Research Proposal: The Impact of Collaboration between Human Resources Management and Innovation Management in Crisis Situation in Strategies’ Performances of the Firm
The Impact of Collaboration between Human Resources Management and Innovation Management in Crisis Situation in Strategies’ Performances of the Firm
With the growing literatures analyzing innovation and organizational changes, there is still concern about the contributions of such changes to the general employees’ performances (Costa and Sergey 16). Most organizations are concerned about system compatibility, and therefore find reasons to conduct research with the interest of identifying how best they can improve their innovative activities, or determining the internal and external factors that have positive effects on the behaviors of employees (Costa and Sergey 18). With the knowledge variation among employees, the critical question worth investigating is “what kind of organizational resource will lead to sustainable competitive advantage?” This means exploring the key human resources like employees’ knowledge (Arvanitis 77), skills and abilities, which can equally be used to improve existing products and services, or create new products that will meet the consumption expectations of new markets (Costa and Sergey 20). The research will also assume that product and service improvement, or development of new products and services is coherent to the collaboration between the organizational human resource management practices and the strategies adopted, which link to the organizational innovation strategies (Kyriakopoulos 88).
It is therefore sufficient stating the existence of a close relationship between HRM practices and Innovation Management practices as the leading factors towards improved performance and competitive advantage (Kochan, Thomas and Lee 101). There is a knowledge gap in most of the studies conducted over the subject of human resource management and its application in product and service innovation. Even though some of these studies recognize valuable employees’ knowledge as a necessary factor in product development (Kochan, Thomas and Lee 103), it is however insufficient information as to why such knowledge cannot count as conditions for developing product innovation. This means that in addition to taking advantage of employee’s valuable knowledge, the unexplored features like creativity, entrepreneurship, and uniqueness are still fundamental towards developing new products and services (Kochan, Thomas and Lee 105). These arguments lead to the following study hypotheses:
H1: valuable employee’s knowledge has a positive relationship with innovation
The first hypothesis retails around the fact that the unique knowledge of employee can result in competitive differentiation of products and services (Kyriakopoulos 89). Uniqueness in this context is associated with content specificity, which an organization cannot transfer to other organizations unless there is labor transfer. Because organizations can never be innovative on the basis of generic knowledge, they attach significance to the part of employees they consider rainmakers since the employees’ specialized knowledge contributes immensely to the creation and development of new production ideas (Laursen and Foss 27).
H2: there is a close positive association between employee’s unique knowledge and innovation
This would mean that through proper search and recruitment services, the human resource management remains the facilitator of knowledge required by the organization for product and service innovation (Laursen and Foss 27). The firm’s human resource should always be valuable and unique for the purposes of facilitating superior performances. The firm should also be appropriately organized or structured to control and take advantage of the available resources (Moosa and Patiwat 48).
H3: there is a positive association between knowledge-based human resource management practices and innovative knowledge
H4: there is a positive association between collaborative human resource management practices and innovation management practices
This hypothesis is based on two major propositions that describe the contributions of human resource management and innovation management to the general performance of the organization (Moosa and Patiwat 49). The first proposition is that the human resource management practices may facilitate valuable and unique knowledge relevant for innovation activities. The second proposition is that the valuable and unique knowledge can mediate the growing relationships between human resource management practices and employees’ innovative capabilities (Nieves, Rodríguez 225). This would mean exploring the possibilities of having a direct impact of human resource management practices on employees’ innovative actions independent of individuals’ knowledge characteristics (Nieves, Julia, Agustín Quintana and Javier Osorio 228). We will therefore explore the suggested capabilities of human resource management practices influencing the strategic decisions and directions taken by resource managers in job design, training, development, performance appraisal, and employees’ compensation with the aims of creating a competitive innovative environment.
Contemporary HRM practices focus on human capital and its contribution to organizational performance as part of the firm’s resource-base (Nieves, Julia, Agustín Quintana and Javier Osorio 228). For most firms, human resources have always remained key ingredient towards the success or failure of operations, including successes and failures of the organization to meet its innovative goals (Nieves, Julia, Agustín Quintana, and Javier Osorio 229). As a contribution to this research, it is highly important for organizations and human resource managers to understand the importance of human resource capital as a factor that encourages and makes innovation possible (Nieves, Julia, Agustín Quintana and Javier Osorio 230), and the specific deployment practices within the firm that can create a foundation for the desired innovation performance standards.
Studies have attached higher levels of significance to particular attributes of individual employees, business founders, and company executives (Bondarouk, Tanya and Miguel R. Olivas-Luján 142). This is because these groups of individuals directly link to the company’s superior innovation performances, especially for the case of innovative genius. The values encrypted in human capital are substantially above average when it comes to innovative capacities (Peters, Melanie 161), which employees can acquire through training efforts or by innate. For example, entrepreneurial start-ups exemplify the knowledge and provide direct link between human capital and innovative performance (Revilla, Antonio and Zulima Fernández 289). From the studies conducted, it is also clear from the fact that superior innovative activities find their roots within individual capabilities, and this stems from the interactions within the pool of human capital.
The organizational set-up of a company as defined by the HRM practices significantly contributes to human capital innovation performance, and it is this effect that most researchers address in their studies (Revilla, Antonio and Zulima Fernández 239). With the presented concepts, the management must deploy proper training arrangement, make appropriate decisions on rewards systems, set up innovative teams, and allocate each employee decision-rights since these arrangements can have both positive and negative implications for the contributions of human capital innovation (Revilla, Antonio and Zulima Fernández 239).
The human resource practices can therefore be modelled in terms of mediators (how human capital mediates the influence of Human Resource Management innovative activities) and moderators (the practices that can weaken or reinforce the connections between human resources and innovation activities) models (Bondarouk, Tanya and Miguel R. Olivas-Luján 143). Based on the factors mentioned, there are several suggestions made about the mechanisms through which organizational HRM practices can influence the observed relationships between human capital and overall innovation performances (Sastre, Juan Fernández 56). This means employing communication networks within the organizations following the changes in organizational structures, which can influence innovation.
According to motivational researchers, employees’ creative behaviors underlie successful innovation and are stimulated by rewards. On the side of managerial styles, the focus is pegged on process feedback, setting of goals, use of teams for project development as the main factors affecting creativity and innovative behaviors (Sastre, Juan Fernández 56). In other words, innovative organizational practices revolve around employees’ sourcing, deployment and human capital upgrade as the most precise factors that can lead to improved performance.
The relationships between Human Resource Management and Innovation management provide wider understanding about the roles of particular employees (Sastre, Juan Fernández 59). With respect to growing number of literatures, current studies focus on what is considered new, or rather on modern practices that can lead to higher performances and its link to innovation performance (Sastre, Juan Fernández 61). The relationships between Human Resource Management practices and Innovation Management can be studied under specific subheadings as presented below based on the research objectives.
Human resource practices and innovation performance
The notions of modern Human Resource Management practices have been in many occasion used to define instances of process delegation, extensive lateral and vertical communication methods, high organizational rewards systems and multiple performance indicators (Schuler, Randall, and Susan, Jackson 64). These elements according to studies conducted are bundles that can be deployed to allow the company achieves high levels of organizational performance. From the numerous investigations, we posit five important areas of human resource operations that are crucial to the general innovation performance of the company (Schuler, Randall, and Susan, Jackson 64). The five areas include the delegation functions of managers like team building and production, knowledge incentive like revenue sharing, improved internal communication linkages to encourage positive practices related to knowledge sharing and job rotation, employee training for both internal and external organizational functions, and employees’ recruitment and job retention (Schuler, Randall, and Susan, Jackson 69). Empirical literatures on the subject of employees’ innovative capacity suggest two important approaches that can enhance productivity; interaction approach and systems approach. The interaction approach maintains that the influence of particular organizational practices have relative performance outcomes as suggested by the set of variables like knowledge, level of experience and willingness (Schuler, Randall, and Susan, Jackson 76). On the other hand, the system approach is the most dominant factor even though is sometimes confers to the indirect tests of performance complementarity.
The role of innovation in organizational performance
The streams of literatures presented in this study consider innovation from the perspectives of and indirect factor (Shankar, Kameshwari, and Suman Ghosh 101). On the indirect perspectives, the studies consider Human Resource Management practices as explanatory variables that help researchers to define independent variables like productivity levels and profitability growth (Shankar, Kameshwari, and Suman Ghosh 103). This means that the behaviors of company’s workforce have value in ensuring organizational performance. The HRM, through the company’s policies, stand a chance of influencing the employees’ skills and motivating them in a way that improves the way employees perform their jobs (Shankar, Kameshwari, and Suman Ghosh 110).
The investigation under this subheading adopts a cross-sectional method based on empirical hypothesis. The empirical hypothesis as tools of investigation made it possible to identify the links between the sets of Human Resource Management practices and company’s economic performances (Tan 17). While earlier investigations showed little connections between economic performances like productivity, current data and information are developed on a tended relationship, and confirms that indeed, there are set of complementary Human Resource Management practices that can either have positive impact on the company’s economic performance or may create opportunity for negative business operations. Improving productivity and profitability, which are directly linked to innovation management are the main factor under discussion (Tan 17).
The link between Human Resource Management and Innovation Management
The set of literatures established direct theoretical and empirical links between Human Resource Management and Innovation management, especially for the different forms of product and process innovation (Theriou, George, and Prodromos, Chatzoglou 93). In several occasions, process managers have paid little attention to the Human Resource Management practices and their influence through workforce and process organization to the general performance of the company. Safe for the Japanese understanding of skill distribution in product and process engineering, most countries seemed to treat innovation as separate process that requires certain level of uniqueness (Theriou, George, and Prodromos, Chatzoglou 97). The Japanese manufacturing management gave new insights into process and product definition, making engineers and workers to grow exponentially with the mind set on new production ideas. The enabling systems were then thought to be important in ensuring proper product design and process design following the increase in market demands.
This initial insight gave process and product managers across organizations better understanding about the favorable innovative activities of Human Resource Managers (Tokar, Travis, John, Aloysius, and Matthew 302). One major link between HRM and Innovation management is that the two processes are concerned with decentralization of activities by allowing each employee an opportunity to develop distinct problem solving models that can aid in organizational performance (Tokar, Travis, John, Aloysius, and Matthew 302). The implementation of the two management policies ensures that the cited rights co-exist alongside the relevant performance knowledge. A greater part of this relationship becomes an inherent tactic that will require service decentralization for any growth to be realized (Tokar, Travis, John, Aloysius, and Matthew 304). This argument is support by observed experiences where managers tend to explore teamwork as important component of Human Resource Management practice. This means that managers appreciate the group decision when it comes to local knowledge (Tokar, Travis, John, Aloysius, and Matthew 307), leading improvements in product and service production. The innovative teams in this case must comprise direct human resource inputs, which can potentially result into process improvements with little costs attached to the innovation performances.
Research design and sampling strategy
To maximize our study on innovative capabilities of human resource departments, we will need to sample firms that are involved in innovative activities (Bondarouk, Tanya and Miguel R. Olivas-Luján 145). The study will start with a sampling frame of firms whose operations retail around employees’ innovation like the motor vehicle companies, radio and TV manufacturers, and telecommunication providers (Bondarouk, Tanya and Miguel R. Olivas-Luján 145). The population selection criteria will help the researcher to determine whether a particular firm falls within the innovative industries and the minimum number of employees involved in production. As a secondary source of data for companies with more than 50 employees, the researcher will use 2010 edition of the database from Edgar Listings and the DUNS 50,000 database (Bondarouk, Tanya and Miguel R. Olivas-Luján 148). The research will consider a population of 620 companies, and their respective R&D departments used as the units of analysis.
The researcher will adopt the methodology of direct contact with the firms, mailed questionnaires and follow up activities (Evans, Paul, Yves L. Doz, and André Laurent 137). This will mean identifying each company’s R&D departments in the population, establishing a direct telephone interview with the respective managers to determine instances of collaboration requires and discuss the mailed questionnaire (Evans, Paul, Yves L. Doz, and André Laurent 139). The research targets response from 88 firms, with at least 86 valid results for the hypothesis to be tested against the collaboration theories. This means that the researcher will be working on a 14 percent response rate from the targeted population (Evans, Paul, Yves L. Doz, and André Laurent 143).
To determine nonresponse bias, the researcher will compare the respondents with non-respondents using mean difference following the common features like industry membership, employees’ population and revenues collected over the engagement period (Evans, Paul, Yves L. Doz, and André Laurent 147). Since the researcher expects unbiased nonresponse, the hypotheses will only turn to be true or otherwise if the test showed no significant difference between the respondents and non-respondents.
As already stated, the researcher will use questionnaire with more than 40 items to collect data from the companies in the sample. The response for the enumerated items will be obtained using a 7-point Likert scale safe for the performance, for which the research will explore objective data through direct questions (In Dodgson, M., In Gann, D and In Phillips 201). The study will also require the researcher to assess content validity after intensively reviewing the literature. Through a panel of 10 experts, the research will require each individual to present his or her suggestion on the type of questions to be included in the questionnaire (In Dodgson, M., In Gann, D and In Phillips 209). The final questionnaires will be sent to respective company’s manager both in soft or hard copies.
Organizational performance will be assessed based on how effective the firms can achieve the various financial benchmarks, which the research considers and objective measure. The assessment for effectiveness will also be based on the subjective measure like the firms’ positions on effective indicators, and successes relative to competitor’s ratings for the same indicators (Dodgson, Mark, David Gann, and Nelson Phillips 36). The objective measure in this case will be used to eliminate variance errors that may result during the comparison stages. The objective measure of profits will involve diving the firms’ total revenues for the specific sales period by the total assets (Dodgson, Mark, David Gann, and Nelson Phillips 39). Essentially, the researcher will conduct literature review to measure organization’s product innovation activities, then will adopt the measure of valuable and knowledge uniqueness. In general, the dependent variable in this research will include product and service innovative activities to be measured on the devised eight-scale item of measurement.
The independent variables of the study will be Human Resource Management practices adopted from the selected companies like the analysis of human capital and the population of workforce (Dodgson, Mark, David Gann, and Nelson Phillips 56). This means identifying specific items like knowledge-based employment structures as well as their collaborative systems in relation to group functions. The Human Resource Management practices were selected as independent variable for this study because they are the generators of innovative behaviors and highly link to the value and uniqueness of a company’s human capital (Dodgson, Mark, David Gann, and Nelson Phillips 57).
The study will use the size, internal and external expenses on the human resource factors as control variable. This is because the size of the company has a close link to the need for innovation, and while small companies relies heavily on human capital, large companies have the tendency to fuse production technologies with human capital (Dodgson, Mark, David Gann, and Nelson Phillips 69). It is also noticeable that an expansion in the size of the company becomes an incentive for higher number of human resources, which create opportunity for potential innovation. On the same note, it is widely argued that small organizations always tend to remain innovative by becoming more flexible, adaptable and ready to accept and implement changes that can improve production levels (Bondarouk, Tanya and Miguel R. Olivas-Luján 147). The size of the organization will be measured following the number of employees, and their distribution in the various areas of production. Other than the size of the company, the study will also include internal and external expenditures as other control variables since they affect the ability and willingness to adopt new production systems (Bondarouk, Tanya and Miguel R. Olivas-Luján 159). The internal and external variables will be measured using two items in which the respondents will give information concerning the company’s internal and external expenditure on factors of production.
|Practices involving Delegation of Responsibility|
|Practices involving Knowledge incentives|
|Practices involving Knowledge sharing|
|Practices involving Employee training|
|Practices involving Recruitment and retention|
|Economic performance (productivity/profitability)|
The conceptual model above summarizes the links between Human Resource Management practices and Innovation Management according to important areas of investigation in this research. The elements reflected above primarily reflect that both Human Resource Management and Innovation Management are considerably expanded fields that have significant impacts on the overall performance of organizations (Hertog, Den, Faïz, and Jeroen 70). The model also gives a reflection of trends in the field of business that facilitate the emerging integration of Human Resource Management and innovation for the purpose of improving business activities. In other words, the model provided a theoretical relationship between HRM and Innovation Management in which case we can temporarily argue that as firms increasingly adopt or apply open innovation models in their operations and engage with sources of external knowledge, they finds it compelling to add to the existing workforce new groups of employees with diverse knowledge and innovative skills.
Analysis of the result
The research findings will be tested against the hypothesis based on the concepts of structural equation modelling (Hertog, Den, Faïz, and Jeroen 71). The analysis will follow two fundamental procedures as suggested most scholar. After the exploratory factor analysis, it would be prudent for the researcher to estimate the measurement models using the confirmatory factor analysis for the goodness of fit (Hertog, Den, Faïz, and Jeroen 71). The confirmatory factor analysis will be performed to test employees’ psychometric properties based on the scales of measurements stated earlier. The main idea here is for the researchers to determine construct validity and reliability of the subjective measurements (Hertog, Den, Faïz, and Jeroen 73), test the variables and eliminate unreliable items. After listing the individual measurement items to be included in the study as dependent, independent and control variables, it will be necessary for the researchers to establish the scale of dimensionality by analyzing the factorial structure of the functional relationships (Heskett 15). The researcher will then proceed to test the scale reliability for all the indicators and composite reliability for the factors. Content validity will be analyzed based on the reviewed previous literatures, while the convergent validity will be accepted for factorial loads not higher than 0.5, meaning that the t-test coefficients are significant (Heskett 15).
Academic and managerial implications, limitations of the study
The concern for quality products and better service delivery is rapidly increasing following the introduction of new systems of operation (Djeflat 23). Employees have become highly innovative, impacting processes with organization and making firms to become more competitive that before (Djeflat 23). With the introduction of technologies in various industries, there are higher possibilities that firms will even find it more competitive to operate in a market with significantly increasing number of firms (Ebbers, and Nachoem 121). The inclusion of innovative ideas in the field of Human Resource Management can add to the performance level of employees. Employees’ eligibility, capability, skills and experiences in areas of production still remains the driving force for better performances even after the introduction of new technologies (Ebbers, and Nachoem 121).
Based on the discussion above, it is quite convincing that this research will add to the value of human resource management (Ebbers, and Nachoem 123). The production processes outlined within the organization can be used to define performance levels and each employee’s contribution to the success of the company. This means that other processes like compensation, rewards and motivation can be done based on employees’ productivity (Ebbers, and Nachoem 125).
Factors like organizational ethics and business culture may act as barriers to the process of data collection. Some organizations are bound by policies that restrict employees and managers from giving information about managerial issues to an external party (Eriksson, Zhihua and Wenjing 108). The study may also be limited by time and cost of study since there is need to interact with managers from all the sample companies. The information required following the hypothesis are intensive in nature and may require a longer time of study before analysis. Based on these limitation (Eriksson, Zhihua and Wenjing 110), which may prevent the researchers from obtaining sufficient data for analysis, the need to conduct other studies on the same topic in future is optimal.
The research literatures point to the general fact that managerial knowledge is rapidly changing, and innovation is becoming more critical to sustained business growth and success (Eriksson, Zhihua and Wenjing 110). The research is follows the basic understanding of the importance of human capital and how individual skills can lead to product and process innovation. The studies are distinctively embedded on human resource management practices as one of the strategies that can be used to facilitate innovation processes (Foss and Keld 221). The four dimensions of human resource management practices like staffing, structure, strategy and operational support are considered fundamental to successful innovation. In addition to ensuring successful innovation (Foss and Keld 223), organizational managers through the human resource management practices ensure that the organization has the right skills and number of staffs capable of meeting the performance objectives of company (Foss and Keld 227).
The literature review findings substantially contribute to the understanding of the relationship between Human Resource Management practices and innovation, especially within manufacturing firms (Fox and Stuart 214). The contingency theory and its models suggest that organizational characteristics like size, external and internal environment, and industry are potential factors that determine appropriate Human Resource Management practices for innovation strategies. (Fox and Stuart 217) In general, process organization is highly valued among organizations since it provides managers with the opportunity to identify the right combination of human capital that can give the desired results (Fox and Stuart 219). This study therefore finds strong support from the literatures, and based on current business activities that are more technologically integrated, innovation is considered part of labour force (Gennard and James 30). The main idea here if for the human resource managers to create environments that facilitate individual growth alongside enhancing employees’ process and product innovation capabilities (Gennard and James 35). The variables highlighted in this research will allow the researchers to determine the relationships between Human Resource Management and Innovation Management stated under the literature review (Gennard and James 36).
This research will test the relationship between Human Resource Management and Innovation Management practices (Abouzeedan and Busler 23), and how these two areas of knowledge influence development of innovative capabilities for improved performance during crisis situations (Bondarouk, Tanya and Miguel R. Olivas-Luján 172). This study is developed from a specific assumption that Human Resource Management practices may not have direct association with innovation unless the two practices take into consideration employees’ knowledge and performance distribution.
Precisely, this study finds its grounds on the mediating roles for the uniqueness of skills and knowledge collaboration between the HRM practices and employees’ innovative activities (Abouzeedan and Busler 23). The knowledge impact through innovation is considered to have a positive influence, or rather positive contributions to the company’s profits even at times of economic crisis. The hypotheses for the study will be tested in a sample of firms from the most innovative industries through structural equation modelling (Abouzeedan and Busler 23). This study will provide managers with information on employees’ best practices that can create positive environment for innovation performance.
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Messaging While Driving
Messing or texting behaviors behind the wheel have become increasingly common amongst drivers in modern society. This has consequently contributed a great deal to texting related to accidents. Additionally, the number of subscribers using different mobile phones has increased in the past years, for instance in the US, there were almost 302.9 million wireless subscribers by December 2010, which is an increase from 100 million subscriptions within four years.
Therefore, it doesn’t come as a surprise that the gadgets are quite ambiguous in the country hence, corresponding messaging behaviors. Such habits are also known to be leading causes of distractions amongst drivers thus leading to car crash deaths. When distracted, the lives of people in the cars are endangered, lives are also destroyed and injuries are caused to the driver, passenger and other road users.
Distraction is a broad aspect including diversion of the attention of the driver from the significant role of driving to other things temporarily thus affecting his or her decision making, awareness as well as performance. Such issues have also raised a lot of concern on road user’s safety both in government, general public and other stakeholders.
For this reason, many states are implementing new laws designed to curb such risky habits amongst drivers and enhancing safety on the road.
Texting while driving is increasingly becoming an issue of concern amongst different stakeholders including the general public and the government. This is primarily based on the fact that such behaviors are known to cause distractions amongst drivers especially when it comes to their decision making and their attention on the road. The distractions indeed are highly associated with high number of road accidents meaning the issue is also threatening the safety of our roads.
Given such conditions, injuries and death rates as a result of road carnages have been increasing by the day. Therefore, this research will help to analyze issues linked to increased road accidents as a result of texting behind the wheel.
This research aims at investigating messaging issue while driving to offer solid and essential details to the people in regards to the dangers involved. Creating awareness will be the most ideal way of finding a solution to the menace since with proper awareness; the people will be able to make informed decisions when driving.
This research will additionally help to offer a clear response to the research question on texting while driving related risks. The paper will additionally demonstrate how messaging while driving increases accident risks by stating facts based on existing information showing how such behaviors on the road have been fatal and quite destructive. The information will offer substantial details that will benefit road users and transport industry stakeholders for them to generate new measures and strategies for curbing the menace.
Central Research Question
This paper will be based on research question
Does texting behind the wheel endanger the lives of road users via road accidents?
This question will act as a guide to the researcher on the major features that this research will focus. The research question in other words helps to define the scope of the research by analyzing reasons behind such behaviors. Different approaches will be utilized in generating an answer to the question including a comprehensive literature review demonstrating the present state of research issue.
Additionally, the researcher will employ a qualitative approach in generating useful data to be used in answering the question and offering proper understanding on to what level or extent such behaviors are considered detrimental to safety of road users. This research question will further guide the study in determining the relationship between texting behind the wheel and road accidents.
This study will be based on the following hypotheses
- All kinds of distractions amongst drivers pose a lot of risk to all road users including pedestrians, passengers, the driver and bystanders. The hypotheses are also based on the fact that the behavior distracts the attention of the driver both in the brain and hand such that the person will not be able to act swiftly in the event of emergency or dangerous situations.
- The use of gadgets that do not permit texting behind the wheel amongst drivers can help reduce road carnage risks. Such gadgets can take a design that doesn’t permit the use of mobile phones for instance texting or calling when the car is in motion.
- Effective and ideal channels should be employed in communicating messaging while driving related risks. For example, the media can use campaigns aimed at warning drivers among other related parties on the dangers of such habits using video clips and banners among such tools.
Clarification of Terminologies
This means the diversification of a driver’s attention from driving since he or she is concentrating temporarily on another thing for example an event, object, a person or other tasks that are not related to driving. This consequently reduces the decision making ability of the driver, performance and awareness on the road thus increasing chances of road accidents.
Assumptions that may Bias the Research
This research will be based on the notion that many drivers are more likely to text than any other kind of distraction behind the wheel. The notion will be useful in emphasizing the most common type of distraction on the road and in this case, messaging. Additionally there are other distractors that drivers are prone including hand free calls but in this case, it is presumed that drivers often text while driving.
The notion is additionally based on the fact that the paper will focus on determining the extent to which messaging interrupts the attention of a driver and its subsequent effects. The assumption will additionally be instrumental since the impact of messaging behind the wheel cannot be solely based on the growing number of road accidents.
Additionally, many are accidents are caused by other things including lack of proper experience, drinking, carelessness and lack of driving skills. The assumption is therefore very crucial when ensuring the researcher needs ideal research findings.
The increasing concerns on interruptions on drivers have occurred as a result of increasing road accidents caused by such things. There are various factors that have been closely associated with driver’s interruptions while on the road even though not quite prevalent compared to messaging. Such distractions have been noted to cause many accidents since they lead to lack of concentration or focus by the drivers.
Messaging while behind the wheel is additionally known to be unsafe habit since it is a considerable source of interruption for many drivers (Robertson et al, 2013). It is therefore essential in this case to determine the reason as to why drivers are interrupted by such texting habits. Generally, humans are serial processors of information. This means that such people cannot multitask. This assumption as a result rules out the idea of multitasking since people quickly change their attention from one part to the other across other roles on the belief that they can multitask.
However in real sense, this is not the case and any efforts to multitask often leads to minimal attention to other tasks. Robertson et al (2013) therefore noted that processing of information is quite significant in driving since it is an act that involves ‘divided attention’, a task that also includes a lot of interruptions with the manual, cognitive and visual components.
The attention moreover that the driver must accord to driving is often based on driving experience, the complexity of driving as well as driving experience.
Robertson et al (2013) stated that:
…inexperienced drivers must consciously focus more on remaining within their
Lane, whereas for experienced drivers this is very reflexive. An inexperienced driver, particularly one who is driving a technologically complex car, has to focus far more on controls and systems than someone who is familiar with the vehicle. (p.2)
Texting while driving, therefore, is a great distraction that can lead to fatal consequences.
For instance in 2010, interruption of drivers was found to be the leading cause of up to 18percent of fatal cases killing approximately 3092 people and causing up to 416000 injuries. When using mobile phones to text behind the wheel is additionally quite dangerous since they cause cognitive, visual and manual interruptions. Messaging causes diverted attention on the side of the driver from the driving itself as well as hands from the wheel.
Such interruptions are particularly common amongst young drivers or people (Farris, 2011). In real sense, many teenagers also die on the road because of texting related behaviors since they are drunk while driving. Research also reveals that up to 40 percent of American teens say that they have travelled in vehicles where the driver uses a mobile device in an inappropriate manner thus exposing them to a lot of danger.
An average teenager texting in the US sends and receives more than 3000 texts on monthly basis. Adult drivers also face distractions and dangers from such habits when on the wheel. Even so, the interruption may not be quite dominant as it is the case amongst young drivers (Farris, 2011). Teenagers in addition have a habit of engaging in activities on their devices that expose them to a lot of risks compared to adult drivers.
Trends noted amongst teenagers as a result show clearly that they are exposed to a lot of danger compared to adults. With growing numbers of teenagers using mobile phones, this also raises alarm on their safety on the road as well as that of other road users.
It is therefore essential to note that texting behind the wheel causes 23percent more times worse compared to uninterrupted form of driving. Similarly, about 11 percent of drivers are teenagers between the ages of 18 and 20 years and the get involved in road accidents but lucky to survive in the event of sending or receiving messages during the accident.
The driver’s diverted attention from the road when using mobile phones often takes about 5 seconds. For example, if the driver is travelling at 55 miles per hour, they would cover the same distance without interruption for 5 seconds, perhaps, the distance of a football field (Codey, 2013). This consequently means that the interruption time is often compromised.
Past research studies further reveal that messaging while driving subjects a driver to more cases of swerving the car in the wrong direction, into other lanes and other cases, the driver can move close to other cars compared to drivers who are driving under the influence of marijuana or alcohol. The driver, passengers, motorists and other road users therefore are exposed to a lot of danger by a driver who is distracted (Codey, 2013).
Therefore, distracted kind of driving has been an issue of great concern despite having licensed drivers who understand and admit that it is extremely risky to use mobile gadgets behind the wheel since they pose a lot of danger to the safety of a person. The risk is additionally becoming worse as time goes by following the ever growing technological advancements that allow people to utilize their smart phones and other devices to text, make social media updates and to chat.
What’s more, a large number of licensed and authorized drivers have admitted engaging in risky acts such as texting. According to Codey (2013), despite the global disapproval of mailing or messaging when behind the wheel, many drivers are still known to have read, sent or typed a message or an email while driving.
This study will utilize qualitative method in carrying out the research as its most ideal case study methodology. The approach will be efficient in offering more understanding to the issue in question within the area of study (texting while driving), thus, playing a crucial role in enhancing the already existing literature or study.
The case study is additionally a qualitative research approach that helps researchers to evaluate modern real life situations while offering an ideal platform for ideas application. In this case, application of the case study methodology will focus more on evaluating the situation of messaging while behind the wheel in a given region. The study in our case will also focus on assessing and evaluation the research issue, which in our case; the study is being carried out in New York, US. The geographical region selection will also be useful in determining the situation at hand thus getting the most ideal picture of the research issue.
Even so, the study will utilize secondary and primary data in seeking the ideal answer to the research question. The primary data will also be collected via interviews with chosen sample from New York drivers while secondary details will also be collected from books, articles and journals among other secondary sources. Such secondary sources will also be achieved online while others from the libraries.
Secondary sources have been partly used in generating literature review in the study proposal. The gathered information also demonstrates dangers of road users as a result of messaging behaviors that have become quite rampant. Primary data will also be gathered via in-depth interviews. The information plays a crucial role in enhancing secondary information. Therefore, the interviews will be the most significant data collection tools for primary information.
The data collection tool will also be efficient in getting the real scenario on the ground since it will help the interviewer to focus deep into the subject of interest while exploring more into real research issue. The researcher will additionally use 100 participants as sample including drivers selected randomly between the ages of 15 to 50 years.
The process of data collection will also take up to a month and to enhance data collection comprehensively in make general the results across the entire population. Interviews will also employ an open ended approach for flexibility purposes. The design will also enable the researcher to develop more sub questions as a way of getting more elaborate details from research respondents. The interview question will further focus on use of mobile phones while driving.
|1Month||Developing & presenting the research proposal for approval|
|2Month||Visiting the field of study and gathering data|
|1Month||Analyzing the data|
|1Week||Presenting the report|
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Codey, R. (2013). The Fata Dangers of Texting while Driving. Retrieved from http://www.njspotlight.com/stories/13/12/26/the-fatal-dangers-of-texting-while-driving/
Farris, A. (2011). LOL? Texting while Driving is no Laughing Matter: Proposing a Coordinated Response to Curb this Dangerous Activity. Journal of Law & Policy, 36(233):233-259.
Robertson, R., Mayhew, D., Brown, S., & Valaar, W. (2013). Driver Distraction and Hands-Free Texting while Driving. Traffic Injury Research Foundation, 1(1):1-10.
Boutique Hotels in Thailand
The idea of boutique hotel has been widely embraced across North America and the United Kingdom to mean hotels that have more than ten rooms characterized with luxurious amenities founded in intimate locations and with full service lodgings. They are often tailor made to offer high quality services and in an intimate, luxurious, unique and comfortable setting that is not likely to be found in any normal setting which regular hotels homogeneity are found (Balekjian, 2011).
Background of the Study
The importance of creating boutique hotels has been an essential evolution that has continued to be part of the vast developments experienced in cultural tourism. While the concept can be traced back to the 1980s, its evolution is imperative and is highly related to the growing interests that individuals have employed in history, art and cultural heritage.
According to Berger& Chiofaro (2007), international hotel chains rapid growth led to the creation of a more standardized idea that would be utilized to define the facilities in the vast majority. This led to the initiation of the idea of box hotel, which is characterized by homogeneity in facilities and products offered in the hotel industry.
Lack of differentiation between majority of products and services offered in the hospitality industry eventually saw to the growth of McDonaldization of the industry where many hotels would be characterized with products and services available across the globe among other features.
However, this kind of development aggravated the introduction of a counter movement that was enhanced by clients who sought hotels with unique sophistications to match their unique lifestyles (Aliukeviciute, 2010). The need to integrate a high sophistication level as well as innovativeness additionally led to the growth of new lifestyle hotels characterized with exceptional designs and hotel niches.
The term boutique was therefore introduced to provide a generic definition of niches that were characterized by unique designs tailor made for expression of classic lifestyle. Some of the unique features of such hotels were first witnessed in Las Vegas in 1981 where unique features were tailor made to replicate cities among other unique features.
The Hotel Vintage Court, a hotel with an exceptional theme was established in 1983 in San Francisco (Tidti, 2009). This marked the turning point of rapid development of interior trends that also marked the boutique hotels’ unique features. The initiation of boutique hotel concept also generated new public recognition of such hotels in 1994 and it led to development of lifestyle hotels across many parts of the globe including New Zealand, United Kingdom and North America.
Such developments can be closely linked to a wide range of choices that the hotels offer and have continually made while offering hospitality products as they seek to ensure their guests are served with an exceptional cultural experience (Nagovisyna, 2012).
Statement of the Problem
Companies operating in the hospitality industry have continued to look for ways to expand their business as the rate of losing clients has continued to threaten their existence. This has led to rapid implementation of marketing strategies in the industry that has witnessed growth in boutique hotels.
Even though business owners have continued to employ a wide range of management strategies designed to ensure boutique settings are distinct from the traditional hotel set up, no study has been carried out to investigate how the rapid development of the hotels has affected regular hotel operations in Thailand.
There are also different studies that have been carried out to try and investigate how the entities designed new strategies to acquire and retain a high number of clients operating in the region. The studies have been however considered inadequate based on the fact that they do not indicate how the development of the hotels has affected normal operations of regular hotels in the region (Klumbis, 2003).
This study will therefore be quite essential in filling different gaps that have been identified as a way of establishing means by which rapid boutique hotels in Thailand has influenced the operations of normal hotels.
Justification for the study
Rapid tourism industry growth in Thailand is expected to continue as the economy of the country has continued to register positive growth with a solid GDP. According to Lang (2013), tourism in the country’s market is indicating a significant recovery from global instability state as a result of severe financial crisis and political turmoil. As the number of tourists visiting the country is expected to grow, developing different factors that may impact performance quality and productivity in the industry is subsequently imperative.
This is attributed to the fact that tourists visiting the region are mainly attracted by unique features of boutique hotels, which are rarely found in regular hotels. According to Lo (2012), superb attention is also given to specific boutique hotels details that make them stunningly attractive and unique.
Managers in the institutions maintain an incredible ambience attracting visitors from across the globe. The hotels also employ a unique collection of styles offering a unique experience that tends to be quite rare in regular hotels.
Research to topic
This paper aims at investigating unique features of boutique hotels that influence the decisions of tourism choices as a way of determining the reasons behind rapid expansion of the hotels in Thailand and how they affect regular hotels performance. The specific questions that will be utilized to guide the study include
- Which unique features attract tourists into the boutique as opposed to regular hotels in Thailand?
- What effect has the tremendous growth in boutique hotels had on regular hotels?
- How does clients taste and preference of the people of Thai compare to the type of hotel from which they seek for hospitality products and services
- How does quality of services of boutique hotel compare with the regular hotel?
Participants in any given market in most cases go after recognition of unique features which can be distinguished in the purchasing behaviors of certain consumer groups via creation of market niches. According to Tidti (2009), marketers can as a result enhance segmentation factors in the market to ensure the business niches narrow down in terms of target population to a given sub group that is quite distinct in lifestyle decisions.
Market segregation via creation of market niches has also been well employed in the hotel and travel industry as participants aim at enhancing their competitiveness level via increased productivity.
Distinct and unique qualities of boutique hotels have continued to attracted distinguished tourists whose tastes and preferences have been impacted by the exceptional characteristics. A study carried out by Chan (2012) revealed that user features are among the most essential factors affecting decisions made by tourists seeking hospitality services from boutique hotel. Chan also found out that unique and cleanliness of location is some of the most significant features that tend to attract more tourists and in the end, impact their ultimate choice for boutique hotels.
According to Mattila (2010), the hotels are additionally characterized with well-maintained chambers, attractive locations and secure environments and courteous staff offering quality services. This affected the decisions made by repeat clients who will always seek unique experiences offered by the hotels.
Affordability is also an essential feature that impacts the decisions made by tourists who seek hospitality services in boutique hotels. A study that was carried out by Naqshbandi & Munir (2011), revealed that tourists are in most cases attracted by exceptional characteristics evident in the interior of boutique hotels as they offer luxurious experience that cannot be found in traditional hotels.
Naqshbandi & Munir also found out that many luxurious tourists considered the decision of having interior features in traditional hotels as not appealing and non-arousing thus, the dire need to seek luxurious experiences in boutique hotels. Additionally, experiential relationships are essential features that can be utilized to explain the decisions made by tourists to consider the products and services offered in the hospitality industry, more specifically boutique hotels.
A study that was carried out by Nixon (20110, revealed that many tourists seek unique hospitality avenues where they can experience unique cultural attributes among other features that they may have not experienced in the past. This paper reveals that tourists are mainly attracted by sensory and experimental unique features found in boutique hotels.
Some theories can be used equally to explicate unique trends that tourists display in relevance to their search for hospitality services, which, tends to focus more on the boutique establishments more than regular hotels. According to the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, this can be explained depending on various client needs and expectations affecting their decisions to consider boutique hotels products and services.
Individuals according to the theory often have basic needs as well as expectations that trigger their decisions to consider more favorable avenues where their needs can be fully addressed. This can also help to provide a clear understanding as to why tourists seek high quality hospitality services in boutique setups where their expectations and needs to feel higher or dignified level of luxury can be met (Chan, 2012).
The service quality model can also explain the reasons behind the decisions of tourists to consider hospitality services in boutique hotels. The theory explains that quality of services often impact perceptions of past experiences originating from analysis of general performance. Clients also make decisions on the need to look for repeated services if their experiences in the past revealed a high satisfaction level exceeding their expectations.
The theory is therefore essential in explaining how clients continually settle for hospitality services in boutique setups where the services surpass their expectations and is not usually the case in regular hotels (Tidti, 2009).
Summary and Conclusion
It is clear that extensive scholarly work has been carried out to evaluate different aspects related to the choices of tourists to settle for boutique hotels as opposed to regular hotels. Evidence from scholarly research indicate different features affecting their choices thus contributing to the growth of trends where tourists relate to in the search for hospitality services in boutique hotel setups.
Even so, the research failed to describe the different effects of the developments on regular hotel operations and how they impact the preferences of clients in regard to their products and services. The study as a result aims at filling this gap by carrying out an extensive investigation in relevance to the growing boutique hotels trend in Thailand as a way of determining their impact on regular hotels.
This research seeks to explore unique features attracting tourists into the boutique hotels as a way of determining their effect on the growth trend of the hotels as it is bound to have on regular hotels. The study will also employ a qualitative approach to data collection to ascertain that questions used in the research are responded to sufficiently.
According to Marshall S (1996), qualitative approach to research is essential as it creates room for flexibility when examining significant issues while dropping unproductive areas as well as those that may not be answered in the study.
The main data collection tools will include interviews and questionnaires that will have same information. According to Akbayrak (2000), these tools are essential because they pave way for collection of in-depth information relating to a given field of study. The population used in the study will also be selected from five boutique hotel establishments in Thailand as well as 3 General Managers, 5 Departmental Managers and 3 Senior Managers from each of the hotel.
Additionally, ten guests from each hotel will included in the study to generate more information in relevance to client experiences and their views on the setups. The collected information will then be analyzed using the SPPS program and the findings will be presented in histograms, graphs, frequency tables and pie charts.
The final result will also be used to reach conclusions relating to different characteristics attracting tourists to the hotels, their impact on regular hotels and how this impact influence the preferences of clients on the type of hotel they consider for hospitality services.
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Akbayrak, B. (2000). A Comparison of Tow Data Collecting Methods: Interviews and Questionnaires, Journal of Education, 18(1):1-10.
Aliukeviciute, M. (2010). Boutique Hotels’ Evolution, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality management, 22(3):1-6.
Balekjian, C. (2011). Boutique Hotels Segment: The Challenge of Standing out from the Crowd, London: HVS, London Office.
Berger, B. and Chiofaro, D. (2007). Select-Service Hotels A Guide to Understanding the Lodging Industry and One of its Most Attractive Segments, Retrieved on 17th January From http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/42012/226316535.pdf
Chan, C. (2012). International Tourism Marketing and Development, Retrieved on 17th January, 2014 from https://atrium.lib.uoguelph.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10214/3587/Lodging_subsector_report_boutique_hotels.pdf?sequence=7
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Klumbis, D.F. (2003). Seeking the Ultimate Hotel Experience, retrieved on 17th January, 2014 from http://www.esade.edu/cedit2003/pdfs/danielafreund.pdf
Lang, J. (2013). Spotlight on Thailand: Hotel Investment Market, Retrieved on 17th January, 2014 from http://www.joneslanglasalle.com/ResearchLevel1/Spotlight%20on%20Thailand%20Investment%20Jan2013.pdf
Lo, Y.H. (2012). Back to Hotel Strategic Management 101: An Examination of Hotels’ Implementation of Porter’s Generic Strategy in China, Journal of International Management Studies, 7(1): 56-69.
Marshall, M.N. (1996). Sampling for Qualitative Research, International Journal of Family Practice, 13(6):522-525.
Mattila, J. (2010). Hotel Brand Strategy, Journal of Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 51(1):27-34.
Nagovitsyna, M. (2012). Boutique Hotel, Retrieved on 17th January 2014, from http://www.gttp.org/content/listings/118/files/12/russia-2012.pdf
Naqshbandi, M.M. and Munir, R.S. (2011). Atmospheric Elements and Personality: Impact on Hotel Lobby Impressions, Journal World Applied Sciences, 15(6):785-792.
Nixon, N.W. (2011). A Study of the Experiential Service Design Process at a Luxury Hotel, Retrieved on 17thJanuary,2014from http://faculty.philau.edu/nixonn/documents/Dissertation_NWN_WileyISPIM.pdf
Tidti, T. (2009). Lifestyle Segmentation for Boutique Accommodation in Relation to the Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction, Thailand: Payap University Press.
Every so often, race as a social concept has not be taken serious as many people contemplate that the American system of leadership and the legal framework have defeated the bad habit. This is false because of the verity that most of black Americans still agonize from disparity prejudices, racism, racial profiling as well as discernment. Despite the fact that the president of America is an African American elected by the people, the nation is not free from physical disparity racism, prejudices or discernment. Even though an individual may demonstrate that the scope of bigotry and discernment has lessened, it still thrives in the minds as well as setting of the American system. The United States department results in 2003 showed that African Americans made 10.4 percent of all the imprisoned people at the age of 25 to 29 years, expound the stand these individuals have taken. This is in comparison to similar results where Hispanic men imprisoned were 2.4 percent whereas white Americans were only 1.2 percent.
Despite the fact that it may be factual that the African Americans are vulnerable to wrongdoings because of their past account, social, financial, education level and demographic patterns amongst other facets, there is no equal treatment against white Americans when it comes to sentences, trials, and arrests or jail terms. Study undertaken shows that the African Americans are most probable to get unkind jail terms as well as more years when sentenced in comparison to white people. Altogether, even though the justice framework is perceived as unbiased, certain components of controlled disparities, where the African American are discriminated when it comes to conviction or prosecution. The same happens when it comes to convictions on capital punishments despite the offended being the African America, whereby less actions are taken against the white American. This paper will focus on dealing with the issue why many African American men between age bracket of 25 to 29 years are probable to be jailed than the white people or Latinos, facets that impact those involved in the wrongdoing and also the planned disparities in the judicial framework when it comes to lawyers, lawmakers as well as judges composition.
Why blacks at the age of 25-29 are more likely to be in jail than the Whites or Latinos
From the study as well as research undertaken, the population of black Americans who get jailed is more than the number of people from other races. Black men aged 25 to 29 years are probable to remain in cell accompanied by harsh punishment. Several explanations can be pinpointed to this verity that incorporate the resulting variables.
As stated by Torr (2004), black people experience challenging financial issues, and this pushes them to take part in wrongdoings than the white people. Torr (2004) signposted that the joblessness rate of blacks is double that of the white Americans, and poverty rates are thrice than those of the white Americans. Financial gap as well as poverty led to wrongdoings as individuals struggle to find ways to meet their social needs. These leads to the black Americans being vulnerable to joblessness as well as poverty, and thus, take part in criminal habits that result to their apprehension and trial. As Robert and Rector (2000) in Schram (2006) stated, the US Bureau of Census (1999) showed that 33.1 percent of the black kids were deprived in comparison to 13.5 percent of the white children populace (Schram, 2006). Poverty is more probable to push the black Americans to take part in wrongdoings so as to sustain themselves.
Study undertaken shows that a link between wrongdoings as well as family setups exists. Certainly, poor child upbringing as well as single childcare have been ascribed for swaying youngsters to participate in wrongdoings in coming days. Simultaneously, family violence as well as children abuse probably sway youngsters to take part in wrongdoing. Majority of black America single parents are poor, and this impacts the development of their kids who get involved in criminal activities leading to their apprehension as well as trial.
Education aids greatly in lessening criminal activities as it lessens financial merit of an individual taking part in the wrong activity. The white people are more probable to acquire finest education than the black people, and thus they have more job openings than the black people. Being deprived education leads to joblessness as well as poverty. To meet day to day requirements, many people start taking part in wrongdoings that eventually get them apprehended as well as imprisoned.
Community and the peer pressure
The community where people live shows what to expect in near future. Living in poor houses, congested as well as slum regions, where security is not guaranteed is probable to push youngsters to take part in wrongdoings as well as gangs. Due to the fact that many deprived black people live in slums, they are probable to be apprehended for wrongdoings, crimes and other harmful conducts than the white people.
Alcohol and drug abuse
Alcohol plays a great role when it comes to criminal undertakings. Even though it is not backed by exceptional facts, poverty degree amongst the black youngsters pushes them to participate in alcohol consumption more than the white people. The alcohol venture causes individuals involved to traffic weapons in the states, be part of other crimes and hijack people as they undertake their illegitimate ventures. Black people are more involved in these crimes than white people in the society and this causes more apprehension, trial as well as sentencing.
Despite backing for the equality and unbiased judgment by judges in the legal framework, research from the California study showed that Black people were jailed for longer periods more than the white people were offered probation terms (Walker, Spohn & DeLone, 2012). This shows the unjust treatment amongst the black people and the white judges. This is probable to lead to one race being enslaved than the other.
Racial disparity in prison sentencing
In the account of the judicial framework in the U.S, there is a verified racial profiling on offenders sentencing. Study shows that in June 2004, 4919 out of every 10000 African Americans, 1717 of 10000 Hispanic men, and 717 of 100000 white men were imprisoned (Walker, Spohn & DeLone, 2012, p. 284). These verities can be acquired from two proportions; the judges sentencing decisions and the statistics acquired from the prison populace and admissions. As Spohn (2008) designates, racial gap in sentencing has not culminated as the 2006 figures showed that per 100000 citizens under imprisonment, 3042 were the ratio for the black male, 1261 for the Hispanic male, and 487 for the whites (171-176). This shows a sign of disparity and may have been as a result of several facets.
One of the motives that could expound the inequality in imprisonment, may be due to the verity that black American men and the Hispanic take part in many wrongdoings in comparison to the white people (Walker, Spohn & DeLone, 2012, p. 285). Whilst, it could be probable that this people have more wrongdoing accounts in comparison to the white people. Simultaneously, due to the financial disparity amongst the white and black Americans, the young African American are probable to be jobless, and this has forced them to take part in wrongdoings, therefore causing their apprehension as well as imprisonment. Spohn (2008) expounds that jobless people are probable to get rougher sentence than those working, causing racial discernment whilst the black American is probable to get rougher sentence due to prejudices and discernment from the judges (Spohn, 2008, pp. 171-176). The judge might consider the ethnicity and race of the offended when making decisions, which leads to a prejudiced sentence.
Representation of the African Americans in the criminal justice system
The many black Americans in prison can be expounded from the presentation of viewpoints of the judges, lawyers, prosecutors as well as legislative representation. The few black Americans in the justice framework brings in an option of prejudice in the system. When the prosecutor is white, the judge being white, and the defense of black ethnicity, some incidents culminate in discriminatory verdict. As Free (2003) pointed out, 12.8% of the US population are Black Americans, but less than 9% of their population is represented in the House of Representatives (19-24). Whilst, the judicial framework is known to make up only 5.7% of African American lawyers and judges. This is a sign that black American people are underrepresented in the power structure than in the legislature or in judiciary, and this showed that the underrepresentation is probable to impact the manner judgment is undertaken on the black and white criminals.
The existence of few African American lawyers causes underrepresentation of the black people in the court of law. Whilst many cases that black Americans deal with may exhaust the lawyers as well as defense counsels, causing a circumstance that they will not be capable of dealing with these cases successfully. Even though this is not backed by material verities, it is factual that they are surprised by the workload of representing the black Americans. It ought to be denoted that the component of discernment is culminating, however some destructive components may yet be evident that should be dealt with. Hudson, in his book “Entangled by White Supremacy” directs that the cruelty of the white people does not acknowledge the blacks in the job market as well as education industry, in the sense that the white people hold every work place in the discriminatory system, judge, lawmaker, sheriff and county magistrate (Hudson, 2009).
Even though discrimination condition has significantly lessened, the social creation of disparity is still present. With disparity existing, it is vastly doubtful that the current situation of the American system will completely adjust, chiefly due to the fact that there are those individuals who have labeled black Americans to be of second class as well as nobody, if not mediocre to the white people.
The black American men of the aged bracket of 25 to 29 years are most probable to be jailed than any other races. This is due to the black peoples’ predisposing facets, which incorporate discriminations, underrepresentation, poor academic backgrounds as well as socioeconomic status amongst other facets. The percentage of lawyers, judges and other professions in the judicial system fails to equally represent the African Americans, and this may have led to high rate of black prisoners in jail. More has to be undertaken to deal with the numerous social constructions that restrict equality and parity in the American justice system.
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Cochran, J. L., & Fisher, D. (2003). A lawyer’s life. New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin’s.
Free, M. D. (Ed.). (2003). Racial issues in criminal justice: The case of African Americans. Greenwood publishing group.
Hudson, J. (2009). Entangled by White Supremacy: Reform in World War I-era South Carolina. University Press of Kentucky.
Schram, S. F. (2006). Welfare discipline: Discourse, governance, and globalization. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Spohn, C. (2008). How do judges decide The search for fairness and justice in punishment. SAGE Publications Inc.
Torr, J. D. (2004). Crime and criminals: Opposing viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
Walker, S., Spohn, C., & DeLone, M. (2012). The Color of justice: Race, ethnicity, and crime in America. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.
Gang Reduction in Big Cities
Grant Proposal for Gang Reduction in Big Cities: Focus on New York City
Definition of the problem
The gangs’ number has always been high regardless of the high anti-gang activities that have been performed in USA. According to the National gang Center’s statistics, gangs’ number has been high since 1996 (National Gang Center). Actually, there were about 30,000 gangs within USA in 1996. From 1996 to 2011, a reduction in this number was registered in 2003 only. There was a reduction in this number from 30,000 to 20,000. However, this number rose to 30,000 again in 2011 (National Gang Center). The concentration of the gangs is high in larger cities, with smaller cities as well as sub-urban regions and rural areas following in that order. These gangs are mainly made up of the youth.
What could be causing the rise in the number of gangs, particularly in larger cities?
Larger cities such as New York have experienced drugs abuse and small arms proliferation. These are mainly the factors that motivate the gangs (National Gang Center). Large cities’ congestion as well as technology advancement also motivates gangs. Youths who abuse drugs and access fire arms including guns can easily engage in criminal activities. Specifically, such youths need quick wealth due to the high rate of joblessness and the increasing living cost. These factors hinder the youths from acquiring wealth. Therefore, they use fire arms that they can easily access while injecting themselves with the drugs that give them a high feeling while committing crimes. Gangs have been found to be organized. There are top commanders in the gangs who plan different crimes. There are also hit men responsible for implementing these plans. The generated revenue is shared by the gang members. Top commanders get the largest portion. Peers influence is common among the youths especially on the realization that one can acquire wealth within a short time (National Gang Center).
Why this program is needed
This is an important program because it aims at reducing gangs’ number. A lot of properties and many lives are destroyed when a crime is being committed. Increase in the gangs’ number causes fear among the populace and this interferes with economic productivity as well as the citizens’ wellbeing.
The mission of this program is to minimize gangs’ number via collaborative participation of the state governments, federal government, law enforcers, local communities and NGOs as well as any other like-minded entity.
- Reducing drug abuse within New York City
- Reducing small arms’ proliferation among the population of New York
- Encouraging stricter immigration laws
- Enhancing rehabilitation services
The endeavors of this program are to reduce gangs’ number within New York City. It aims at achieving this by addressing crime motivators that include drug abuse, small arms and guns access, poor laws of immigration as well as inefficient rehabilitation solutions. Through a reduction of access to small arms, illegal drugs as well as improvement of immigration policies, gangs’ number will reduce significantly in this city. Youths who do not have access to drugs and guns are less likely to engage in crime. Additionally, youths who drugs have already affected will have access to proper rehabilitation. Currently, low rates of retention hamper rehabilitation programs. The aim of this program is to improve retention rates in order to enable the youths within rehabs to complete the programs that they are enrolled in.
Additionally, strict policies for immigration will assist in decongesting and identifying locals. Immigration policies’ loopholes make it possible for most people to enter New York City illegally. There are people who enter this city with an aim of committing a crime. The program intends to work in collaboration with Justice Department, Defense Department, Local health facilities and correctional facilities, Immigration Department as well as the New York City Council. Eight gang control strategies will be employed as set out by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJP). These are community mobilization, opportunities provision, social intervention, organizational programs and change, suppression, enforcement of targeted gang and anti-gangs programs (U.S Department of Justice 10).
The expectation is that this program will take 3 years. It will be championed by a six experts’ panel. This will comprise of the chief coordinator as well as two assistants (a manager and a public relations expert), the other panel members will be programs coordinator, financial officer as well as a professional psychologist.
Budget: The cost of this program will be $100,000.
Program evaluation: How the attainment of goals will be measured
|Objective||How to attain the project/ Project methodology||Evaluation|
|To minimize drug abuse within the New York City.
|Working with the state and federal authorities, this project will close all dealers in illegal drugs. This will eliminate illegal drugs supply which is its main target.||A comparison of drug abusers at the start of the project and at the end of this project will be done. The expectation is that there will be a significant reduction in the addicts’ number.|
|To reduce small arms proliferation in the population of New York.||Strict gun control will be supported by this program. Registration of the guns under the public ownership will be encouraged and punishing of owners of illegal guns.||Small arms owned by the public will be compared when the program starts and when it ends. The anticipation is that there will be a significant reduction in their number in the population of New York.|
|To encourage the enactment of strict laws on immigration.||This will be implemented by the Immigration Department and the New York City Council. A crucial census will map the city’s occupants. There will be an assessment of all houses as well as their occupants. Occupants will also be assessed to determine how they entered the city. Illegal immigrants will all be deported.||The Immigration Departments as well as the New York City Council will compare their notes to determine the exact number of occupants. The expectation is that it will be possible to account for all residents.|
|To improve rehabilitation services.||Poor retention is the major challenge that rehab services are facing currently. Additional psychologists will be employed to boost counseling and improve the stay of people in the rehab so that they can be trained and offered the necessary opportunities for starting SMEs.||A comparison of the number of the individuals recruited in the centers when the program started and the number of those who will complete the process successfully will be made. The anticipation is that the rate will increase within three years.|
Data and reporting procedure to the DOJ
The Department of Justice (DOJ) will be used to channel the collected data. There will be a website created for making major announcements and allowing data sharing.
Agency’s past record of accomplishment
According to DOJ, a strong correlation exists between drugs and crime. More than 83 percent of the people in incarceration have used drugs (NCJRS 1). Actually, 51% note that they were under drugs’ influence while committing crime (NCJRS1). DOJ has played an influential role in drugs and their supply’s reduction in New York. Therefore, DOJ has a successful record in the war against gangs. As such, this project will closely work with DOJ as well as the agencies mentioned in this proposal.
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U.S. Department of Justice.”OJJDP FY 2011 Comprehensive Anti-gang Strategies and Programs.” Municipal Association of South Carolina 10 Jan. 2011. Web. 13 Jan. 2014.
National Gang Center. National Youth Gang Survey Analysis. n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2014.
NCJRS. A Comprehensive Approach. Jan. 2014. Web. 12 Jan. 2014.
Collective efforts are required to eliminate the serious condition of poverty. The survival needs of the people who are considered poor are minimal. They include shelter, clothing and food. They also include other essential wants that are necessary for the improvement of life. In nations where poverty prevalence is high, growth rate is increased while production is economically low. Both emergent and developed economies experience poverty. For example, about 46.5 million or 15% of the American population is estimated to be poor. Statistics also reveal that out of five children aged below 18 years old, four are impoverished. Unfortunately, this is the current reality regardless of the efforts that the United States has put in eliminating poverty. Poverty remains a problem globally and this indicates that there is so much that needs to be done about it. The aim of this proposal is to study actions that are necessary or appropriate in enforcing the efforts that are aimed at eliminating poverty.
Poverty is a complex issue in most developing countries since their economies cannot put appropriate measures in place in their fight against poverty. The main factor that is necessary in the war against poverty is economic development. The main goal of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was to help in the establishment of a common front in the war against poverty all over the world. While trying to meet Millennium Development Goals, the UNDP works hard in its efforts to ensure the elimination of poverty among the developing nations within a set timeframe. This proposal agrees to the fact that poverty elimination requires alteration of the existing measures that national and international bodies have in place in their efforts to eliminate poverty. Several researchers have established poverty statistics. Nevertheless, these do not have much to show in relation to actual measures that have been implemented to eliminate poverty within their societies. This proposal seeks to realize this.
The research body has points that will deal with poverty elimination measures. Poverty elimination is only achievable if poverty cycle is broken. For this to be achieved, young children should be empowered so that they can grow up with the necessary hope. Consequently, one point that is dwelled on by this section is ensuring access to education for children by supporting initiatives that are aimed at promoting areas that are hit by poverty. Efforts that can enable the society allow children access to education includes building schools, sensitizing communities about education benefits for both girls and boys and training teachers. Healthcare is also an important poverty indicator and more efforts should be put towards the empowerment of health clinics and providing the required equipment and medicines.
Clean water access and sanitation can also help in poverty elimination. This has a direct relation with environmental preservation and conservation. This implies that communities ought to get assistance in order to get clean water access and efforts should also be put towards the prevention of environmental pollution. Lastly, ensuring economic security requires consideration since it enables individuals to take good care of families. The implication of this is that when citizens are equipped and trained they acquire important knowledge and skills that help them in fighting poverty by engaging in economic activities. These are among the points that the research body will be addressing.
Information that will be collected from these sources will show poverty status in various regions globally. It will also assist in establishing the efforts that are already in place and being used by various governments and organizations in trying to identify failures. Apparently, many lapses of the measures that different governments and organizations have in place in their efforts to fight poverty been identified. Although many projects are already being funded in areas where poverty index is high, the situation’s prevalence shows that something might be wrong and appropriate ways are necessary to save the situation. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the concentration of this research will be on ways through which poverty can be eliminated. This implies that the study will not consider information about poverty that does not provide poverty elimination methods.
Poverty elimination entails attempts to improve poor people’s lives in a society. Regrettably, aid which is among the most vital tools for eradicating poverty has in some cases been used as the tool for other gains in developed countries. For example, this aid is tied to agreements of purchasing some products from the donor countries. Such agreements have a problem because products that come from the donor nations are expensive and therefore unaffordable to the recipient nations. Technology and health are among the areas which require aid. Nevertheless, it is important to note that using donations in fighting poverty is difficult. In most countries, researchers have forwarded creating opportunities for people to ensure their self-sufficiency as the best means of fighting poverty. For a while, debt relief was used in fighting poverty. This entails canceling debts that poor countries owe rich countries due to the fact that the involved amount is too large. Poor nations can get direct help from debt relief by using the money in vital projects such as health provision and education. It ought to be noted that this has benefited developing countries because debt relief has enabled them to offer medical services freely to citizens.
Among the main factors that can lead to poverty elimination is economic growth. This implies that the measures that are implemented when it comes to fighting poverty should enable the economy to grow. Nevertheless, large businesses are unable to create adequate opportunities that will enhance the larger population’s self-sufficiency. This leads to a point where governments ought to work with an aim of realizing social goals through the encouragement of microfinance. As stated above, agriculture can accelerate self-sufficiency more than other measures. As such, efforts made towards ensuring water management assist in providing adequate water that can be used in agricultural production because this is among the main issues that should be addressed in the war against poverty.
In addition to these concerns, poverty is entrenched in the developing and developed countries due to inequalities of the opportunities of power structures. This implies that most countries have deliberately embraced discriminatory systems in relation to job and educational opportunities that are available. This is an unfortunate scenario because it increases poverty levels. To get out of such a situation, equal opportunities should be availed to everybody in any country so that people can exercise the ability to develop and grow. Unless there are systems that guarantee this in place, eliminating poverty will be difficult in any nation. Additionally, provision of equal opportunities to all people involves cushioning low-income earners. This is because most poor individuals might be in employment but their income is inadequate to enable them to amass wealth. As such, a system that ensures that all people get minimum wage will help in the war against poverty.
Lastly the major issue that will determine poverty elimination strategies’ implementation is good governance. According to the researchers of the World Bank, graft is a serious problem that hinders the elimination of poverty. Good governance relates to rapid economic growth. On receiving aid money, poor countries divert most of this money to private hands. Eventually, this money goes to private accounts overseas. This implies that aids money is not spent on the purpose for which it was intended and this increases poverty levels. If aid money is used correctly, programs for empowering the poor will be accomplished. As such, the governments of the poor countries ought to be effective and accountable in order to accomplish long-term goals in eliminating poverty.
In a nutshell, it is crucial to consider the fact that as a global problem, poverty calls for everybody’s attention. It is apparent that there is poverty in the developing and developed nations. This makes it an international issue. This study will assist in identifying approaches that should be used to help in poverty eradication. Actually, these approaches need the concerted effort of relevant bodies.
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Feminist Response to Sex Work
Sex work is being embraced in many developed nations and it is being legalized. The countries have realized that sex work can generate a lot of revenue from taxes if legalized. This research is focused on exploring feminist views on sex work. In specific, the research will focus on feminist debates especially the role of law in regards to work.
Additionally, the paper will address the impact of feminist debates on anti-trafficking initiatives and sex laws. It will focus on American as well as international society. The research paper is also highly beneficial to American community and the entire world. By exploring the subject of sex work candidly, the research study will therefore highlight female workers plight and possible remedies to their problems.
Similarly, the study is of great significance to me and my family. Being an immigrant in the US, many of my relatives have fallen victims of sex trafficking just to earn money and send it home. I would wish to understand whether my relatives have any rights that oversee their sex work.
This paper will be based on internet articles. The articles will be extracted from different journals written by sex matters professionals. I am using National Institute of Justice journal for instance, to get recent and accurate information on the subject. The Chicago Tribune is additionally an online magazine I intend to use in exploring the subject. It is an updated magazine with recent updated details on many subjects. Laura (2014) will offer us an in-depth analysis of anti-trafficking campaigns.
She has gathered videos of seminars on trafficking for sexual motives. Sex Trafficking: Identifying Cases and Victims (2008) by Robert, defines sex trafficking as ‘‘recruiting, enticing, harboring, transporting, providing or obtaining either: (1) an adult for commercial sex by force, fraud or coercion, or (2) a juvenile for commercial sex, regardless of the means.’’ To add on to this description, Amanda offers an explanation of how effective war on sex trafficking has been.
She also delves into laws governing people’s movement from one country to the other as well as loopholes found in such laws. Robert and Amanda will also offer an expert opinion on the effects of trafficking. Melissa (2004) is opposed to the idea of making prostitution legal. She thinks of it as a way of degrading women.
She also believes that legalization of sex work is selfish based on the fact that it serves to earn the government revenue while degrading women. Her article will therefore offer a different perspective from that of feminists. Most of my content will be based on the web based on the nature of information: it is reliable compared to details found in journals written many years ago.
Discussion and Conclusion
The results of this research will be evaluated and restated in reference of initial hypotheses. If the results are predicted, the study will settle for the fact that sex work can help in reducing many cases of sex trafficking. How the results relate to previous studies and theoretical issues discussed in the introduction will also be highlighted.
Practical implications of results for the society will additionally be considered. Current research limitations will also be identified alongside how future research suggestions can base upon present case study.
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Amanda, M. (2010) Declaring WAR on human trafficking. Chicago Tribune Retrieved February
15, 2014 from http://articles.chicagotribune.com
Laura, A. (2014) Migration, Sex work, Trafficking and the Rescue Industry Retrieved February
15, 2014 from http://www.lauraagustin.com/
Melisa, F. (2004) ‘Bad for the Body, Bad for Heart’: Prostitution Harms Women Even if
Legalized or Decriminalized. Violence Against Women. Retrieved February 15, 2014 from https://humantrafficking.unc.edu
Robert, M. (2004) Sex Trafficking: Identifying Cases and Victims. National Institute of Justice
Retrieved February 15, 2014 from http://www.nij.gov
Whitepaper Plastic Waste Recycling
Plastics’ recycling is a sophisticated approach designed to help in the reduction of environmental pollution in the campus (Ross and Evans 570). Additionally, there are improper ways demonstrated by students that they use to dispose polythene plastics and bags. This innovation entails the establishment of a small-size plant for recycling plastics in the campus. Among the activities of this plant will be melting plastic materials which will then be used in producing plastic poles and manila threads as the final products.
Additionally, there will also be bins for collecting waste in different locations around and within the campus. Such locations include busy paths, classrooms, and hostels. Several people will be responsible for collecting this waste on daily basis. Once the waste gets into the plant, separation of plastics from the other wastes will be done manually.
The Chosen Whitepaper Topic
Plastics’ recycling is viewed as an ideal topic in this paper since it entails an innovation whose aim is help in solving environmental problems that plastic wastes cause in the campus. Actually, plastics’ recycling ensures that the environment is free of waste materials while utilizing waste plastics in the production of new products. This creates additional space in the landfills (Ross and Evans 570).
Demand for the limited resources is reduced through recycling. This is because recycling materials reduces the cost of their production substantially (Dubey et al. 33). Recycling processes consume low energy when compared to the process of using raw materials to produce similar products. This means that recycling is a cheaper approach because melting plastics requires less energy or heat due to the fact that the melting points of plastics are low. This will be an eco-friendly innovation and it will promote low costs and a clean environment. Economically, students will be able to raise funds which can be used to finance tuition charges ad meet other financial needs.
Reason for the Selected Innovation
The selection of this innovation was aimed at countering the disadvantages that plastic wastes have when disposed inappropriately. Additionally, there are many plastic items lying all over the university as waste. These include packages of refreshment drinks and shopping bags. Poor disposal of plastics is harmful to human health and the environment. Naturally, plastic are non-biodegradable. Thus, poor plastics disposal leads to environmental pollutions. In addition, plastics stay in the environment in form of waste for a long period.
Consequently, this can be a great and long term risk to the environment and the health of the people (Mudgal et al 11). Plastics’ recycling has been chosen as the best option that will help in addressing this challenge. This is because other methods of disposing plastics effectively are very costly. As such, an innovative plastics’ recycling technique will help in dealing with the environmental problems caused by plastics at a reasonable rate. In most cases, students do not follow the proper guidelines for disposing plastics. This has always caused environmental pollution (Michael 1).
This proposal has presented a detailed analysis of a new innovative method that can be used to conserve the environment and to protect the health of the people in the university. Innovation here entails the setting up of the recycling plant in the campus. Plastics’ recycling will take place in this plant where new products will be produced. The ability of this idea to curb environmental pollution makes it an ideal choice. It is also affordable because it requires less energy as compared to the production of new products with raw materials. The development of this idea follows the wayward act of students who dispose plastic wastes in a wrong way.
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Dubey, Ashutosh, Tewari, Anurag and Chaturvedi, Marie. Plastic Waste and its Recycling. VSRD-TNTJ International Journal, 1.1(2010):30-34.
Michael. Mayor. “The City’s Dirty Recycling Secret” Crain’s New York.Com. The Insider, 25 Nov.2013. Web. 13 Feb.2014.
Mudgal, Shailendra, Lyons, Lorcan, Dias, Debora, Johansson, Linda and Faninger, Thibault. Plastic Waste in the Environment. European Commission Final Report 7.4(2011):1-171.
Ross, Stuart and Evans, David. The Environmental Effect of Re-using and Recycling a Plastic-Based Packaging System. Journal of Cleaner Production 11.1(2003):561-571.
Email and Instant Messaging
Email and Instant Messaging Proposal
Email and Instant Messaging (IM) have become essential components of the Information Technology (IT) infrastructure and companies today use these for purposes of communicating and collaborating with different stakeholders. Such technologies have been key enhancers of teamwork activities and collaboration amongst different people in firms because they facilitate communication through sharing of vital information and raising of pertinent questions. Ultimately, organizations need to use information systems such as emails and instant messaging for beneficial activities that can ad value to the firm.
IT has evolved into a key business and organizational strategy, unlike in the old times when it was treated in isolation. Lucas (2005) further reiterates this point by stating that IT should be perceived as “…. a way to help design an organization. Technology can supplement or substitute for traditional approaches to organization design”. Companies today are therefore faced with the tough decision of how to source for IT services and with this regard they can choose to outsource, insource or subcontract email and instant messaging. Fix, an IT manufacturing company (publicly traded marketplace/IPO), is currently facing the challenge of whether or not to retain the existing email and instant messaging systems or switch to other viable alternatives. The main objective of the company is to deliver quality information to all work groups/virtual teams/users/staff in both the global arena and co-located teams using a credible digital means. By carrying out the strategic evaluation of the email and instant messaging, Fix aims to catalyze communication system for the manufacturing processes. Fix must enhance its creativity and innovativeness so as to be more competitive within the marketplace as well as strengthen its organizational core competencies. The company has three alternatives to consider and these include retention of the current system, outsourcing services from other providers, and contracting IT services to a third party. After careful evaluation of the alternatives, Fix settled on contracting the management of the systems to a third party is selected as its most viable hence best alternative.
The Need or Problem
Currently, Fix channels a lot of resources towards maintaining its email and instant messaging systems. Some of the huge costs incurred include the resources spent on hiring IT staff, maintaining the mail server, and investing in upgrades or maintenance costs which add up to high costs that could be diverted to other core areas or even saved up.
The Fix management team also realized that their core business and competency lies in manufacturing activities as opposed to the email and instant messaging.
In addition, Fix also faces a number of serious security threats and scalability challenges. The company lacks the expertise and resources to monitor its systems on a 24 hour basis and neutralize any potential security threats. Other organizations that specialize in these areas are more capable of handling these challenges because they are placed to monitor email traffic and have higher capacity to handle increased traffic and provide viable network contingencies.
Fix should focus on its core competencies in the manufacturing sector and outsource the email and instant messaging services to a capable and competent third party. The third party will provide the email and instant messaging applications through the cloud technology. This alternative is considered the best because it allows Fix to exercise a lot of flexibility in terms of handling traffic fluctuations and enhances the ease of access to the applications by stakeholders in different locations, using any devices, and at the time of their own convenience. The vendor is thus responsible for adjusting the capacity of the services according to the demand, and hence can increase capacity with increasing traffic. By outsourcing, Fix will easily transfer “server and patch management, system availability, and end-user support headaches” to a trusted third party expert who can offer better and more effective services(Pearlson & Saunders, 2013). Fix, on the other hand, will be able to concentrate more on its core business.
The chosen vendor has vast experience in this particular industry and has amassed sophisticated expertise and knowledge hence is capable of providing quality service to Fix. Having achieved economies of scale, the vendor will be able to pass on cost saving services and techniques to its clients, Fix included.
The recommendation to select a third party vendor was based on the premise that Fix relies heavily on email and instant messaging to carry out most of its businesses. However, the ever changing trends in technology necessitate the need for the company to delegate and offload any extraneous functions to capable and competent third parties that can readily avail required services. This will allow Fix to focus on its main business and core competencies in the manufacturing sector.
Despite its potential benefits, outsourcing any services or applications can pose potential risks in Fix Manufacturing Company. The managerial team at the company must thus ensure that the regulatory factors regarding governance and control are clearly spelled out to vendors that are hired to provide cloud services for e-mail and instant messaging on behalf of the company. McCray (2008) explains that companies can effectively work with vendors by ensuring that before the outsourcing company begins working, it is properly introduced and an efficient sustainable plan for change is instituted as well as high level of performance standards are set in place to ensure success up to the last phase. Some of the end results of a successful or effective outsourcing contract will be depicted by excellent performance of the applications, growth of infrastructure, cost effectiveness and sustainability. Djavanshir (2005) lists the following five concerns that companies should beware of when outsourcing information systems:
- Lack of clarity regarding post-contract processes – the outsourcing procedures must be well known by everyone involved in implementing the program
- Poor support offered by client services companies – sometimes the implementation process may stall if it lacks support from the managerial team and leaders of client company especially if these persons are charged with overseeing the outsourcing process
- Poor comprehension of the contract– poor understanding of the contract can cause problems especially if parties involved fail to comprehend the terms, parameters and limitations of the contract
- Loss of knowledgeable and skilled workers or acquisition of less knowledgeable workers – this can cause uncertainty in outsourcing with regard to human resources and staffing
- Lack of necessary skills by the client company – where a company lacks outsourcing experience and necessary training on governing outsourcing, it may end up with a poor program
One of the dangers and major concerns of outsourcing e-mail services is keeping control of the whole process including filtering what goes in and comes out. The outsourcing company is in charge of choosing the location that will be most optimal and functional hence must ensure at the transferred e-mail data are in a centralized location (Baker, 2008). The option for outsourcing the e-mail means that the service will be provided via cloud and this approach may become an obstacle in the exchange of data, and hence may have adverse effects in varied departments of Fix. According to Baroudi (2012), “the use of cloud computing to run email and instant messaging, VoIP, and cell phones may create security problems for the e-mail applications” (par. 6).
Nevertheless these potential risks and challenges are outweighed by the foregoing advantages of outsourcing these services. In order to reap all the benefits of outsourcing, it is recommended that Fix contracts the services of AliComp outsourcing solutions. AliComp outsourcing offers a variety of outsourcing services that have been specifically designed to cut costs and improve services in the IT sector as depicted in Table 1 (AliComp.com, 2013).
Table 1: AliComp Outsourcing Benefits
|Services and Reliability||· Services mainframe, open system, business continuity
· Provides a robust framework for information systems
· Excellent network design
· Reliable maintenance services
|Hardware & Cloud Services Architecture||· Supported by Linux/390
· IBM Mainframe Processors
· IBM “A” Data Center
· Type II Certified SSAE-16 Standards
· Reinforced network environment
· Services to IT structure cloud computing for applications
|Cloud Security||· Cloud security controls to deter, prevent, correct, and detect threats
· Provide identity management
· Physical and personnel security
· Availability of cloud with secure access to data and applications
· Applications security using testing and acceptance procedures
· Privacy access to application with the used of masked access to data
|Network Cloud Characteristics||· Network framework supported by private line connections with Optical Carrier (OC-192) transmission rates on Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET)
· Infrastructure at Service
· On-demand self-service for computing time, network connectivity and storage
· Broad network access for thin and thick client platforms
· Resource pooling with dynamic resources
· Rapid elasticity for quick up scaling
· Measured service to control and optimize resource
Retain Data Center and its Ownership
Alternatively, Fix has the option of retaining the existing in-house systems. The main advantage of retaining in-house systems is that Fix will be assured of maintaining confidentiality and protecting its trade secrets. If the company chooses to retain its own data center containing the email and instant messaging systems, it will avoid the potential risks of third party intrusion which may lead to leakage of its information to benefit of its competitors. In case the interest of protecting an organization’s intellectual property (IP), proprietary information (PI) and classified data is critical, and then in-house services are the best alternative. However, these concerns may not apply to Fix because the vendor that has been chosen has been found to provide highly secure services. This is because AliComp treats client information with confidentiality and integrity, hence being highly commended for the company. Table 2 offers a summary of the advantages and drawbacks that a company like Fix will face by choosing to retain the data center and ownership of its applications.
Table 2: Retaining the Data Center and Ownership
|Retain the data center and ownership||BENEFIT||DRAWBACK|
|Server room build out investment w/o redundancy backup location||· Secure facility to install high value electronics in environmentally controlled high performance center locations||· Very expensive|
|Thin-client architecture investment||· Increased security and reduced administrative costs||· Requires expensive backend server equipment|
|Physical security system||· Protects IP, PI, and classified data from being compromised||· Can be costly|
|Argonite fire suppression/ protection system||· Protects the high value electronics equipment w/o damaging it as water systems do||· Evacuation must take place immediately upon release of gas|
|Fiber optic cabling||· Allows for higher bandwidth and increased network performance||· Higher installation costs|
Risks and Solutions
The main risk of information theft was identified and this may result in loss of trade and competitive secrets. However, this risk was mitigated by the advanced technological platform provided by the highly competent services of AliComp, which according to the company and client testimonials have never been breached The messages transmitted through the systems are also encrypted. This thus assures the company of protection of all its company secrets.
Consequences of the Recommended Solution
By contracting the email and instant messaging systems to AliComp, Fix will be forced to shut down the existing data center. Additionally, the IT infrastructure components of the existing data center will also have to be disposed of and the IT staff might also be redeployed within the organization. These employees may also be released to seek other jobs outside the company in case there are no positions for them within the company.
In order to enhance its experience with the outsourcing company, Fix has to upgrade its existing network equipment before implementing the recommended solution. Apart from replacing of routers and network cables, the company will need to change client interfaces. It will also have to train the users of the system on ways of coping and handling the new system more effectively.
For the company to implement the solution effectively, it has to undertake several project-related activities. It is important for the organization to consolidate its finances, purchase the necessary equipment, employ highly skilled and qualified technicians that can facilitate the installation process, and also come up with a schedule for executing the project. This necessitates recruitment of a project manager to oversee the execution of the project.
The project has to be implemented in viable stages and the first stage must entail seeking information from all the stakeholders that will be affected by the program and changes. The vendor may therefore have to establish and submit a necessity test for requirements. Pilot testing can be carried out to a small part of the organization so as to determine the viability of the solutions offered by the vendor. Once the users are satisfied with the solution, the vendor cam proceed to effect it into the entire organization. This can be done in intervals or phases. The program must also be well monitored and evaluated to enhance its effectiveness and gauge how well it fulfills the requirements that were identified at the onset of the project.
Email and Instant Messaging are pertinent as support systems for the function of Fix as a company. Nevertheless, the resources required to maintain the system are too high and the company also has to hire workers to maintain the server, software, hardware, and the infrastructure. This increases operational costs for Fix Company and reduces its profitability and performance. This necessitates outsourcing of Email and IM functions from a third party to allow the company to focus on its core business function. This will enhance flexibility and effectiveness of access of email and IM applications the company that will provide the services will use cloud connectivity.
AliComp Outsourcing Company. (2013, August). Fully managed IT solutions. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from http://alicomp.com
Baker, P. (2008, 8 August). The pros and cons of outsourcing enterprise emails. Retrieved from http://www.cioupdate.com/trends/article.php/3764216/The-Pros-and-Cons-of-Outsourcing-Enterprise-Emails.htm
Baroudi, C. (2012). Email security: Big risk to organizations and individuals. Retrieved
Djavanshir, G. R. (2005). 2005. IEEE Computer Society, 32-37.
Lucas Jr., H. (2005) Information technology – strategic decision making for managers. John
McCray, B. (2008, March 3). The top 10 problems with outsourcing implementation. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from TPI.net: http://www.tpi.net
Pearlson, K., & Saunders, C. S. (2013). Managing and using information systems: A strategic approach. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Best Custom Writing Paper
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Research proposal is a document that a researcher writes to seek approval to carry out research or request budget for the research from an institution. When writing a research proposal, use future tense to explain why you want to conduct the research and how important it is. You have to state the research problem and explain method you will use for data collection. For you to get approval or research budget, you have to write a research proposal of standard quality. (more…)
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- It is highly essential to know your target audience when writing a Research Proposal. The paper should be composed in an understandable and clear language.Sadly, most students have the notion that they will score more points if they use technical terms. The trick with writing research papers and essays is to keep it simple. Ensure that you make this point when clear when you contact a Write My Essay help site. As writers from essaysexperts.net advice, complicating the essay will work to your detriment.
- You must have a catchy introduction that will draw the readers to your paper. Remember that reviewers are very busy and they have stacks of other papers to review. You must grab the attention of the reviewer right from the beginning through the introduction. Additionally, a convincing Research Proposal must have a clear hypothesis and research objective.
It is not enough for you to ask “who can Write My Essay” you should look for proficient writers who will follow the above guidelines. Expert help is necessary when writing a Research Proposal and writers at are well equipped and skilled to help you write winning essays and convincing research proposals. Who can Write My Essay should no longer be a question that gives you headaches since essay help is readily and easily available at essaysexperts.net.
Research Paper Topics
Most students view Research Paper Topics with apprehension although this should not be happening. With just a little training, it could be an enjoyable and simple process. One of the best ways to go about this is learning from professional essay writers. Alternatively, students can Buy an Essay written by professional essay writers in order to model their writing techniques. Research Paper Topics writing is a technical endeavor, and as such, it follows specific guidelines and procedures that can be learned by less experienced writers. A good place to start when looking to Buy an Essay or dissertations is essaysexperts.net. The website boasts has competent and fully trained writers, editors and other professionals who will ensure that the specific articles, essays, or documents bought are of the highest possible standard, and all at an affordable price.
The professional writers at essaysexperts.net have a clearly developed workflow procedure when it comes to Research Paper Topics. This enables them to complete their work on schedule and within budget, so that the clients who come to Buy an Essay from them are assured of consistently high quality work delivered within the targeted deadline. The workflow procedure has four stages, namely title and topic background research, in depth research, article and essay development and finally proofreading.
Steps in Research Paper Topics
- When writing Research Paper Topics, the topic and the title must be first in the process. The writers assigned to the task are thoroughly versed with the subject matter of the dissertation. This is because all clients who Buy an Essay from essaysexperts.net deserve the very best writers working for them on their dissertation or essay writing project.
- Secondly, you must carry out in-depth research. No effort is spared in ensuring that the sources required for a particular Research Paper Topics task are obtained and properly cited as data and information is gathered for the dissertation. Plagiarism is a major academic misdemeanor, and most students would prefer to Buy an Essay that is correctly referenced according to the MLA, APA, Harvard, or Chicago format of referencing, since these are the most common referencing styles used in most academic settings. Writers at essaysexpert.net are familiar with all the four styles of citation.
Research Paper Topics writing requires that one follows the guidelines provided by the academic supervisor, teacher, or lecturer who assigned the work. As soon as the writers have finished gathering information, they need to format it in a way that complies with the guidelines provided. The use of colloquial language, slang, word contractions, and abstract phrases are undesirable in academic writing.
Run on sentences are usually an indication of a poor writing style and so writers should seek to write sentences that are concise and to the point. In most writing situations, it is better to use simple word structures as opposed to complex sentence constructions, since the readers or clients who Buy an Essay may not work out the meanings of the complex sentence. Once the final document is ready, proofreading helps correct any grammatical, typographical, or structural mistake that might have crept into the dissertation writing.
A large number of students in high school, college and even university do not know what a custom essay entails. Those who have clue, they do not know how to craft one. Custom essays can simply be put as academic papers that are written from scratch. In addition, custom essays are crafted in a manner that they will meet the requirements of the student in need and the academic standards. Writing custom essays is not an easy to go about task especially if you have to choose the best research paper topics.
It is without doubt that custom essay writing is one of the demanding chores that students go through on a daily basis. There is always that time within a semester that you have to sit for an essay assignment. To succeed writing your essay paper, it requires a lot of ardor, use of lot of materials and time. With these foregoing requirements in mind, it will be much easy to even pick the best research paper topics of your papers.
Whenever you are about to write high quality essay papers, you have to invariably bear all the requirements of your tutors and demands of readers in mind. Ideally, you have to choose your research paper topics in accordance to provided instructions. If having difficulties crafting your custom essay, there are reliable writing services available in the market that you go for and do extra and worthy academic work.
Custom essay paper types vary extensively. Tutors assign students essay papers in accordance to topic of choice. Topics that you can base your essay papers on will vary immensely. For instance, you can be assigned an essay paper on sociology, nursing, law, business and accounting among many other topics. For this reason, it is a brilliant idea to take time and think meticulously on the research paper topics that you select.
Many times, students find it challenging to choose the best research paper topics. Many wonder which topics will be interesting enough to fit their custom essays perfectly.
When finding the best topics, always ensure you pick topics that will appeal to your readers and tutors. Boring topics will not guarantee those high grades that you intent to get as while as improve your custom essay writing reputation.
When you opt to go for custom essay writing services, take all the time that you have and pick the best providers. Incredible services should engage professionally trained and experienced writers. Indeed, your writers should not have any problems tackling your paper. Your writers of choice should confidently choose your research paper topics and tackle your paper in comfortably. Actually, they should be able to tackle wide assortment of academic paper assignments.
With the large number of custom writing service companies, it is easy to get instant help choosing research paper topics. Nevertheless, it is advisable to compare the pricing rates of each provider before ordering essay papers. The writers of choice should offer writing services at budget-effective prices. In the real sense, do not waste lot of time thinking of how to write custom essay papers. Simply, make an order or request and help will be a click away.
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Custom Essay Writing
A research paper example is also termed as a sample research paper and is beneficial when determining the company to provide excellent writing services. Research paper examples should tell clearly whether custom essay writing company hires professionals. It should tell the estimated value of service to receive from a custom essay writing, namely, the level of quality of work.
At the end of the day, it helps you decide whether to hire a company or not based on the quality of the research paper example. It is necessary to note that there are so many custom essay writing services online. Some companies such as EssaysExperts.net do their best to provide genuine and high quality work, while others provide low quality papers and are out to deceive clients. The best way to avoiding shoddy service providers is by checking their research paper example.
Comparing various research paper examples from different custom essay writing companies might help you settle on the best company to do the assignment. The criterion for checking samples from all custom essay writing companies is the same: what is their quality? Different companies have different advantages compared with others: a good reason you might be interested in such a comparison for purposes of pricing.
Remember, the quality of research papers means a lot to you because it is associated with the grading. Even if you bought a cheap paper, it is regretful if you fail or the paper get rejected on quality basis. The criteria would be to reach out for help from custom essay writing companies that provide high quality in addition to cheap services. The same case applies to those providing fast custom essay writing services such as EssaysExperts.net.
The qualities of a good essay sample and research paper example should help you to identify a good company. If you are not aware of what entails a good custom essay and/or research paper, here is a guide. Make sure the sample topic is informative and raises issues as mentioned or desired in the description.
Make sure the topic is satisfactory
There is nothing as discouraging in essay or research paper writing as coming up with a wrong and irrelevant topic because a topic is the first thing the lecturer/tutor reads. The tutor/lecturer can disqualify the essay and research paper by reading the topic only. They can tell whether the work is relevant to what you were asked to produce. Remember, this might induce a revision on the work.
An informative topic is issue-based, unless the lecturer requires producing a creative and less informative topic such as may be necessary in creative essay writing. The sample research paper should also have a thesis statement included in the introduction section. It should be possible for a custom essay writing company such as EssaysExperts.net to provide a sample that is free of errors. Whether those errors are grammatical in nature, related to referencing and sentence structures, among others.