the influences of television on children through various factors.
- Television on children effects are a social problem.
- Based on the invention of televisions, young children have been affected by the influences of television.
- The negative effects of television influences on children are more compared to the positive influences of television.
- Use of television on children not regulated at a societal level.
- Thesis Statement
This research will study the influences of television on children and its negative effects on their school life.
- Literature Review
- Television is an important form of medium for children.
- Television assists in children’s learning
- The perspective of learning through television in the socialization process (Morrow, 2006).
- Educational impact of television in relation to the official curriculum
- Broader understanding of the impacts of televisions on the socialization process
- The extent to which programmes promote school readiness and academic skills (Sefton-Green, 2002)
- Relevant understanding on televisual literacy
- Impacts of television on children based on language and skills development.
- Understanding of the innate human capacity to learn the televisual literacy (Buckingham, 2003).
- The levels of attention paid to televisions by children aged 12 to 24 months.
- Negative Impacts
- Medical concern on the health of people relating to its influences
- Specific issues that relates to medical concerns in the society
- Adverse effects on language acquisition with education focus on the 3-5 year olds children.
- Data and Method
- Data collection through survey collection in the U.S
- Sample size=b=87.
- Generalization hinders proper analysis of the sample size.
- Limitations of the survey methods: data obtained is usually subjective (Jordan, 2005).
- Interviews taken in Australia
- Amount of the participants
- Analysis and limitations of the interviews
- Key findings
- Administration of questionnaires in France
- Sample size
- Sample size analysis
- Key findings
- Quantitative research and statistical analysis performed in Germany
- Sample size
- Sample size analysis
- Key findings
- Social Conflict Theory
- Physicians have more knowledge on the influences of televisions on children.
- Parents and teachers understand the performance of children under the influence of televisions (Davies, 2001).
- Young children are expected to be focused on their education.
- Young children need to understanding the influence of televisions.
- Symbolic interactionism
- Understanding of the effects of television on children that vary on cultures, subcultures and groups (Close, 2004).
- The levels of knowledge regarding the influences of children.
- This paper has studied the impacts of televisions on children that relates to the social life of the young people. This illustrates the need to impact relevant approach of influences of television on children.
- Future research on the influences of television on children relates to the key findings that encompasses relevant approach.
- Future researchers should consider a methodological approach in order to understand the social issues that influence television on children.
- Children need to understand that dependency on televisions affects medications and thus, it leads to relevant social and legal policies in the society.
Buckingham, D. (2003) Media Education: literacy, learning and contemporary culture, Cambridge: Polity
Close, R. (2004) ‘Television and language development in the early years: a review of the literature’, London: National Literacy Trust
Davies, M. M. (2001). ‘Dear BBC’: Children, Television Storytelling and the Public Sphere, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Jordan, A. (2005) ‘Learning to use books and television’, in American Behavioral Scientist Vol. 48 No. 5, January 2005, London: Sage.
Morrow, R. (2006). Sesame Street and the Reform of Children’s Television, Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.
Sefton-Green, J.(2002) ‘Cementing the Virtual Relationship; Children’s TV goes Online’ in Buckingham, David (ed) Small Screens: Television for Children, London: Leicester University Press.
Sociology Assignment Paper on Factors behind the Difference in Lifestyles between the American and the International Students
Factors behind the Difference in Lifestyles between the American and the International Students
International students are among the important sources of diversity in the United States. They are the main source of campus diversity. However, studies have shown that these students do not find it comfortable when settling in their new environment. In fact, there is relatively little information known about the experiences of the various international students in the campuses. However, the truth is that these students suffer cultural shock. This research was carried out with an aim of establishing some factors contributing to the differences in the lifestyle between the international and the American students. The research included 33 student participants from the university. The survey was conducted using questionnaires as the method of collecting data. From the results, some of the factors that cause the differences in the lifestyles included education background, religion and economical reasons. The research also mentions the family, language, and cultural background, political stance of their countries, friends, and environment as other factors that contributed to the difference.
Factors behind the Difference in Lifestyles between the American and the International Students
International education has been gaining significance in most countries with time. The number of students, which are travelling abroad for studies, has been increasing every year. These students travel in search of skills and knowledge from foreign learning institutions. With the advancements in technology, it is now possible for some students to study and obtain their degrees and other certificates through the internet (Cardon, 2011). However, most cases of international education involve travelling of students from their mother countries to the host countries.
Governments of various countries have been supporting the international education through investing in activities that encourage international education. In most cases, students tend to travel from the countries that are less developed to study in the developed nations that have adequate and advanced education facilities. In addition, students will travel abroad to attend lessons for education programs that are not in their country.
The US has been
one of the major recipients of foreign students. It started receiving foreign
students as early as 1960s. However, a rapid growth in the number of
international students has been recorded in the recent years (Sherry, 2010).
This has resulted from the attempts of the government of the United States to
encourage the international education within the country. In fact, the
universities and colleges in the United States are enrolling more foreign
students other countries in the world. The government has many programs, which
aim at encouraging the foreign students to interact freely and learn together
with students from the United States (Cardon, 2011). An example of those
programs is the Community College Initiative (CCI). The government has also
been organizing and supporting activities such as the International Education
Week and other activities relating to the international education. The purpose
of these programs is providing both students with the opportunities of gaining
insights into the subject of the global market place. This also enables
students to appreciate the diverse perspectives as well as the different
methods used in solving complex problems.
International education has been encouraged by the fact that most of the companies in the world prefer hiring employees that are globally competent. Today, the community has become more international (Pauline, 2013). Multinational business organizations have grown in number. Issues of cultural clashes have been affecting most of these businesses. International education has moved into eliminate this problem. It enables students to appreciate the idea of cultural diversity before joining the employment fraternity. The experience of studying abroad is currently being recognized widely in the senior management. They argue that this has the potential of cultivating valuable skills as well as desirable personal traits among the new recruits. Recent studies have reported that about 90 percent of the senior managers that studied abroad duding their career development prefer hiring or using a promotion strategy that recognizes and rewards the experience of studying abroad (Pauline, 2013). Moreover, the appreciation of the experience of studying abroad in the recruitment section is not only limited to the managers that have an international experience. In fact, studies show that about 60 percent of company managers would prefer hiring and promotion strategies that recognize the significance of the experience of studying abroad. This has in turn encouraged and promoted the practice of international education.
In addition, international education has contributed greatly on the United States’ economic development (Sherry, 2010). To begin with, the international students pay fees when they enroll in the universities or colleges. The students also pay for other upkeep services while staying in the U.S. Moreover, some students choose to remain in the United States after completing their studies. They are employed in the country and contribute to the economic growth.
- Problem statement
When the international students join the American education system, they are exposed to similar learning conditions as their American counterparts. They share same classes, engage in similar peer-pairing programs as well as sharing the same halls of residence. However, the degree to which these international students are engaged in successful educational practices is quite different compared to that of their American counterparts. This includes their academic performance, and social interactions among other issues relating to lifestyles. Generally, these groups end up practicing a lifestyle that differs significantly from that of the American students. There is fear that due to these differences, the main objective of international education may not be realized. Even though the international students are encouraged to direct their efforts toward academic activities in an attempt to compensate for their less satisfaction in their social life, the available literature is that most of the time students are silent on the limit to which they may engage in other educational practices that may be effective in their new environment (Pauline, 2013).
- Significance of the research
This study is significant in the field of international education. This is because it addresses the key issues, which are associated with the international education. This research focused on the extent to which the American students as well as the international students get involved in educational practices that are effective. The research compares the activities undertaken by the international students with the American students. The research will mainly focus on activities that relate to the way of life of the students. It will focus in only a few selected areas of activities involving these two groups of student. These will include activities that relate to student learning, satisfaction with the college, personal development, and other relevant activities. The research will furthermore examine the gains of the two groups in the personal as well as social development, their general development, and in their gains in the job-related skills.
Most of the previous research projects have always focused on the interaction between the foreign or international students and their new environment (Ellis-Bosold, 2013). The research has failed to address the effect of international education on the domestic students. In fact, most of these researches have indicated that the international students have little or no effect on practices of the domestic students. This study will seek to clarify this issue.
- The research questions
There were some main questions, which guided this study. Starting from the literature review up to the discussions and conclusions, the research focused on answering the following three questions:
- To what limit do the international students get involved in effective activities in their new environments? For example, how good are these students when compared with the domestic students in their participation in educational practices? How do they read, write, study, or participate in other activities?
- Does the culture or ethnic background of foreign students play in shaping the lifestyles of these students in the campuses? Are they affected by the American culture? Are there other factors that affect the way of life of these students? How do those factors affect their lifestyles?
- Research Objective
This research was done with an objective of establishing the factor that contributed most to the different lifestyles between the international students and the American students. The factors that were under the study included the economic reasons, educational background, and religion.
- Research Hypothesis
Economic factor is the may reason behind the difference I lifestyle between the international students and the American students. This is because it is the main cause of the international education. One of the reasons that support this hypothesis is that there is little competition in the developed countries compared to the developing countries. The other reason is that there are many educational chances in the United States. Lastly, the developing countries need students with an international experience to assist in the development activities.
- Literature Review
Currently, the American society is one of the most diverse cultures in the world (Ellis-Bosold, 2013). Because of this, there have been arguments by knowledgeable observers from both the outside and inside the academy about the relationship between culture and education. These observers say that the most important purpose of higher education is preparing individuals to be culturally competent. This enables these students to work effectively and efficiently with people of diverse backgrounds. Some of the promising approaches include the creation of learning environments, which value and promote diversity. There is also the intention of purposely exposing the American students multiple competing perspectives, which will challenge previously unexamined assumptions. In case these challenges are imbedded in suitable pedagogy, they can help in promoting high intellectual levels and personal development. Therefore, the diversity present in the American colleges and university campuses is not an idealistic or unjustified goal. It is necessary that the college students learn on how to live as well as work successfully with others, especially those that differ from themselves (Huang, 2012).
The international students form an
important source of diversity in university and college campuses. It is
becoming advantageous to attend a school that is enrolling high number of
international students. This is because it is likely to increase the cultural
sensitivity of the American students. In addition, these students will develop
more skills that will guarantee them an advantage in the marketplace. They will
acquire skills, which will enable them to work with people of different
background. With the rise in the number of foreign students in the United
States, many American students are now benefiting from these opportunities.
From statistics, the number of foreign students in the United States has
increased exorbitantly. In 2001, the number of these international students
enrolled in the universities and colleges within the U.S. was about 550,000
(Sherry, 2010). This represents an increase of 6.4 percent from the value of
the year 2000. In fact, the international students are currently representing
about five percent of the total number of students in the United States.
Even though the colleges and universities in the United States are enrolling more foreign students than other countries in the world, the experience of these students in their new environment is rarely reported in the literature. The available literature mostly emphasizes on the transition challenges, which these students face when adapting to the new environment, where they have to live as they learn. However, many international students have reported some degree of culture shock, especially when they arrive in the U.S and begin their studies. This is usually manifested as anxiety, stress, feelings of rejection, powerlessness, as well as isolation (Ying, 2013). Exposing these students to new attitudes, behavior patterns, and values are not essentially debilitating. However, this experience can indeed be transformative. Some research has indicated that some of the international students tend to be capable of relatively coping well in case they are faced with stressful life events.
Studies have shown that friendship networks tend to be vital factors that determine how well the international students can deal with the issue of stress (Huang, 2012). According to these studies, students with a strong social support always have an advantage. These students seem to adjust to the campus life within the host country more quickly and in an effective way. It is clear that the international students prefer making friends with students that come from their same home country to the American students. In fact, they tend to make more friendship with students from other countries than with students from the host country. In addition, the international students that make friendship with the American students usually tend to adjust and adapt more easily to their new environment.
Usually, it is much more difficult to become accepted into an affinity group that can provide social support. This is a common problem, which face the international students. The problem is even worse in case the number of students that came from their home country or global region is very small, or there is no student at all (Ying, 2013). In addition, it is difficult for the international students to the customs as well as the mores of the American society and the new campus life. This is because the new practices may be conflicting with the aspects of the cultural and personal identities of the international students. This is likely to lead to cases of feeling loneliness among these students, and eventually result to depression. In turn, this may result to a dampening effect on the ability of such students to participate in activities that may contribute to essential learning as well as personal developments when in the campus. One of the most general coping mechanisms involves focusing on the academic achievements (Huang, 2012).
Even though the international students are encouraged to direct their efforts toward academic activities in an attempt to compensate for their less satisfaction in their social life, the available literature is most of the time silent on the limit to which these students may engage in other educational practices that may be effective in their new environment. Most of the activities based on research done for decades are only linked with high personal development and learning levels. In fact, there is relatively little information that is known about the limit to which most international students are contented with their experience, their interaction with the peers as well as other faculty members, and their participation in various educationally purposeful activities at the campus (Huang, 2012). The faculty members, the academic as well as the student life administrators, and the institutional researcher require more knowledge concerning what is done by most international students in the campus. This will help in knowing whether, where, and when to intervene in order to improve their experience. In turn, this process will help in enhancing the quality of the American undergraduate education for both the American and the international students.
The available literature reviews have paid little attention to the effect of the international to the domestic student (Sherry, 2010). Most of the studies have indicated that the effects of these students on the culture of the host country. However, these students have a significant influence on the lives of the domestic students. This should also be addressed when intervening into matters involving the international education.
- Research Methodology
This research paper employed an Observational Research Design method. This involved conducting a survey about effects of international education. The survey was conducted on thirty three (33) students from within this university. The research considered both the international and the American students. The survey entailed extensive notes that were based on observing as well as interviewing the international and the American students concerning their lifestyles. The aim of the study was to determine the cause of the differences in the lifestyles of the American and the international students. The lifestyles of the two groups were first observed and found to be significantly different. A survey was then conducted to establish the factors behind the difference in the lifestyles.
- Preparation for the Study
To achieve the main objective of the research, adequate preparations were done. Preparation involved reading the relevant books and previous literature reviews on the topic. The preparation also involved reading about methods of data collection in order to determine the methods to be employed during the research.
- Methods of Data Collection
Data on this research topic was collected mainly using a questionnaire. There was also use of observation in order to distinguish the various lifestyles of the students. Moreover, interviews were used to obtain more information that could not be included in the questionnaire. The questionnaires were the main data collection tool for this study. The questions were prepared in a way that ensured all the required information was collected. Any information left out was collected using interviews or observation. The questionnaire had eight questions in total.
THE QUESTIONNAIRE USED
Hallo, nowadays various students from different countries interact in American higher learning institutions; an issue that sometimes generates social matrix and confusion owing to the difference in cultural orientation among these students. The objective of this survey is to determine the why the international students have such different lifestyles compare to the American students. Thank you for your time.
- How old are you? (Less than 18 years, 18-21 years, 22-30 years, Over 30 years)
- What is your gender? (Male, Female)
- What is your class rank? (Freshman, Sophomore, Junior, Senior, Grad Student )
- Are you an International Student or an American Student?
- If you are an international student, what country are you coming from?
- Please rank the following factors from 0 to 10, based on its contribution to the different lifestyles between International students and American students. ( Take 0 as the lowest and 10 as the highest)
(1) Economics (1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10)
(2) Religion (1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10)
(3) Educational Background (1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10)
7. Please explain about your ranking standard
8. What else do you think are the important
factors that make the international students have a different lifestyle
compared to American Students?
- Ethical considerations
It is essential to note that the survey
was done in a university that enjoys cultural diversity. However, the research
topic largely focused on culture. Therefore, it was vital to ensure that the
ethical code of conduct is observed to the latter. In fact, the researcher
started by asking permission from the respondent before administering the
questionnaire. He then stated clearly the intended purpose of the research. He
also avoided asking questions that would be detrimental to the respondents’
self-interest, among other ethical issues. The respondents were also assured of
confidentiality as well as the anonymity of their responses. Finally, the
researcher thanked each of the individuals that participated in the survey.
- The Sampling Method
During the research, a quantitative survey of 33 third year students, both international and the American, was conducted. Similar questionnaires were administered to this selected sample. To determine the stability in the response of the selected sample, the questionnaires were distributed at different points. This also encouraged the reliability of the data obtained.
The study employed a stratified probability sampling method to arrive at the 33 sample students from the whole population of the university. Here, the total population of the university was separated into different groups based on the year of study. The characteristics of each group were then analyzed, and one favorable group picked for the study. The group that was selected was mainly composed of the third year students as in the discussion. A systematic sampling approach was then used to arrive at the 33 students. This involved grouping them into various groups according to age bracket and an equal number of students from each age group. Finally, equal numbers of students were picked from the age groups and the questionnaires administered accordingly.
- Results and Analysis
There were 33 participants in this survey. The survey was not limited in terms of age. However, the mean age of the participants was 20 year old. Most of these students were third years as far as class rank was concerned. There number of female students who participated in the survey was 13 while the male were 17.
Out of the surveyed subjects, 21 were American students, and 12 were International students. There were 6 Chinese students, 3 Japanese students, 1 Swedish student, and 2 African students among the surveys as shown in the chart below.
According to the data, 17 students ranked the Educational background higher than the other two factors in considering its contribution to the different lifestyles between the international students and the American students. These were composed of 13 American students and 4 International students. In addition, there were 8 that students ranked the religion as the second important factor. These included 5 American students and 3 International students. Moreover, there were 6 students that ranked the Economic issues as the least important factor. This group was composed of 1 American student and 5 International students. However, there were 2 American students that remained neutral.
subjects also mentioned other important factors such as the family, cultural
background, Language, political stance of the countries, environment, and
friends to be among the factors, which contribute to the different lifestyles
between the American and the international students.
The results are summarized in the bar charts below.
- Research limitations
There are some factors, which limited the effectiveness of this research. To begin with, the research used a very small sample population. The 33 students used in this survey represent less than 0.5 % of the total population of this university. Therefore, it may be ineffective to draw a concrete conclusion from the research results. Future surveys should involve at least 200 students in order to be more effective.
Another limitation was use of an ineffective sampling technique. The technique used resulted to a large percentage of the participants coming from third year. In contrary, most participants should come from the first and final year students for better comparison. In addition, the technique had a larger number of domestic students participating in the research than the international students. For a better analysis, the survey should involve more international students than domestic students.
There was a limitation in the content of the questionnaire. The questions used were limited in that they appeared to be close-ended. This limited the participants from giving their views about the matter of study. In fact, the questionnaire had already put more emphasis on economic, religion, and educational background as the main research factors. Even though question 8 provided the participants with an opportunity to list their factor, this question was to come before question 6 and 7.
- Discussion and Conclusion
Students within the same university or college campus always tend to lead a similar way of life just like people who live within the same culture. This is because these students will always spend most of their time together and, therefore, they end up sharing their cultural practices. However, all previous researches done on this topic have always shown that there is usually a big difference in the lifestyles of the between the American students and the international students (Huang, 2012). These differences are more significant during the first year of study, but they may reduce by some proportion as these students continue studying together.
According to this research, there exist
differences in the lifestyles between the two groups of students. Most of the
foreign students tend to interact with the university or college environment in
a different was as compared to the American students. This includes issues such
as academics, religion, and other socialization activities, for example,
participation in recreational activities. These students tend to possess
overriding cultural behavior patterns, values, and norms. They tend to adapt to
the new culture within their colleges.
According to this research, there are a number of factors resulting to these differences in lifestyles among these students. The research revealed that education background is the main factor that has caused the difference in the way of living of the domestic and the foreign students. Each of the groups always tends to practice what they were taught and always believe it the right way of doing things. They always tend to resist adapting to new practices, especially if they are contrary to what they were taught and they have always known to be correct while growing up.
Religion is another significant factor
that is responsible for the problem of differences in the way of life of the
students. Religion is always related to the culture of the people. It defines
how people treat each other in a community in relation to a supernatural being.
Religion is one of the cultural practices, which a person may be willing to
change. It determines our way of life and, therefore our lifestyle.
Economic factors determine the people’s way of life. The poor and the rich always live different lifestyles due to economic factors. Some of the international students live cheaper life due to economic reasons. The research also mentioned other factors such as cultural background, Language, political stance of the countries, environment, and friends to be among the factors that contribute to the different lifestyles between the American and the international students.
Concisely,the result the results of this research showed that for the American students, the Educational background is the most important factor, which contributes to the differences in the lifestyles. In contrary, the international students believed that the economic factor is responsible for the difference. Therefore, we can conclude that these two factors are the most important factors, which contribute the different lifestyles between the international students and American students.
Cardon, P. (2011). Using Typologies to Interpret Study Abroad Preferences of American Business Students: Applying a Tourism Framework to International Education. Journal of Education for Business, 86(2), 111-118.
Ellis-Bosold, C. (2013). A Needs Assessment: A Study of Perceived Need For Student Health Services By Chinese International Students. College Student Journal, 47(1), 155-168.
Huang, J. (2012). Intercultural Miscommunication: Impact on ESOL Students and Implications for ESOL Teachers. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 39(1), 36-40
Pauline, J. S. (2013). Physical Activity Behaviors, Motivation, and Self-Efficacy Among College Students. College Student Journal, 47(1), 64-74.
Sherry, M. (2010). International students: a vulnerable student population. Higher Education, 60(1), 33-46.
Ying Lilindsey, B. J. (2013). An Association between College Students’ Health Promotion Practices and Perceived Stress. College Student Journal, 47(3), 437-446.
The Influence of Religion on Life
A sociological factor is any aspect that has a direct impact on our lifestyles. Religion is such one factor that this paper will discuss comprehensively in regard to my life.
Religion has shaped my eating habits in that it has made me feel I have less control over my life. It has instilled in me resistance to junk food by declaring certain plant and animal species as unclean. Therefore, any food that has had contact with the species is out of bounds. The religious reminder is there to help me keep off these foods that are to some extent termed by nutritionists as junk.
Attending church activities is exposure to obesity as a result of participation in Sunday potlucks. Other foods associated with worship as comfort to believers are also likely to contribute to excessive weight gain. Smoking is known to reduce the human lifespan; I hope to live longer and be free from long term effects of smoking like cancer, thanks to my religion that prohibits the act (Foley 34).
There is social joy experienced from being part of a regular service. Coming together at places of worship enhances social networking that in turn brings about life satisfaction. Self-esteem is a feeling of self-appreciation. My religion instills in me a sense of belonging to the larger culture. The more I feel I belong, the more I feel happier. This religious benefit is more enjoyable because of my country of residence that embraces religion as important and is thus widespread.
It is human to make mistakes. Anytime that I make mistakes in my life, I depend on the faith I have in my religion to soothe the anxiety. Am thus able to settle the setbacks gracefully. Major setbacks in life result to depression. Besides the psychiatric treatments, what has worked for me is the belief in a supreme being who cares and can free me from my problems. With religion being an intrinsic part of my life, my mental struggles are less weighty (Foley 69).
People dread visits to the doctor, yet it is the best way towards a healthy life. Due to the social support from fellow believers, it is easy to access preventative care. Regular checks at the hospitals have become essential to me, just like going for treatment itself (Foley 56).
Regular visits to a place of worship are a source of information for me in preventing high blood pressure. There are lessons from fellow believers on how to cope with stress. There is a relaxation boost associated with singing and praying, as well performing other religious rituals. Religion has added to the list of my stress-management practices.
The relationship with parents has
bettered. Religion has taught me to be respectful to them in order to receive
more blessings including a promise of a longer life. Through charitable deeds
embraced by my religion, I am able to determine the heartbeat of others and
understand their needs. Religion has instilled in me the spirit of sharing with
the less fortunate. It is through religion that my life has shaped, and I am
able to take full control of it. The teachings of religion to avoid sexual
activities that result in contagious diseases has made me behave more
responsibly. Children are a gift, but faith has made me realize
that the gift is best valuable when it has been planned by the parties involved.
It has thus become my responsibility to ensure there is no reproduction before
wedlock (Foley 91).
Foley, Edward. Religion, Diversity and Conflict. Zurich: LIT VerlagGmbH & Co. KG Wien, 2011. Print.Pg. 34-91.
Sample Article Review on Can sex & sexuality in the media for youth become an educational source instead of taboo?
Can sex & sexuality in the media for youth become an educational source instead of taboo?
This study aims at exploring the media as an educational source that can be used to inform the youth about sex and sexuality instead of taboos. In the contemporary society, the media platform has taken the youths like a storm. Most of the studies done indicates that the modern youth, spends most of the time in the media. Media applications like Whatsapp and social media applications such as Twitter and Facebook are the modern way of communication. This being the case, the media can take a core role in educating the youths on sex and sexuality. The taboos still remain but are rarely applied in the contemporary society. With the modernization and technological advancement, taboos are becoming a thing of the past. It still remains to be seen, how many people still adhere to believes and taboos. This being the case, the role of taboos and beliefs has been eroded by the current wave and has been replaced by the media, which acts as the informer, advisor, and counselor to the youths. Of importance is that though taboos ought to be followed, the enlightenment of the modern youth requires more than the taboos (Brown & Sarah para). Traditionally, young persons were taught about sex upon reaching a certain age. The contemporary society, because of the media, has been exposed to sex and sexual material at a very early age. This being the case, the debate on sex and sexuality ought to be tackled by the whole society since the media, is affected by the people’s perception and in certain cases may not give the required information. The research fit in the context since it is trying to give an opinion of the regarding how the media can help educators in teaching the youth on sex and sexuality. The research is trying to show the validity of the fact that indeed the media should be used to educate the youths since the contemporary persons are not wary of taboos. The writer/authors’ rationale is well presented, though the topic is too broad and may therefore lead to generalization of some factors relating to sex and sexuality among the youths. This being the case, this paper aims at critiquing the media on its capability to educate the youths about sex and sexuality.
Hetsroni, Amir. “Adolescents’ Perceived Usefulness of Information on Sexuality: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Interpersonal Sources, Professional Sources and the Mass Media.” Atlantic Journal of Communication 15.2 (2007): 134-152.
Overall purpose of the research
A study found in the Atlantic Journal of communication by Hetsroni in 2007, on the adolescents’ perceived usefulness of information on sexuality in Israel (134), showed that the media was very central in the provision of information regarding sexuality. Of those surveyed, having come from different background, irrespective of ethnicity claimed that the media was the most useful source of information. The paper therefore tries to explain the perceived importance of various sources in educating the youth on sexuality.
Measures/methods used in the research
In the analysis, various indicators were used, including interpersonal sources that entail parents and family members. Of the interviewed, the family and older siblings played an important role in socialization, but not in sex matters. The majority of the respondents indicated sharing with their fellow youths on sex matters more than their family members (136). Professional sources that included the school system and the health care professionals were not considered as good and reliable sources for lack of confidence to disclose the information (137). The mass media was found to be saturated with sexual materials that exposed teens to sexual behaviors (137).
Validity of the research
In this, more than 14000 cases were reported from the TVs, as 80% of the TV programs were viewed by the teens (137). Despite this fact, helpful information was not found on TVs. Internet, offered skewed information, and so were the magazines and newspaper (138). In the research, it was found out that the teens from the Arab origin were more likely to adhere to taboos than the media. This was attributed by the fact the Arabs value taboos more than the Jews and the Christians (149)
Agreement with the author’s rationale
I totally agree with the author’s rationale that various sources of information are sought after to provide information on sexuality. Despite the fact that media is the mostly used source, it does not provide adequately, the required information.
McKee, Alan. “The importance of entertainment for sexuality education.” Sex Education 12.5 (2012): 499-509.
Overall purpose of the research?
The purpose of this study was to highlight the importance of entertainment for sexuality education, since the young people learn about sexuality from various sources including the entertainment media (499).
The author used various measurement including fiends, partners, teachers, TVs, magazines and other websites.
Validity of the research
This study revealed that young people seek the media because it offers the information they want, and in ways that they liked. Like Hetsorin, he indicated the various sources to include friends, partner, school, TVs, media among others (500). She described two types of sexual health including the erotic and the official health information (501). Schools were found to offer official health information, but on a marginal scale (501). Peers were reported to be the most used source of information on sexual health. From his findings, parents, teachers and professional were approached when formal information on sex was required, but friends and the media were used to provide romantic information or relational information.
Justification of the rationale used
The media is favored by the youths since it provides information on safe sex, as well as helping their developing sexuality when experimenting relationships and intimacy (503).
Talukdar, Joy. “The prospects of a virtual sex education: a review.” American Journal of Sexuality Education 8.1-2 (2013): 104-115
Purpose of the study
Talukdar highlights that media is a very powerful tool in shaping and affecting the youths on health and sexual related information (104). In her study, the media content determines its capacity to be viewed, whereby, the programs that portrays the risks of sexual activities led to lower likelihood of intercourse in later years (106).
Applying the theory of media, individual adopt behaviors that are common and those that lead to positive outcomes (107). Hust, brown and Lengle, in Talukdar indicated that though radios, TV and magazines are sought for information on sexuality, rarely was there any mention of the risks of early unprotected sexual behaviors (108). Digital media on the other hand, sometimes gives the required information on sexual education. Research done indicates that sexual programs that targeted the high risk youth category was more effective than the classroom version (109).
Justification of the rationale
Despite the increased use of the digital media, the information provided in these platforms does not entail sexual education. (111). The author therefore agrees that a combination of the old and we methods should be incorporated to promote healthier sexuality.
Meyer, Michaela DE. “Media, Sexuality and Identity: Thoughts on the Role Text, Audience and Production Play in Cultural Discourse.” Sexuality & Culture17.3 (2013): 379-383.
Purpose of the study
Meyer, in media, sexuality and identity, indicates that since the digital media is more readily available on a daily basis, they subvert the societal hegemonic norms (382). This therefore leads to the notion that media should be controlled if positive results on sexual education is to be achieved.
From the observation of various scholars, and since the youths spends almost a third of their day in the social media, it can succeed in educating the young on se and sexuality issues. In the media today, the youths can see the explicit materials on these digital sites. Since the today’s youth rank the media in terms of sex and sexuality more than the professionals and parents, more need to be done to improve on the quality of materials being watched, such that, informative education can be availed. To a great extent, the authors have presented factual information in regard to media function in sex and sexuality. However, the articles have failed to explain the limitations of taboos towards sex and sexual education. The relationship between culture, education, diversity as well as social economic factors are some other approaches that limit media in achieving the intended purpose of educating the youths about sexuality.
Many of the young people turn to the mass media for information on sexuality since the formal schooling and taboos cannot afford the necessary information way that the teens can appreciate. The current social setting does not provide good avenues for the provision of information on sexual matters. In such cases, the educators have used the media in the provision of information on sexuality. The film producers as well as the media people should not be coaxed into doing what they don’t like, but efforts should be put in place to ensure collaboration between all parties so that the material found on the media can benefit the youths. Taboos, are affected by various factors, including modernization, technological advancement, diversification, and therefore should not be fully relied to help the young persons on sexuality.
Brown, Jane D., and Sarah N. Keller. “Forum: Can the mass media be healthy sex educators.” Family planning perspectives 32.5 (2000): 1-4.
Hetsroni, Amir. “Adolescents’ Perceived Usefulness of Information on Sexuality: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Interpersonal Sources, Professional Sources and the Mass Media.” Atlantic Journal of Communication 15.2 (2007): 134-152.
McKee, Alan. “The importance of entertainment for sexuality education.” Sex Education 12.5 (2012): 499-509.
Meyer, Michaela DE. “Media, Sexuality and Identity: Thoughts on the Role Text, Audience and Production Play in Cultural Discourse.” Sexuality & Culture17.3 (2013): 379-383.
Talukdar, Joy. “The prospects of a virtual sex education: a review.” American Journal of Sexuality Education 8.1-2 (2013): 104-115.