Haiti after 2010 Earthquake
Building Code Which Were Not Enforced
Some of the building codes that were not adhered to that led to the collapse of building after the earthquake included the disregard for the building codes by the constructors, neglect of the people to get building permits, ignorance of the government inspections, among other factors (DesRoches, 2011). If the building codes had been followed to the latter, the known places capable of earthquake attack could not have been put under construction. This would have totally prevented any collapse of the building or fatality. At the same time, weak building materials would not have been used. Places known to be earthquake zones would have been constructed using seismic resistance materials, and this could have arrested the situation (Lies, 2011). The building codes advocates for a person to get building permit from the relevant authorities. If this was followed, the necessary advice would have been offered thus reducing the impact of the seismic shocks through early warning. As construction continues, allowing inspectors to inspect the building thoroughly would have ensured that minimal errors in the stability of the building. There was also a poor building safety record.
Construction Methods Used in the Collapsed Buildings
According to the building experts, earthquake resistant building is likely to cost more than unstructured buildings. Due to the poverty level in Haiti, many of the walls of the buildings were constructed using cement earth, stones or bricks. This reduced the costs but left the buildings being weak. At the same time, many of the constructions in Haiti had been constructed along hills and slopes and had no proper foundations thus making them easy target.
Advancements Made After The Earthquake
Prior to the earthquake, formwork was being used as a partitioning alternative to wood in the buildings. At the same time, heavy masonry walls instead of steel, cement and aggregate was being used ad it led to the buildings having low ductile and strength (Lies, 2011). After the earthquake, the construction advancement in Haiti embraced the use of reinforced concrete and steel frame construction. Instead of the formwork, it has was emphasized that the inside walls be built with masonry. Other advanced technologies included the use of dampers to absorb shocks and enable the buildings to withstand seismic shocks and the use of steel elements when constructing buildings (Lies, 2011).
Emphasis of Construction Today
The emphasis on the constructions in Haiti entails better construction for a better protection. In this, the relevant authorities have been involved in making and adopting building standards, implementing them to reduce any impact that seismic waves would bring (Bilham, 2010). At the same time, the modern buildings have been designed to have better foundations and built based on the building codes set.
Major Changes Occurring in Haiti Today
After the earthquake, some considerable steps have been taken in regard to the education and health status of the Haitians. Although the people are very poor, they are very rich in cultural values and this makes the country attract many tourists who come in large numbers to view the various scenarios of the state. Politically, the state is not stable since it has been faced with corrupt officials and political violence. The country has been having increased hotel construction and has been guaranteeing its visitors safety. The crime rate has been reducing and it is ranked the lowest in the Caribbean. The country has an untapped and unexploited market that has been helping many small ventures to become giants. The refurbishment of the hotel and tourism industry has helped the country generate foreign exchange while at the same time providing direct and indirect employment to the majority of the poor citizens.
Top of Form
Bottom of Form
Bilham, R. (2010). Lessons from the Haiti earthquake. Nature, 463(7283), 878-879.
DesRoches, R., Comerio, M., Eberhard, M., Mooney, W., & Rix, G. J. (2011). Overview of the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Earthquake Spectra, 27(S1), S1-S21.
Lies, A. (2011). The earthquake in Haiti. Edina, Minn: ABDO Pub.
International relations refers to interaction with other nations. This interrelation has benefited the countries involved in many ways. For instance, interrelations have created a higher level of gender equality in different parts of the world. Women and men have equal rights and opportunities for any kind of developments, be it social, economical or political developments. In today’s world, there are men and women who head states, govern judicial systems, run great business ventures, and even become religious leaders among other responsibilities.
During the last century, women’s lives have changed in so many ways, socially, politically, and even economically and the biggest part of the change is for the better. In the early years, women were not allowed to leave their homes since their only responsibilities where the household chores, and they were also not supposed to undertake any responsibilities entitled to the men.
After the German women were legalized to vote, the republic also ensured that women in the country were given access to education and a number of women during that time benefited from advances in education and paid employments. During that time the number of women in the universities was up to 20%, and after the first world war the number of women in the German universities rose to 35% (Albanese, 2006, p. 29). With this privilege, women were able to get quality education just like the men and also get well paying jobs. This therefore meant that the woman had more responsibility of being a mother, that is if she voluntarily accepts to get married, and also her profession. Fathers at this time had left the responsibility of educating children and supplying the home with food and other necessities to the German woman. It has been therefore very tough toward the German women.
However, most women during this tough time decided to practice prostitution with middle class workers, for them to be able to cater for all the required needs at their homes. The women prostitutes were desirous for fineries and luxuries, provide for their families, more than what their salaries could afford them and that is the reason why they engaged in to prostitution (Harris, 2010, p. 81). The society, therefore came up with reforming homes or rehabs, for the prostitutes, and try and change their lifestyle. The homes were opposite to what was anticipated by them. The girls and women in these homes were mistreated and punished for small mistakes they did. Other inhabitants were locked in cellars in the dark for a long period of time and they could be denied food (Harris, 2010, p. 92).
Gender sensitivity was becoming a reality and actually, made policies for the men who decided to make other women pregnant and leave them without caring about the child support. However, there were policies put into law, for unmarried men to pay a ‘bachelor tax’. These policies were perhaps meant to make men marry and also for those who had left their families to go back to their families. The main intentions of these policies were meant to ensure that national income is well redistributed to families with many children (Albanese, 2006, p. 54). The policy of ensuring that men were married and have children was induced in many ways. Married couples were eligible for loans, and they would be paid after the wedding, unless the couple get a child and 10% of the loan would be cancelled, and if they get another child, 20% would be cancelled (Albanese, 2006, p. 55). This proved that both parents were responsible for their child’s upkeep, education and welfare.
The women in Germany have seen a great change in gender equality and interrelation among other countries. In these past years, women were excluded from all responsibilities apart from the responsibilities of a mother and of a spouse and other domestic tasks. Women in the ancient Germany did not have the rights to education or political activities. However, after the new constitution of 1918/1919, the constitution stipulated that men and women should have the same rights and duties, moreover the same constitution dictated that women were eligible to vote, hold public office and pursue careers (Albanese, 2006, p. 28). And later in the years, the republic introduced Woman Suffrage, which is the right for a woman to vote as well as a stand for a political office. This is when women in that time Germany, began to have a limelight in the political sphere of the country. And in the next elections, the women ensured to turn out in big number to vote for their fellows into political offices so that they can be able to implement the change they wanted as women of that country.
Women in the republic of Germany began to be seen as initiators of change both socially and politically in the society. Due to this contribution women had made for their society, there was pressure to increase the number of women at decision making levels, such as in political parties and in parliament, and this was influenced by the formation of different women’s groups, like the Working Group of Social Democratic Women (Huelshoff, 1994, p. 156) which is contrary to the recent years in Germany. This therefore puts a lot of confidence in women in what they have done previously and what they can do in the future for their society or maybe the world.
Women have not only assisted their societies, but they have gone global into other countries to come together and empower the girl children world wide. The bringing of women’s study, women’s issues, and gender relations in the international relations, and even in government and politics (Rosenfelt, 1998, p. 4), changed women’s lives in lots of parts of the earth. In that, these women’s organization go and hold seminar in different countries, with different government and encourage women to seek for higher levels of education, stretch their helping hand to needy children (for that is their nature), and with this they will make a great contribution to the world, to their society and also to themselves.
Today the world is benefiting from services rendered by political female leaders such as the current Chancellor of Germany, Angela Merkel, who is arguably one of the most influential female politician in the world. It is therefore very important that all governments empower women in many ways, so that developments can be speeded up and also individual developments due to the competition imposed by women.
Women empowerment has become brought positive results to many societies of the world. Thanks to women empowerment, women have been able to apply several family planning methods due different factors such their families’ financial status, education, and vocational commitments. This has benefited mostly the developing countries, in that the is control in population, other than causing overpopulation to a country the country yet it has less resources. This will mean the children will be brought up in poor condition, perhaps with poor medical facilities and this depreciates their health conditions as they grow up. However, this would cause a higher mortality rate in these countries. Therefore, the empowering of women in giving birth, according to their financial status is a major positive change to the world.
Economic developments in the world have been highly contributed by women in different ways. Women have worked together to ensure that they have equal rights and opportunities with their male counterparts such as in academics, businesses, politics and also at home. However, women have actually become more active in economic development in our societies since, after the World War II, a married woman’s labor force participation became more, because the modern woman, has shifted from being a full time homemaker to a role where she is both an earner and a caregiver (Giele, 2004, p. 3). This, however, became a challenge to the men, especially the married men, and had to ensure they contribute a share, if not the largest of the breadwinner just like their wives.
In the 1970s and 1980s, the German law recognized key measures of equal status in a family, to ensure that the woman is not totally dependent to the man. A number of women would face a tough choice between employment and child rearing, yet the law provided parental leave (Reynolds, 2002, p. 50). During this time the German system was more about promoting marriages, more than child rearing. Incomes, when both parents were employed were lower during this time so that they government could offer non cash benefits for the mothers who are full time homemakers. Women would therefore decide to have a childless career, other than to be traditional homemakers. This therefore leads to a decrease in the population of this country, and available resources were not fully utilized to benefit the society has a whole.
In the past West Germany, the men were believed to be breadwinners, where women and families would largely depended on men’s earnings. During this time, it was believed that a woman was fully responsible for child rearing and would interfere with her career if she started working. However, a communist SED regime had to mobilize women to participate in labor force so that they can provide more support for their families and children (Huelshoff, 1994, p. 150).
Unlike the past years, women did not have the rights to own any kind of property or even run businesses. Women in this world currently are owning much business properties and are fighting all over for them to have equal rights as the men in owning of property and inheritance of property. Many women do not own property bearing their names due to cultural or traditional believes that men should own property such as land and also male children should be the only people who inherit properties from their parents or relatives. This has become a major challenge for the women, to an extent that, when a woman gets married and she owns property, she has to rename the property in her husbands name, as required by their culture. Women, however, are fighting to educate other women on the need to let go cultural practices and believes especially when it comes to property owning. Our societies should also contribute in one way or another, to ensuring such beliefs are eradicated from our society for a civilized community.
Women have proved to the society at large that they are able to accomplish everything a man can or even better than the men. This women’s empowerment initiative, has ensured women that they can stand for anything without being looked down upon by anyone. Women are at liberty to join any careers, and perform any tasks just like the men counterparts. With this, our girl children are likely to be brought up wisely and in a dignified way that they can have their respect as girls in the society and able to accomplish more for the society and the world generally.
The move by many societies and governments of empowering women in many ways, such as educating them, has help development in our respective societies, speed up. Ensuring that the girl child is well educated, will create a great healthy competition between the men and women in our economies. This therefore boosts different sectors of the economy and also reduce the vulnerability to gender violence or domestic violence and also diseases such as HIV. However, empowering of women in many ways has helped different economies experience reduction in poverty rates. Women have taken advantage of how they are empowered and some become great farmers, others venture into businesses, and others become professionals in different fields. This therefore will mean, our society will raise healthier children and also better educated children. Women empowerment is also seen to be a very positive impact to our societies, sine women have been able to learn how to create money for themselves and families, how to stay away from diseases such as HIV/AIDS, and also how they can have better family planning. Prostitution in our societies will reduce by a great margin, since young women who venture into this practice will have better alternatives of getting money in ways that they are not prone to health risks.
Civilization, however, entails the maintenance of dignity by both the men and women in our society. In many cases, young women tend to be seen to have totally lost their dignity when they engage themselves in prostitution, in the name of getting and extra coin. A number of women in this practice are usually professional single mothers, who have their professional jobs and kids to take care of. Most of these women would argue that they get into this kind of activities, because what they get from their jobs is perhaps not enough to cater for her and her children since the father of her children does not support her financially in the upkeep of the children. Women empowerment, however, has created awareness to women in such situations, where they are able to file cases in courts, seeking for financial support from the fathers of their children. This has lead to minimal cases of divorce and also cases of single mothers engaging in commercial sex activities. Moreover, it will mean that the transmission of HIV/AIDS from mother to child, since there other who have children who still suckle, will reduce by a greater margin.
Due to financial empowerment of women, has increased the level of how the women are able to get the available resources and chances in the markets. For instance, women due to this empowerment have been able to have creative ideas that may develop the economy, their social status and als their personal lives. Women when included in innovative pursuits, they are likely to produce much benefit to our economy generally. With this provision to many women in the society, they are able to create employments not only for themselves but also for the society in general. Women empowerment, however, has enabled women to engage in technological trends and activities so that they can develop their economic potential and also create a stiff competition in the businesses operating in the technology sector. For instance, e commerce has become one of the many successful technological operation in the world, in that money is able to be transferred from one person to another. Women can, however, learn the market and consider putting in place money transfer centers in the society to make the process easier for the people of the society. This will create job opportunities for the women and also they will also empower other women into different sectors, to develop themselves and their society. Women therefore will help their children be successful, especially the girl child, and teach them on how they can be the best for themselves and the society generally. It is therefore necessary for societies to embrace this empowerment of women to speed up developments, and also the society will have better standards of living compared as before.
Albanese, P. (2006). Mothers of the nation: Women, families, and nationalism in twentieth-century Europe. Toronto [u.a.: Univ. of Toronto Press.
Giele, J. Z., & Holst, E. (2004). Changing life patterns in Western industrial societies. Amsterdam: Elsevier/JAI.
Harris, V. (2010). Selling Sex in the Reich: Prostitution in German Society, 1914-1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Huelshoff, M. G. (1994). From Bundesrepublik to Deutschland: German politics after unification. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.
Reynolds, D. B. (2002). Taking the high road: Communities organize for economic change. Armonk, NY [u.a.: M. E. Sharpe.
Rosenfelt, D. S. (1998). Internationalizing the curriculum: Integrating area studies, women’s studies, and ethnic studies. New York, N.Y: Feminist Press.
Bullying In Schools
Bullying is described as an act of violence, malice, or discrimination against a person due to several factors. In takes many forms, which can be categorized as verbal, indirect, non-verbal, physical, and cyber or electronic bullying. All this types of bullying have several core factors that link them together, which are determined by how the bullying affects the victim or perpetrator. These factors are physical and psychological torture on the victims or perpetrators since the effect on the person is dependent on the type of bullying being performed (Olweus 13). This paper will focus on how bullying affects the victims and perpetrators, statistics on this issue, current solutions, and people or organizations with the responsibility to tackle this vice.
According to psychologists, bullying is considered as being manifested in some psychological imbalance in either the victim or the bully. They believe that a victim either shows signs of weakness, or has qualities that are considered as a threat by the bully. In most cases, the former is the case as evidenced by the statistics indicating that in most instances, physical bullying cases in schools account for approximately 60% of the different types of bullies being perpetrated on the victims. Majority of these victims also have fewer friends who would serve to protect them when the bully strikes. Additionally, their weak personality usually results in the ease of cowering to demands or bully tactics being leveled on them. Weaknesses therefore, do not only lie in physical weakness, but also in their self-esteem and self-identity.
However, in other cases, the weakness could be on the bully. For instance, some individuals seek to be the most notable personalities in school and strive to ensure that all people are aware of their existence, their achievements, their looks, traits, among other personality identities. Therefore, this passion and zeal for recognition could drive them to seek being the only notable figures in the school and thus strive to eliminate other people that they consider as threatening this objective (Espelage and Swearer 156). Psychologists believe that a majority of the bullies have some form of psychological imbalance that causes them to bully others in a bid to feel strong, in control, or respected. In most cases, these bullies come from families that have some sort of domestic problem such as neglect, abuse, or poverty. Therefore, it is considered that bullying others could be a means for them to vent out their anger and frustration, without actually coming out and facing the problem.
Statistics, Causalities, and Effects of Bullying
Current statistics indicate that at least one in seven students in the united states is either a bully or has been a victim of bullying, while 56% of students have seen or being involved in some type of bullying. This shows that bullying is rampant in most schools in the US. Additionally, some of the effects of bullying are such as juvenile delinquency and school absenteeism and statistics indicate that at least 15% of students prefer not to go to school due to a fear of being bullied (Ross 314). This is a worrying statistic considering the massive resources that the government and schools are putting towards educating young children at what level of their education. Missing school not only has a psychological effect on the child, but also causes lower literate levels, juvenile tendencies due to too much free time, and poor social and interpersonal skill development as a result of being far from their peers.
Another causality of bullying is the psychological torture of the victims. Psychologists and school counselors have shown that bullying causes psychological imbalances in the victims that result in stress, depression and in some extreme cases PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). The latter is considered as too dire since its effects can last for a lifetime if the child does not receive treatment on time and in the right manner. These effects could result in the child developing self-esteem and self-identity issues that causes them to lack a passion to integrate adequately and properly into the societal spectrum.
A traumatic child could seek to channel their problems to other avenues that they consider as making them feel more superior, rather than weak as during their bullying sessions. For instance, law enforcement officials believe that a majority of the criminals convicted of such acts as rape, murder, shootings, or terror have been exposed to some form of traumatic event in their childhood (Dake, Price and Telljohann 175). Statistics further indicate that at least 60% of the prison population has been victims of some form of traumatic event in their lives. Therefore, bullying, if conducted forcefully and over a prolonged period could have the same traumatic effect as other traumas during the stages of child development.
Additionally, further statistics indicate that at least 45% of juveniles have been bullies, or victims of bullies. This shows that bullying has a negative effect on both persons. According to psychologists, a bully can become overwhelmed with feeling in control and could slowly develop their behaviors from simple harassments to engaging in criminal behavior such as rape, theft, or murder (Mishna 342). This development could also endear them to integrate themselves into gangs, which they believe makes them feel superior and allows them to indulge in their bully activities, but on a much larger and sophisticated scale.
Types of Bullying
As earlier mentioned physical bullying is considered as the main type of bullying and involves physical violence being performed on the victim. Verbal bullying could be a form of abuse, discrimination, or disrespect on the person being bullied. Concurrently, non verbal bullying takes on several forms such as sneering at a person, neglect, indirect gossiping, exclusion from social groups, subject of malice or rumors, sending text, video, or audio messages depicting a person in a certain prejudicial fashion, among others. Finally, cyber bullying involves the use of electronic media to perpetrate the bully tactics. It takes the forms of sending abusive emails and texts, making phone calls, posting or sending videos, audios and pictures either online or through other social media tools, among others.
Possible Solutions to Curb Bullying in Schools
One of the best, notable, and most utilized solutions for preventing an increase of bullying in schools is for the teachers to become more involved in students welfare, and seek to find ways and means that students are being affected negatively socially, academically, technologically, economically, or culturally (Craig & Pepler 92). This mechanism is useful since it ensures that the teacher can identify students that seem disoriented, disinterested in school, or lacking the machismo or drive that children have. From this perspective, the teacher can seek an audience with the student, or their parents to find out a possible issue affecting the child. Such a system is effective since it not only allows the teacher to identify victims of bullying, but also allows them to root out and punish the bully. Early identification of the bully problem allows them to change their approach to treating these students either through counseling, through transfer to another class or school, and creating social support networks and tools for the bully and victim to use to change their behaviors.
Another strategy that can be used is to increase the number of school counselors to ensure that each school has access to a school counselor. Additionally, this strategy should be closely followed with offering regular training to the school counselor. To achieve this strategy, it would require the involvement of both the school and the local, state, and federal governments (Heinrichs 201). Either the governments would be engaged in the provision of funds for hiring new counselors to be posted in the schools, or they could be involved in the process of creating laws that mandate all schools to have a school counselor. The school administration could be involved in the provision of offices for the counselors, funds for paying them, and funds for their education and training to serve the students more efficiently.
Another strategy that could be used would be creation of social and educational programs that seek to enhance accountability among the students, as well as a sense of support for each other. Accountability among the students would endear them to report cases of bullying in their school or classes to authoritative figures that could then take action on the bully and counseling on the victim. Secondly, the program would educate the children on the different forms of bullying, the steps that can be taken to identify them, how to tackle, and mechanisms for avoiding being bullied. This would ensure that the actions of bullies are countered at an early stage to ensure that the bully’s actions do not have a profound effect on the victim. Curbing their behavior early prevents the victim from suffering the adverse actions and reactions to bullying and results in their leading a long and successful life.
Finally, the school administration could create a punishment structure that ensures that the bully’s actions are severely countered and dealt with. This would seek to ensure that the bully become fearful of performing their activities due to the adverse action and reaction by the authoritative figures or systems (Fairholm and Mader 245). For instance, some schools have enacted laws or rules that curb bullying by forcefully suspending the perpetrator once found guilty. This strategy is mainly found in private schools that are hard for an individual to gain admission. It ensures that the students adhere to a strict code of conduct that forces them to act and behave in the manner that the school has proposed. While some critiques have labeled this strategy as being too dictatorial, its success at curbing bullying in schools has been profound. Therefore, in conclusion, bullying is an issue that affects most learning institutions and takes on many forms. Their effects are dire not only on the victim, but also on the bully. Therefore, it is paramount that authorities take stern actions to curb its spread before any problems can occur on either the victim, or the bully.
Craig, Wendy & Pepler, Debra. Understanding bullying: From research to practice. Canadian Psychology. 48 (2007): 86-93.
Dake, A. Joseph, Price, H. James and Telljohann, K. Susan. The nature and extent of bullying at school. Journal of School Health. 73.5 (2003): 173-180.
Espelage, Dorothy & Swearer, Susan. Bullying in American schools: A social-ecological perspective on prevention and intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 2004. Print.
Fairholm, Judi & Mader, Kristina. Beyond the Hurt: Peer Harassment and Bullying Prevention for Adults who Work with Youth. 3rd Edition. Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Red Cross. 2006. Print.
Heinrichs, R. Rebekah. A whole-school approach to bullying: Special considerations for children with exceptionalities. Intervention in School and Clinic. 38. 4 (2003): 195-204.
Mishna, Faye. Learning disabilities and bullying: Double jeopardy. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 36 (2003): 336-347.
Olweus, Dan. A profile of bullying at school. Educational Leadership. 60. 6(2006), 12-17.
Ross, Dorothea M, and Dorothea M. Ross. Childhood Bullying, Teasing, and Violence: What School Personnel, Other Professionals, and Parents Can Do. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association, 2003. Print.
Solar Energy in KSA
- Background material leading up to Thesis
History of Solar Energy
The rapid evolution of the earth has seen human beings use various sources of energy – both renewable and non-renewable. Surprisingly, a few sources of energy have been used in ancient and modern generations, and a perfect example is solar energy. The use of solar energy in the two different generations has not been common due to the lack of understanding of what solar energy is and how to harness it. Experts define solar energy as a form of radiant energy that is produced by the sun (Asefeso, 2011). Over the years, there have been debates of how and where the energy that continuously radiates from the sun comes from. Irrefutably, the sun is similar to other stars as it is made of gases that combine, and through the process of nuclear fusion, generate energy that has over the years facilitated most human activities worldwide. During the 7th century, human beings had begun harnessing solar energy, and this was made possible by the use of magnifying glasses that concentrated the rays of the sun into beams (Philibert et al, 2011). Early man capitalized on this ancient technology to make fire. Several years later saw the inception of a solar boiler by a scientist known as Charles Greely Abbott as well as a steam-powered engine that relied on solar energy. Today, technological advancements and developments have seen the introduction of solar collectors that facilitate the collection and channeling of solar energy to various uses and platforms. For instance, solar panels trap and store solar energy that is used in the production of electricity in the world today. More people are shifting to the use of solar energy as it is cheap, readily available and renewable (Akella et al, 2009).
History of Solar Energy in KSA
The use of solar energy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) can be traced back to the early 1970s. Myriads of solar projects are evident in KSA today, and this implies that several individuals in the kingdom still depend on solar energy for electricity generation despite the dominance of the use of coal and natural gas as sources of energy. By 2010, the kingdom’s leadership in an effort to encourage the use of substantial, alternative, and renewable sources of energy; expressed its support for solar energy development projects (Al-Saleh et al, 2008). The stride towards the proprietorship of more solar projects in the country was catalyzed by the establishment of the King Abdulla City for Atomic and Renewable Energy (K.A CARE). The establishment of the latter came up after the issuance of an order by the then king of Saudi Arabia, King Abdullah bin Al Saud in April 2010. K.A CARE was one of the projects that saw the KSA ranked among the leading countries that have attracted much attention from both the regional and international solar community. In fact, the project helped to contribute to the kingdom’s power generation, which was initially dependent on oil and natural gas. In contrast to oil and natural gas, solar energy was cheap and readily available, and this helped reduced the amount of capital invested into power generation in the KSA. Currently, the KSA’s economy owes its rapid economic rise to the embrace of the use of solar energy. It is estimated that by 2032, the KSA will have installed slightly over 41 GW of solar capacity, and this will be composed of 16 GW photovoltaic cells and 25 GW of solar thermal (Al-Saleh et al, 2008).
The benefits of improving the Solar Energy industry in KSA
As seen in other regions of the world, especially in the Western world, the development and improvement of the Solar Energy industry in KSA will have several benefits to the individuals and the kingdom’s economy.
- Economic benefits
The development and improvement of solar energy industries will trigger the emergence of more renewable energy plants that will create over 15,000 job opportunities for the citizens of Saudi Arabia. Through this, the kingdom will have made several steps forward in its bid to eradicate unemployment, and this will be one of the economic benefits of solar energy in the KSA (El-Katiri, 2014). Moreover, the improvement of KSA’s Solar Energy industry will play an integral role in meeting the ever-increasing national demand for electric power. Since the embrace of the use of solar energy, electric power generation has increased drastically, and this has triggered the rise of more industries and companies that have contributed to the positive growth of the national economy. The lower power cost that will accompany the use of solar energy after the improvement of the industry will help address the issue of economic inequality in the KSA (Goswami, 2006). A larger percentage of the kingdom’s population live in poverty and are unable to afford the high cost of power generated from oil and natural gas. However, the coming years will see most of the poor households in KSA served with electricity generated from solar energy because it is cheap and readily available (El-Katiri & Husain, 2014). The kingdom’s leadership will also capitalize on solar energy to initiate better and effective distribution of power, and this will have positive impacts on the national economy of KSA.
- Environmental Benefits
The use of various forms of energy has sparked debates worldwide because of the negative impacts that the environment is exposed to. Sources of energy such as coal result in the release of carbon dioxide and other emissions that affect the environment negatively. In contrast to coal, the use and improvement of the solar energy industry in KSA will have myriads of environmental benefits. First, the manufacture, installation, as well as the maintenance of solar energy will result in the production of insignificant or no carbon dioxide emissions that could lead to global warming and end up affecting the environment (Grover, 2007). Second, unlike the use of fossils, solar energy in KSA will be convenient for use as it will result in minimal or zero pollution of the environment (Kalogirou, 2004). The consistent use of fossil fuels in KSA has resulted in water and air pollution that has greatly affected human survival due to breathing problems, heart attacks, as well as cancer that humans are exposed. In the coming years, such challenges will be addressed through improvement of the solar energy industry that will result in zero or minimal environmental pollution.
- International Benefits
Apart from its economic and environmental benefits, the improvement of the solar industry in KSA will be of great benefit to the international community in various ways. First, other countries especially those neighboring KSA will benefit from a vast and constant supply of renewable energy through importation. Second, other countries are expected to initiate development projects to facilitate the production and supply of solar energy after benchmarks of the situation in KSA. This will see stabilization in the global energy prices as countries will not be forced to rely on oil, natural gas and other expensive sources of energy (International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy-Related Materials et al, 2014).
- Money that will be saved
What is expected to be saved after finishing the projects?
Currently, the generation of electricity in KSA is greatly dependent on oil, and this could be costly to the kingdom in the long term. There is fear that continuous use of oil for the generation of electricity could lead to the exhaustion of oil. This is an insinuation that KSA will lose a significant amount of potential revenue that could be generated through the exportation of oil. In a bid to prevent such challenges in future, the kingdom has rolled out over ten solar projects that are aimed at shifting electricity generation from the use of oil to the use of solar energy. Apparently, the solar energy projects in place target at saving substantial amounts of crude oil for export (Almasoud & Gandayh, 2014). Currently, the amount of crude oil exported to other countries is low, and this is owed to the fact that KSA uses huge amounts of oil to generate power for domestic consumption. An ever-increasing demand in power could see the kingdom use more barrels of oil for power generation, thus reducing the amount of oil exported to other countries significantly (Almasoud & Gandayh, 2014).
When it is expected to be done
The over ten solar projects rolled out in KSA between 2010 and 2018 are expected to be completed by 2032. After the completion of the projects, it is expected that solar energy will play an integral role in the production of 30% of the kingdom’s electricity (Almasoud & Gandayh, 2014).
How much will it cost?
The solar projects initiated by the government of KSA are among the largest projects in the Kingdom with approximately $109 billion channeled to the project (Almasoud & Gandayh, 2014). The huge capital invested in the project is expected to engineer its completion by 2032. The capital is expected to fund the development of 41,000 megawatts of solar power (25,000 MW of solar thermal plants and 16,000 photovoltaic panels).
- The expected environmental benefits of the solar project
As mentioned earlier, the solar energy project initiated by the government of KSA is expected to have several positive impacts or benefits on the environment. A discussion of some of the benefits of the project on the environment is as follows.
- Less air pollution
In contrast to other sources of energy such as fossils, solar energy that will facilitate the generation of 30% of the electricity of KSA will result in insignificant or no pollution of the environment (Mansouri et al, 2013). The use of fossil fuels for the generation of power involves combustion that results in the emission of smoke and other gases that causes pollution of the air. The situation during the production of electricity using solar energy is different. For the later, the energy from the sun is trapped in solar panels and stored in photovoltaic cells that then transform the energy into electrical energy. Arguably, no combustion is involved in the process, and this underscores the fact that the solar energy project in place in KSA will cause less or no air pollution (Tsoutsos et al, 2005).
- Renewable source of energy
It should be noted that renewable energy is that which is inexhaustible and can naturally be replenished, and a perfect example, in this case, is solar energy (Boyle, 2004). Currently, KSA depends on oil for the generation of electric power to meet the ever-increasing national demand. However, the use of oil has been accompanied by a plethora of disadvantages. First, the amount of oil that KSA exports to other countries has been compromised in the recent years, and this is a threat to the kingdom’s economic growth. Second, there are arguments that continuous use of oil for the generation of electricity could see the exhaustion of the kingdom’s oil fields in future (Dincer, 1999). Thus, the kingdom’s leadership has capitalized on the use of solar energy to facilitate the production of electricity, as it is renewable (Boyle, 2004). In other words, solar energy is inexhaustible hence could not affect the kingdom’s economic growth in the future.
- Benefits to other countries
After the completion of the solar energy project in KSA by 2032, it is expected that several countries will benefit from the project. First, a substantial amount of the 41,000 MW that will be produced from the project could be exported to neighboring countries, and this could help boost the economic development of other countries. Thus, some of the countries that are likely to benefit from the project include Yemen, the UAE, Qatar, Jordan, and Iraq (Jeffreys & Oxford Business Group, 2011). Essentially, the completion of the solar project will be a major boost of KSA’s local industries, and this could enhance its relationship with foreign countries such as Japan and USA. That is to say, to some extent, Japan and USA will be among the beneficiaries of the solar energy project in KSA. It is also expected that KSA will export its solar energy to European countries, and this will see the transmission cables reach Europe via either Africa or Bulgaria. A successful completion of the project could see KSA export between 3.5 and 10 gigawatts of solar energy to other countries. This is an implication that the kingdom will generate a lot of revenue because of the project. Although the cost of rolling out the plan of exporting solar energy will be high, it is expected that the returns that KSA will get will be high. Moreover, it is expected that solar energy project will strengthen the relationships between KSA and other countries such as France, Iraq, Qatar, Bahrain, and others (Taher & Hajjar, 2014).
As mentioned earlier, an estimated $109 billion is required to facilitate the successful completion of the project. Apparently, economically developed countries such as USA and Russia will be required to provide financial support to facilitate the completion of the project in KSA (Taher & Hajjar, 2014). The entry of France will also be crucial to the successful completion of the project. It should also be noted that with the support of the global economic superpowers, the strengthening of the relationship between countries will be easier.
Briefly, it should be remembered that the modern generation has seen most countries shift to the use of solar energy because of the advantages it has over other sources of energy. One of the countries that have initiated projects to facilitate the generation of electricity from solar energy is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Arguably, KSA is known to have initiated over ten solar energy projects that are expected to be complete by 2032. One of the major bodies behind the initiation of the solar energy projects is the K.A CARE. The latter’s efforts in seeing the KSA shift from the use of oil to solar energy for electricity generation saw the KSA ranked among the leading countries that have attracted much attention from the both the regional and international solar community. In fact, the project will help contribute to the kingdom’s power generation, which was initially dependent on oil and natural gas. In contrast to oil and natural gas, solar energy is cheap and readily available and this will help reduce the amount of capital invested into power generation in the KSA. There are myriads of benefits that the projects in place are expected to have at domestic and international levels. At a domestic level, the solar energy projects in progress are expected to create several job opportunities for the citizens of KSA. Besides, the solar energy projects are also expected to boost the economy of the kingdom positively. Internationally, it is expected that countries, especially the neighboring countries such as Bahrain, Yemen, UAE, and Qatar will benefit from the exportation of solar energy by the government of KSA. European countries are also likely to benefit from the ongoing project, and this is owed to the fact that the government of KSA has the thought of laying transmission cables to Europe via North Africa or Bulgaria to facilitate the exportation of solar energy.
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Al-Saleh, Y., Upham, P., & Malik, K. (2008). Renewable energy scenarios for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Working Paper, 125. http://www.tyndall.ac.uk/sites/default/files/wp125.pdf
Asefeso, A. (2011). Solar energy. s.l.: AAGlobalSourcing.com. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=nyYKcA38fn4C&pg=PT50&lpg=PT50&dq=Asefeso,+A.+%282011%29.+Solar+energy&source=bl&ots=j_bU2ca4u6&sig=oYhFwzsqI6-QpjvvAfxI7j2UcIc&hl=en&sa=X&ei=eC-GVZPFIqKE7gaD2oG4Aw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Asefeso%2C%20A.%20%282011%29.%20Solar%20energy&f=false
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Boyle, G. (2004). Renewable energy. OXFORD university press. http://www.amazon.co.uk/Renewable-Energy-Power-Sustainable-Future/dp/0199261784#reader_0199261784
Dincer, I. (1999). Environmental impacts of energy. Energy policy, 27(14), 845-854. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421599000683
El-Katiri, L. (2014). A roadmap for renewable energy in the middle east and north Africa. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. http://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/MEP-6.pdf
El-Katiri, L., & Husain, M. (2014). Prospects for Renewable Energy in GCC States…. art. cité, 14. http://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/MEP-10.pdf
Goswami, D. Y. (2006). Advances in solar energy: An annual review of research and development in renewable energy technologies. London: Earthscan. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=Iyk5B0VvAhEC&pg=PR5&lpg=PR5&dq=Advances+in+solar+energy:+An+annual+review+of+research+and+development+in+renewable+energy+technologies&source=bl&ots=2SXnUKP1Lz&sig=hyik9mGMSPb52sYONiLaXkpFczI&hl=en&sa=X&ei=gziGVduhE4T-UJLLgrAO&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Advances%20in%20solar%20energy%3A%20An%20annual%20review%20of%20research%20and%20development%20in%20renewable%20energy%20technologies&f=false
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Jeffreys, A., & Oxford Business Group. (2011). The report. London: Oxford Business Group.
Kalogirou, S. A. (2004). Environmental benefits of domestic solar energy systems. Energy conversion and management, 45(18), 3075-3092. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/222052814_Environmental_benefits_of_domestic_solar_energy_systems
Mansouri, N. Y., Crookes, R. J., & Korakianitis, T. (2013). A projection of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in the electricity sector for Saudi Arabia: The case for carbon capture and storage and solar photovoltaics. Energy Policy, 63, 681-695. https://www.deepdyve.com/lp/elsevier/a-projection-of-energy-consumption-and-carbon-dioxide-emissions-in-the-7Rw761uzlG
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Every business activity in the hotel industry is directed towards the revenues (profit) maximization objective. In various instances therefore, hotel managers engage in those activities that will boost performance, allow for growth through improved sales while maintaining higher quality services (Algonquin College 2008). For a revenue maximizing hotel, the intension is to maintain a loyal, and more satisfied customer base in order to remain highly competitive in different market segments. This means having in place a more vibrant leadership structure that will provide guidelines on how the revenue maximization objectives can be met.
The rooms division provide three different types of accommodation including vacation rentals for customers on trip training, hospitality exchange accommodation like conferences and camping. Under vocation rentals the hospitality business leases houses and apartments to willing individuals, particularly in areas that capture large number of tourist (Algonquin College 2008). In such a case, it is the responsibility of the rooms division to supply the relevant accommodation utilities apart from meal services in order to cut down the cost of operation. Camping on the other hand is considered self-accommodation practiced among travellers where an individual erect a self-managed roof for security purposed. Before camping, the individual is required to get a permit from the relevant authority to avoid land trespasses and unnecessary conflicts with landowners (Professional Association of Innkeepers International 2010). Hospitality exchange is where the organization itself connects its employees with the locals of an area to be visited. This will ensure prior establishment of a temporary accommodation among the residents of the area to be visited.
As an entrance to the room division, the front of area gives the first impression about the nature and the kind service as well as the space available in the hotel. To ensure effective management, the front of house area should be well decorated and the reception area should have proper ventilations with good lighting points. The front house areas provide visitors with the hotel’s scenic value and should therefore be well protected.
2.2 discuss the key aspects of planning and management of the front of house area for a given hospitality operation
The planning and management aspects should be in line with proper room keeping conditions, well maintained hygiene, safety measures, a 24-hour surveillance, and facility maintenance. Those in charge of security to ensure safety of infrastructure alongside maintaining safer operational environment for the hotel’s workforce and customers.
2.3 critically discuss the key operational issues affecting the effective management and business performance of the front office area for a given operation
Some of the operational issues affecting the front of house area include adequate management and motivation that will result into a warm am highly welcoming staff, and an active department that will convert the needs of customers into completes satisfactions. Similar to motivation is the roles of sales and marketing strategists, which must always be relevant and focus on the changes in market needs (DeFranco 2006). This will also include proper team management that is crucial in areas of decision making. All the mentioned issues will aim at ensuring that the service provided to customers are of higher quality and meets the expectations of both the hotel and customers.
Property interiors and designs only become important to the hotel’s operations if positioned at the front desk (DeFranco 2006). In the case where there are positioned at the front desk, the front office staff and hotel managers find the opportunity to get have a clear view of all guests entering the lobby from either the streets, or the hotel elevators or other points of entrances. The focus on perfect interior decorations of the reception areas, rooms, and lobbies aims at providing customers with a good impression of the hotel and the services provided (Algonquin College 2008). The decoration should include small flowerpot at the reception to bring out the scenic value. The alignment of rooms should be that which matches the colour of linens used in decoration. Just like in other cases, the hotel offices should be ventilated, spacious and kept tidy at all the times.
3.2 discuss the critical aspects of planning and management of the accommodation service function for a given hospitality operation
Even though the company’s management is to maintain proper operations and relationships between the hotel and its customers, certain ethical issues may arise and these may have negative impacts on the company’s overall revenue yields (Teare, Ingram & Savini 2012). An example of an ethical dilemma that may require critical aspects of planning is where the company management fails to provide an up-to-date information to customers concerning the price changes and discount services the hotel offers. Where the prices change to higher levels, the hotel may experience lower sales since most customers will be forced to seek for alternative products elsewhere (DeFranco 2006). The growth in revenue will, however, be positive where the prices change to a lower level or in situations where the company decides to offer price discounts for bunched purchases. This means that proper customer management entails establishing accurate means of communication and ensuring that customers are well informed about the changes in prices or about the new developments that may have direct impact on them.
In addition to providing appropriate performance structure, the management should ensure accuracy is process formulation; maintain higher levels of accountability and; deliver to the market goods and services that fulfil the tastes and desires of customers (DeFranco 2006). The ability to expand the company, hence the industry, underlie the various programs used by the management to provide detailed analysis of sales techniques the company can us to promote sales. In general, the company through it management must forecast customers preferences in order to be in a position of delivering high quality services that will eventually meet the tastes of customers.
3.3 key operational issues affecting the effective management and business performance of the accommodation service function for a given operation
The main objective of the accommodation service function it to improve office administration and also to ensure provision of maximum hospitality to every guest visiting the hotel. In this line with the mentioned operational issue, the line managers and other office staffs involved in the provision of accommodation services must be empowered to remain flexible, well-articulated and reading to handle the needs of customers while recognizing the state of diversity that exists in the hotel (DeFranco 2006). The management should also focus on marketing strategies, providing sufficient finances to meet the growing budgets and ensuring that customers are provided with transport services in case of an adventure.
From the introduction section, our attention is first drawn to some of the fundamental processes of that can lead to revenue maximization. Among the many techniques, it is prudent that the management focus on the consumption behavior of the customer, forecast the sales levels based on experiences, and establish a positive perception of the company’s products in order to maximize the sales and profits. The whole concept of revenue management falls under the main category of yield management, which has three fundamental aspects (Professional Association of Innkeepers International 2010). In the process of managing revenues, the company leaders must recognize the fact that the resources are recurrent, perishable and vitally demanded in various market segments by the competitors. A hotel that offers proper management to channels like internet, television media, and social websites in advertisements improves product and service accessibility to customers (Teare, Ingram & Savini 2012). The advertisement platforms also eliminate instances of information asymmetry on the best practices that can allow the company to compete favorably in any of the markets.
The ability to incorporate internet, social sites, and controlled websites to facilitate promotional activities of the company is one of the ways the company can encourage viral advertisement of it bands and services (Professional Association of Innkeepers International 2010). This means that the customers, by searching the company’s products, brands, and services online, get the opportunity to access more information concerning the hotel and the services they expected before their actual visits. Such an information about a product, brand or service is vital sine customers must make rational judgment, compare the company’s products and services with those of other companies in the same industry so that there is quality choice based on individual’s tastes and preferences.
Apart from online promotion, the hotel company and its management may decide to employ the services of intermediaries who also have measurable attributes and contributions when it comes to sales promotion. Under yields management, the major idea is to ensure that the company’s products have the desired values in the market and therefore capable of attracting the projected revenues. The major functions of middlemen in this case will be to purchase the company’s products and services and as a link to more interior markets, ensures that the company’s products sell across different markets (Professional Association of Innkeepers International 2010). The actions of intermediaries contribute to the general growth of the company since the hotel will now be operating in a more expanded market. Similarly, the promotional roles of sales agents also have impact on the amount of sales the company makes in every delivery. With the sales agents in position, the company in one way interacts with its clients and new customers. The sales agents will act as company’s sales representatives in respective markets and they services will only focus on improving the company’s sales over the period of employments.
On lower counts, the hotel management may decide to operate on lower price discounting concepts for the regular customers or for the customers who pay full accommodation prices at the time of booking (Teare, Ingram & Savini 2012). This may also go along with the time allocated to serving each customer, and where a customer has taken more time in waiting for the services to be offered, the management may decide to offer a price waiver with an aim of motivating such a customer to remain patients until the services is provided. It is true that most hotels operations are based on the loyalty and trust from customers and therefore, situations that may create negative perceptions about the company’s operations should be eliminated so that the company is able to maintain the best records throughout its operations (Professional Association of Innkeepers International 2010). The time the customers take before obtaining the services required should be reduced because it may show laxity in service delivery, which may have negative implications on the company’s revenues, or in other operational systems.
Studies have shown that revenue or yield management in a hospitality industry is one of the driving forces for the acquisition of new markets, especially with the changes is production and delivery techniques (Kasavana & Brooks 2009). A company can only subsidize its cost of production if there is value in its operations. Subsidizing the cost of production would mean focusing on those resources that have higher social value attached, and ensuring that every resource in accurate proportion is capable of producing the desired levels of output to meet the growing market demands. Matching current market needs with the hotel’s productive capacity is crucial to the company since the production technique allows managers to plan for the available resources, ensure that the resources are optimally used and finally increase the hotels’ sales and market shares (Kasavana & Brooks 2009). However, at times the approach given in yield managements may expose customers to price differentiation, which according to most studies conducted is considered unethical practice that only aims at maximizing revenues and profits, but not welfare improving. The yield management practice must be welfare improving since both the hotel and customers are considered rational participants in the industry. Without meeting the expectations of customers, it would be hard for the hotel to realize its revenue and profit objectives since the amount of sales will be educing significantly.
The hotel company that aims at maximizing its revenues must be ready to establish a strong customer based. By engaging in providing customers with loyalty cards, price discounts and service incentives as part of the loyalty program, the hotel management increase service relationship in a way that improves that overall sales for the company (Kasavana & Brooks, 2009). The hotel management must at all times ensure that there is strong customer attachment to the products and services offered, and where there are changes in normal operations, the customers should be kept aware. In other words, detecting, analyzing and influencing the behaviors of customers improves the levels of consumption for the hotel products, brands and services in which case the sales and revenues will increase.
At the same time, the hotel management should consider working on customer referrals (Andrews 2008). The referrals can only be obtained through a performance feedback system, where the satisfied customer suggests the services of the hotel to another customer. Through the referrals, the management gets the opportunity to evaluate its past performance with an aim of making future operations more appealing to customers (Andrews 2008). Otherwise, where the hotel works of different rates, there should be a clear operational structure to eliminate discrepancies that may arise during room charging and allocation. As already stated in our previous section, the hotel managements should also consider providing tariffs on negotiable settlements during peak and off-peak seasons. For example, a client with a corporate package should not be given the same treatment or charges as a family client since their interests and satisfaction requirements are completely different and may be costly on the side of the hotel (Andrews 2008).
Forecasting in rooms division entails providing statistics on cost estimations require by the management to effectively provide the most crucial accommodation services (Andrews 2008). The forecasting in this context is based on the hotel’s historical guest turnout through which the management finds the opportunity to monitor, estimate the value and divide rooms. In general the hotel management must at all times be in a position to apply forecasting techniques in order to determine the number of guest expected to visit the hotel at a specific period, and therefore putting in place appropriate mechanisms to fulfill the customers’ expectations. This means that the hotel management in bid to maximize room capacity must plan to take future actions following the past experiences with customers. Where there is poor planning, the hotel risks losing a section of its potential customers (Andrews 2008). The Forecasting process should be systematic in order to identify the major barriers in the course of room division that may prevent the management from meeting its targets. The first stage in forecasting entails retrieving statistical data for the previous operational years. The generated data or information can then be used as a starting point to design better methods of reaching potential customers for the purposed of establishing better performance relationships.
The statistical results used in forecasting will help managers make important decisions that will have positive impacts on the future performance of the hotels (Andrews 2008). Particular to such decisions are improved ability to develop marketing strategies, expand the accommodation services, create more departments and engage rooms division to accommodate increasing demands of customers.
4.4. Describing with calculation the performance indicators used to measure accommodation sales success
The May room breakdown for the Five Seasons Hotel in Winchester can be calculated as follows:
Room occupancy percentages = (Occupancy/Total Number of Rooms) x 100% = (180/215) x 100% = 83.7%
Sleeper occupancy percentages = (Guests/total beds) x 100% = (260/355) x 100% = 73.2%
Average rooms rate (ARR) = (11.900/180) = $ 66.11
The above calculations are mainly used by the accommodation department to measure the success of accommodation and sales of rooms.
Industrial competition is one of the factors motivating managers to engage in activities like room division, accommodation allocation and other management relevant to hotel activities. Improving the services offered by the hotel will include proper decisions to expand the hotel’s accommodation capacity, reservations and also ensuring good access to customers’ details as well as keeping customers updated through the hotel website on the changes in operation and prices. The close contact between customers and the hotel is one of the techniques that can be used by the hotel managements to obtain data on possible sales and expected revenues if all the customers were engaged in consumption.
Algonquin College. 2008. Rooms division operations: Student manual, HOS2217. Ottawa: Algonquin Pub. Centre.
Andrews, S. 2008. Textbook of hotel housekeeping management and operations. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.
DeFranco, A. L. 2006. Hospitality Financial Management. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Kasavana, M. L., & Brooks, R. M. (Eds.). 2009. Front office procedures. East Lansing, Mich: Educational Institute, American Hotel & Motel Association.
Professional Association of Innkeepers International. (Eds.). 2010. Industry study of bed-and-breakfast/country inns: Operations, marketing & finances. Santa Barbara, CA: The Association.
Teare, R., Ingram, H., & Savini, S. 2012. Strategic management: A resource-based approach for the hospitality and tourism industries. London: Cassell.
Nature of the conference and banqueting sector and the factors influencing its development Research Paper
UK has a rapidly growing hospitality industry that integrates a wide range hospitality sectors that include conference and banqueting, events and travel service, gambling, holiday parks and bar and restaurant sectors. A huge number of tourists flock into the country on an annual basis to enjoy a range of services that are available within this industry’s broad scope. Conference and banqueting sector is one of the major sectors making up the hospitality industry in UK. Conference and banqueting is hospitality –related concept that is mainly concerned with creating an event that can take any of diverse forms that include partying, official gatherings, ceremonial gatherings, seminars or family functions (British Tourism Authority 2005, 23). This event industry is increasingly becoming a global concept as important events are being held on a day-to-day basis in different global exhibition centers that target both the local and foreign delegates (Ian 2011, 39). This paper aims to analyze the nature of the conferencing and banqueting sector in the UK and the various factors that influence its rapid development. It will specifically focus on the size and scope of this sector as well as the various political, social, economic, technological, environmental, and legal factors that have influenced its development.
The conference and banqueting sector is one of the major sectors in UK’s hospitality industry. This sector has experience enormous expansion within the last few decades, which has enabled it to make significant contribution to the country’s revenue. According to BACD 2005, 23), business people from around the world travel to the UK on a day-to-day basis to attend conference and banqueting events like trade fairs, business meetings, conferences and seminars. The sector attracts over 6.5 million delegates from around the world, who are hosted in more than 46,000 hotels and guesthouses in the country and spend over 3501 million dollars on annual basis (Karen 2009, 129). This expenditure attributes to 2.5 billion dollars that this sector generates on yearly basis. This mainly includes those delegates that target to be hosted in the best conference and banqueting facilities that compete in the highest category of best facilities in the world. Other facilities are available in major cities and towns and they host an array of business visitors depending on the degree of flexibility, comfort, and category of service sought. The UK conference and banqueting sector ranks third after United States and France, which are amongst the ten leading conference and banqueting destinations in the globe. It hosts about 5.8% of all the conference and banqueting events taking place all over the world (BACD 2005, 27). These statistics can be summarized in a table as follows:
Figure 1: Top ten global countries hosting conference meetings of about 300 people (% of global total), 2000 and 2002
|Country||Percentage as at 2000||Percentage as at 2002|
Although clients obtaining services from this sector include those attending trade fairs, family gatherings and ceremonial functions, most events taking place within the sector are corporate in nature. Such corporate events take place in approximately 512 conference venues that are distributed across the country. Statistical evidence from the UK market Trend Survey shows that about 70% of business events taking place in all the meeting venues in the country come from the region of business location, 27% come from other parts of the country while only 3% come from overseas. This can be demonstrated in the diagram below.
Political factors have played an important role in influencing the way business activities within the conference and banqueting sector in UK are carried out, which has in return attributed to the sector’s rapid expansion. According to British Tourism Authority (2005, 30), the political environment in the UK has significantly transformed with devolution of government taking a significant toll in various parts of the country. This has given regional government authorities greater power in regulating business activities intended to enhance the local economy. As a result, power devolution has seen most investors easily obtaining licenses to operate in different parts of the country (Grant, M 2009, 78). UK is also experiencing a drastically changing aspect of security and stewarding. This is because the Security Industry Association has now assumed the role of licensing individuals taking certain roles within the sector, which includes managing the conference and banqueting facilities. This has enhanced confidence among the local and international visitors attending corporate and informal events as they are assured of safety while conducting a significant range of events.
The UK has employed favorable laws and regulations as well as positive deliberations at all levels of government authority that positively influence the way businesses with the conference and banqueting sector operate. UK’s laws governing hiring practices, workers’ health and safety as well as business licensing are particularly noticeable within the conference and banqueting sector. The Disability Discrimination Act is for example a lading topic in most business seminars within sector while the minimum wage Act is at the bottom line (Ian 2011, 45).
The favorable economic climate prevailing in the UK has positively been influencing the way organizations within the conference and banqueting sector do business, which has in return attributed to quality performance and subsequent drastic expansion. The value of different events taking place within the sector has attributed to generation of sufficient revenue that has increasingly been reinvested to enhance industry expansion (Allen 2005, 12). Conferences, trade fairs, and exhibitions have particularly helped to generate a huge amount of revenue, which investors have continually reinvested hence the rapid expansion of this sector. The capacity by businesses within the industry to give high wages and salaries as well as equip employees with high quality skills has ensured that high quality services that attract a huge number of clients are dispensed (Grant 2009, 81).
UK’s social and cultural environment has continually provided a favorable environment conference and banqueting sector’s continued development. Various social institutions that include churches, sporting clubs, social groups, business institutions, and occupational groups in the UK have continually provided unique facilitation of conference as well as banqueting events, which has in return enhanced rapid expansion of this sector (Luke 2012, 24). Sporting activities like the 2012 London Olympics have seen most young people volunteering in sporting activities, which in return help to create mega-sporting events that attract a huge number people from around the world. Similarly, business organizations are increasingly constructing attractive occupational facilities life hotels, guesthouses and exhibition centers that play an important role in attracting wealthy delegates from around the world to come and conduct conference and banqueting activities in this country (Bowdin, G 2014, 90).
Technological advancement in UK has increasingly improved the way business activities are carried out, which has in return attributed to rapid expansion of conference and banqueting sector. As explained by Allen (2005, 29), drastic transformation in equipments and machinery in this country has increasingly revolutionized the way business organizations within the sector function. Technology has for example enhanced rapid use of the internet in advertising festivals, trading exhibitions and other sporting events taking place in different places within the country. This ability to use an array of search engine has enabled most business organizations to link their clients to a multitude of events taking place in the country. Technology has also allowed businesses to create web-based sites to support events being carried out by international delegates. Such sites for example provide the delegates with important information and resources needed. This has helped to improve customer satisfaction, which in return has contributed to rapid development of this sector (BACD 2005, 45).
The ability of business organizations in UK to adopt sustainable event management practices has helped to reduce environmental degradation, which in return has helped to perpetuate rapid expansion in conference and banqueting sector. Tried-and-tested methodology is usually applied on all products used in the events industry. This helps to prevent any business organization within the sector from using event-organizing products that might have negative environmental impacts. The UK government has also provided businesses investing in this sector with a Resource Management Plan tool (Luke 2012, 27). This tool helps businesses at every stage of event organizing to discover where their opportunities in waste reduction exists as well as how they can effectively manage waste before, during and after an event. This provision has ensured that environmental degradation through improper waste management is reduced, which has in return contributed to rapid expansion in conference and banqueting sector (Karen 2009, 150).
UK’s conferencing and banqueting sector ranks among the rapidly growing sectors in the world. This has attributed to its significant contribution to the wider national economy. Most events attributing to drastic success in this sector include trade fairs, business meetings, exhibitions, family gatherings, and sporting events. Political, social, economical, legal, environmental, and technological factors have particularly played an important role in enhancing rapid expansion of this sector. This is because these factors have helped to create a favorable environment where conference and banqueting events can be carried out successfully and conveniently.
Allen, J 2005, Festival and Special Events Management. Brisbane, Wiley.
Bowdin, G 2014, Events Management, Oxford, Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann.
BACD 2005, The British Conference Venues Survey 2004. Birmingham, British Association of Conference Destinations.
British Tourism Authority 2005, Business Tourism: International Marketing Opportunities 2005-2006. London, British Tourism Authority.
Grant, M 2009, The UK Parliament, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press.
Ian, B 2011, “Protecting International Sports Events: The Importance and Creative Use of Intellectual Property Rights”, The International Sport Law Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 39-78.
Karen, W 2009, Character Sports Merchandising: International Legal Issues: The Legal and Practical Ways and Means of Protecting the Subject Matter in the UK, the Rest of Europe and Internationally, The International Sports Law Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 123-153.
Luke,C 2012, “UK Government Focuses Innovation Investment”, Research Technology Management, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 23-67.
The future of Globalization in East Asia
The East Asian countries have been able to transform their economies to the status of the newly industrialized countries in a short time, thus drawing attention from development experts globally. Though predicting the future of any region is uncertain, the current trend in the East Asian market seems bright. When studying the future of the East Asian globalization, the idea of how globalization impacts the economic, political, and social and the cultural environment as well as the physical environment comes to mind. In general, globalization entails modernization in the developing countries where high growth rates in the gross domestic product. It should be noted that globalization cab be both addictive and subversive. Subversive in the sense that it undermines the existing status quo and challenges vested interest. It is addictive because it may lead to greater choice, material gains, and raises expectations. East Asian economies are among the beneficiaries of globalization since they have been characterized by robust exports and large inflows of foreign investments thus boosting the economic growth and social welfare. Despite this fact, globalization has brought about stiffer competition but has created a more stable region. This being the case, this paper will try to address the globalization impact on East Asia with a bias on the future expectation of globalization.
It should be noted that trade among the East Asian countries has increased at a faster rate than other regions outside the East Asian blocs. This has been made possible as result of taking strategic measures including enacting several trade agreements with other business players. It should be noted that the economic integration of the region has for a long time been dominated by japan but china is picking up at an alarming rate and propositions are that china will be the major players in the region to promote and enhance globalization.
Being a developing zone, and china expected to enter the first world, there is expected expanse and dramatic reforms in the banking and financial markets. Many researchers will be expected to determine the adequacy of the banking capital and regulations that relate to bank lending as well as measures to counter speculative measures as a result of capital inflows and outflows. At the same time, many scholars will continue to find the relationship that exists between the rate of return and risks involved in investments. All in all, it is expected that there will be a sustainable development in the region and new methods and means of measuring success will be identified and utilized. As a result, the performance of business will not be measured by the derivatives of net income but by their benefits over the social, economic and also environmental costs. According to Kaynak and Khosrow , the European union will be seeking to interests in the east Asian union, and despite the Korean and Japanese past conflicts, economic benefits will the two countries together (279).
Since globalization entails rendering or making the world to become a global village, the East Asian countries will benefit economically from the undertaking in that, there will be increased economic integration as well as increased economic interdependence between countries. In this, there will be expected cross border movement of goods to fill employment gaps as well as the movement of technology, manpower and information to the region. The internationalization of the economic activities will further be accelerated as a result of better communication and transportation networks (Kim 2-5). At the same time, as it happened in 194 where 44 countries signed the Bretton wood declarations, it is also expected that many organizations will be established to collaborate with the region for economic benefits.
With globalization, the future of East Asia is expected to bring new potentials that will lead to new developments and wealth creation. Though inequality, unemployment, and poverty are expected to be experienced as a result of class differences, there will be an increased standards of living, freedom, and liberty among the players in the region.
Politically, globalization is expected to reduce the importance of a nation state in that different countries/players will organize themselves into trading blocs thus operating from a central command as depicted by the G8 countries and the WTO, that replaces the nations function to that of and international agreement. Since globalization enriches technology, the future of the Asian countries will be characterized by an increased influence of the non-governmental organizations in an effort to uplift the less privileged and in public policy formulations.
The social environment of the region will also be affected by globalization. This means that the social structures within the region will be affected and some things will take a new dimension distinct from what and how it was viewed several decades earlier. In particular, globalization will lead to an increased inclusion of women in decision-making. The gender inequality gaps will reduce and women will be seen as near equal partners with men. At the same time, the social structures will be affected to the extent that culture differences will gradually decrease as a result of embracing the global village culture dimensions.
There are many forces that have enabled the accelerated and enhanced global integration. Some of these include the technological innovations, political changes as well as the economic policies among others. Technological innovations fro example is deemed to be the driving force behind globalization. Invention and innovations have been in the past and it is expected that the future of East Asia will be characterized by technological advancements that will lead to lowered costs as a result of enhanced transportation and communication means. Due to the booming business in east Asia, as a result of globalization, it is expected that the transportation infrastructures will continue to thrive. Thus allowing the access of markets the enhanced communication that incorporates the internet, computers and phones will help ease communication and contribute towards a better social, political, and economic transformation in Europe and North America through the road networks. As many competing firms occupies the various industries in the east Asian countries, the production methods will continue to change towards a more independent and quality production. New products will be invented to meet the growing demand for products and services. Production will be on the basis of just in time production
Despite the important contributions of globalization to East Asian countries, the risk of being faced with unfavorable external factors will not be avoided in future. In a free market economy, and under the open economic conditions, there will be expected problems as countries try to balance their internal equilibrium with the external ones. The competition will lead to constraints to the macroeconomic policies of these countries leading to their capacity to regulate the market and macroeconomic control. It is expected that there will continue to enhance the innovation of the financial instruments, privatization of the international capital and the expansion of the financial assets will have impact on the economic safety and financial stability on those countries that have not fully developed. At the same time, the floating of too many international capitals in a given country may result to bubble economies thereby fluctuating the foreign rates in a disorderly manner. The effect of this is that the monetary sovereignty of a country will be weakened thereby leading to a dysfunctions in the monetary policies.
Globalization has enabled nations and other world economies to generate enormous amount of wealth and expansion since its onset in the 1970s. the rate of progress of globalization has led to a situation of a free world with free market labor force, increased collaboration between countries, and stiffer competition. The present can help determine the future whereby, since free flow of capital has been experienced flowing across borders, it is expected that a new order will be established in the future. Globalization in East Asia will not only lead to economic and social benefits but will also lead to technological advancement. Also expected that globalization will decrease as order is put, thus enabling banks to be more nationalistic. Overall, globalization in East Asia will continue to thrive and will help the world in becoming more stable and one that has a viable political climate. As a result of globalization, the global gap will start to close in the region and innovation will be heightened to counter the rising technological advancements.
Kaynak, Erdener, and Khosrow Fatemi. Globalization and East Asia: opportunities and challenges. Routledge, 2014.
Kim, Samuel S. East Asia and Globalization. Lanham [u.a.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000. Print.
In the context of the world economy, explain what you understand by ‘globalisation’ and discuss the broad impact of globalisation on one country of your choice.
Support your answer with empirical evidence relating to your chosen country While your essay might consider a number of definitions of globalisation, it should focus particularly on the impact of globalisation on the country of your choice referring to the range of issues explored such as economic development, international trade , multinational enterprise and foreign direct investment, international finance system and crisis, exchange rate and regional economic integration.
You are encouraged to write concisely and to make use of graphs and tables to depict change in key variables over time (i.e. variables relating to imports, exports and trade openness, to foreign direct investment and other international financial flows, to international migration, and so forth) Empirical evidence might also include descriptive data, institutional arrangements and changes in them (e.g. regional integration arrangements, exchange rate systems, membership of international agencies, and so forth), government actions and policy measures (e.g. government strategy and policy associated with economic growth, industry and immigration, and so forth), and more. easy basic english please
What you are going to do is finish the paper I have attached for you here in the additional materials.
You are writing this as a research paper that is arguing the effects of the atomic bombs dropped on Japan.
Do not write this from an American point of view or use sources from US websites.
Bring up both negative and positive affects the bombs left on Japan as a country and society. Do not do any research on the actual bomb as a weapon.
Go into how the cities (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) bombed responded. Then answer the final question of did the bombings make Japan who they are today or was it just another wartime tragedy.
Please follow these instructions. Please make this paper flow with the paper I attached.
It is supposed to be one whole paper so make sure it matches. Thank you
This assignment is worth a total of 100 points.
TBA via drop box.
purpose & requirements
The purpose of this assignment will be to gain an understanding of your role as a leader in healthcare as a Registered Nurse, leadership styles, and characteristic of a leader.
The objectives for this assignment will consist of the following.
- Introduce leadership and the topic related to leadership styles & characteristics of leaders.
- Introduce the topic of leadership and its importance in healthcare. Includes the purpose of the paper.
- Describe the following leadership styles:
- Authoritative, democratic & laissez-faire
- Which do you feel is more effective?
- Describe the following types of leaders:
- Transformational and transactional
- Which do you feel is more effective?
- Leadership role
- Expound on your role as a leader then select which leadership style and type of leader and their characteristic you will assume in your new role.
- What leadership role might you have as a RN?
- List day-to-day duties you may have in this role.
- Why do you feel leadership is important?
- Summarize the main points from the content of your paper. Do not introduce any new information.
Criteria for Format and Special Instructions
- The paper (excluding the title page and references page) should be 2-3 pages. Points will be lost for not meeting the length requirement
- Font and sizes acceptable: 12 point, Times New Roman or 11 point Ariel.
- Use of the headings to organize the content of your paper.
- This assignment must be submitted to Turnitin.
- The textbooks required for this course may not be used as a reference for this assignment.
- A minimum of two scholarly references must be used. Scholarly references need to be current, 5 years or less (anonymous authors or web pages are not acceptable).
- Title page, body of paper, and reference page must follow APA guidelines as found in the sixth edition of the manual; this includes the use of headings for each section or topic of the paper.
- Ideas and information that come from readings must be cited and referenced correctly.
- Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are followed and consistent with formal written work as found in the sixth edition of the APA manual.
- This paper is worth 100 total points and will be graded on quality of topic, quality of paper information, use of citations, grammar, and sentence structure.
- Follow this document & rubric. No late assignments allowed.
SWOT Analysis of Costco
SWOT analysis of Costco is among the best methods used by the company in evaluating itself and making decisions for sustainability in the market. Costco Wholesale is considered one of the largest retailers in the world today. Based in Seattle, Washington, Costco operates membership warehouses in the United States, Canada, Japan, Mexico, Spain and Australia. Besides, it also has several subsidiaries in Korea and Taiwan.
What is SWOT Analysis of Costco?
SWOT analysis of Costco refers to the evaluation of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the company. Considering the majority of players and shifting trends in the retail warehousing industry, it is always advisable that a company conducts a SWOT analysis in order to determine areas of weakness that require fixing and potentialities that should be fully exploited.
By conducting a SWOT analysis, Costco Wholesale will be able to know how to package itself for continuous growth and development in the market. Below is a comprehensive SWOT analysis of Costco.
These are the outstanding features of Costco that makes it unique and different from other retailers in the sector. One of the strengths of Costco is its pricing authority. The company mainly focusses on offering its customers quality products at the most competitive prices. The fact that it does not emphasize on maximizing profits in the short term gives many customers the confidence of always obtaining high quality products.
Brand loyalty is another strength of the company, which it has been able to attain through its constant pursuit of high quality and great value. This has enabled it to attract customer loyalty too.
Costco often records high sales volumes, which contributes to increased revenues. As a result of this, the company is able to make high revenues even if its prices are than other retailers.
Although Costco is a renowned profitable retailer, it still suffers certain defects that if not solved on time, might negatively impact operations. One of them is the company’s business model which allows only the members of the club to use the warehouses. As much as this may encourage customers to buy at the company’s stores, it also limits the number since non-club members might not feel welcome.
Another weakness of Costco is that the stores do not offer a wide variety of goods and services like other retailers. This tends to send away many customers who will opt to shop from stores where they can easily find all the products they need at once.
One of the opportunities that Costco can exploit is the increasing number of younger customers. The recent months have seen the company’s management take measures aimed at attracting young customers, a move that can significantly help in driving long-term sales to the company.
The going numbers of people using e-commerce is yet another opportunity that Costco should look into tapping. Intensive online marketing could also be a great way of venturing into new markets and attracting more customers.
Costco has plans to continue growing its reach on the international map. There several foreign markets with better prospects like China, France among others.
The warehouse services industry is one which is quite competitive, considering the high number of players involved offering similar process, quality and selection. In the domestic market, Costco is facing stiff competition from companies like BJ’s Wholesale Club, Sam’s Club among others. Internationally, there are several other competitors like internet retailers and even others that do not require membership.
The intensive marketing by other retailers dealing in similar products as Costco is yet another threat that the company needs to challenge in order to avoid being edged out.
Conclusion on SWOT Analysis of Costco
Costco Wholesale is a business with high viability, the reason it has continued to expand even poor economic times. Its competitive prices is a key strength that has kept the business afloat for long. The above SWOT analysis of Costco also reveals that the company has several opportunities it can exploit in order to tame the threats in the market. Through the firm’s website, intensive internet marketing and network of suppliers, it can effectively reach out to a wider customer base and scare away competitors.
The sample essay on SWOT analysis of Costco above, is one of those you can find on our blog. Alternatively, you can also talk to us for custom written essays, research papers, reports or any other academic paper.
How to Write a Scientific Research Paper
It is always recommended that you know how to write a scientific research paper in order to enhance your performance in science assignments and term papers. Science is a discipline that is quite vast and writing standard research reports or papers is one of the best ways through which you can be able to effectively understand its various elements. Contrary to what some students may think, you can easily know how to write a scientific research paper by just following the simple guidelines and steps discussed herein. Besides, you will also find sample scientific research papers for motivation in writing good reports.
A scientific research paper is just like other academic papers when it comes to writing, despite a few key aspects that should be highlighted therein. A scientific research paper is mainly used to explore and identify issues regarding science. This means you are required to clearly explain a particular study, focusing on materials used, processes involved, results, suggestions, challenges and relevance to the subject of the paper.
The skills on how to write a scientific research paper can be applied in various areas where writing is involved, apart from just assignments and term papers. In fact, knowing how to craft a good scientific research report will also enhance your general writing skills.
Tips on How to Write a Scientific Research Paper
In high school, college and university, writing scientific research papers is a common assignment for students. Therefore, you should know how to create a unique and high quality paper in order to attain the best results. Besides, writing a good scientific report also entails focus on the study, proper organization and planning. The following tips will guide you on how to write a scientific research paper.
Choose a topic
In some cases students are often given topics to discuss in science papers. However, there are also others whereby you are given the freedom of choosing one for yourself. If asked to pick a topic or subject, always go for something that you can easily discuss into detail.
A good topic should be one that others can also research on and get information. Besides, it would also be advisable to go for a subject that you and your readers are interested in. Writing about something that you love would be enjoyable and also much easier. In case you are unable to pick an ideal topic, try seeking suggestions from others.
Do your research
Having settled on a topic for the paper, you can now get into finding information about it. There are various sources that you can obtain information from including website pages, articles, interviews, blog posts among others. In fact, you can do the research from both primary and secondary sources.
It is advisable that you research from a wide range of sources in order to get various views or perspectives of the research topic. Try to find sources that are reliable and can offer valid insights into your study. Scientific journals, articles or papers written by experts in the field could offer great ideas for writing research reports.
Note down the basic elements of the research
In writing a scientific research paper, there are certain key aspects that you will be required to clearly bring out in every report. Therefore, it would be ideal if you highlighted them while doing the research for easy reference. Some of the main points to be noted include:
- A description of the study, including statistics, facts and figures
- Methods used in conducting the research
- Interpretation of the outcomes
The ideas that you have identified for the above aspects should not be generated from just one source, instead, developed through a proper analysis of information from various sources. However, you can also add your own comments or opinions for use in writing the paper. Also remember to mark the sources of your information for easy reference.
Identify the goal of the report
A scientific research paper can either be argumentative or analytical depending on the given instructions. Knowing the particular type of research paper that you will be writing is important in determining the approach to take. It is also important that you consider the audience or target readers in order to come up with an argument and points that they can easily understand and relate to.
Create a thesis
Also known as hypothesis, a thesis statement is the basis of the report that tells readers about the specific focus of the paper and what they should expect. It is the key argument that your study will be looking towards proving. Made up of just about two to three sentences, an ideal thesis should highlight a unique view about the topic. However, it must be an argument or claim that you are able to effectively prove with evidence, in the paper.
Pick your main points
The thesis is to set the stage, so you can easily identify the key points to be mentioned and discussed in the body and conclusion paragraphs. Go through the information obtained from the research, and choose the outstanding points to support the thesis.
When determining the key ideas for the paper, you should also mark the evidences that will be used to further explain the given point. These can include facts, figures, and quotations among others.
Develop an outline
An outline is important in organizing your points for every section of the paper. Creating one will give you an easy time in writing since all the references can be made from it. The outline should clearly show your main points for the introduction, body paragraphs and conclusion in brief.
Steps on How to Write a Scientific Research Paper
Generally, a scientific research paper has three main sections; introduction, body and conclusion. The following procedures will direct you on how to write a scientific research paper.
Include a short and clear title that describes the discussion of the study as will be presented in your report.
Start writing the paper by giving a general overview of the topic of study so readers can know where your discussion is coming from. This should only be a bout two or three sentences long. Towards the end of the first paragraph, you should also write the thesis and give readers a plan on how the paper will be handled in the next paragraphs.
This is the ‘meat’ of the report and should comprehensively discuss the research in a way that your audience can read and understand. It is the point whereby you are required present a logical explanation of the study with regards to the main argument.
Use a new paragraph for a fresh idea or point to support the thesis. Besides, you should also give examples to back up every argument presented in each paragraph. Always make sure that every remark made in the paper is supported by facts from the study.
A good body paragraph should not simply give points or facts but proceed into fully explaining each and making a commentary. Try to be creative in writing the body paragraphs so the paper does not sound blunt and boring.
The last paragraph of a scientific research paper should summarize the study and bring the discussion to a close. The three basic elements of the conclusion include restatement of the thesis, a recap of the key points covered in the paper and emphasis on the implications of the results of the study.
For clarity, you can choose to use sub-titles to highlight the different aspects of the study in the paper. This implies after introduction, you can include sub-headings highlighting the methods of the study, materials used, outcomes and discussion.
Examples of Scientific Research Papers
Reading well written sample scientific research papers can also offer you more ideas on how to write a scientific research paper. Below are some examples to refer to:
Sample Research Paper, ‘’Running on Empty: The Effects of Food Deprivation on Concentration and Perseverance’’
‘’Many things interrupt people’s ability to focus on a task: distractions, headaches, noisy environments, and even psychological disorders. To some extent, people can control the environmental factors that make it difficult to focus…’’ Read the rest of the sample paper here.
Sample Scientific Research Paper
‘’Just as animals around the world have evolved to better survive in their environments, botanical life everywhere has also been forced to grow and adapt to their habitats. Every plant, from the smallest strain of seaweed to the tallest redwood is the result of billions of years of competition for optimal growth conditions…’’
Follow this link to continue reading the sample.
Sample Research Paper for a Science Fair Project, ‘’Which Battery Is Better?’’
‘’Batteries come in many shapes and sizes. Some are no longer than a pill while others are too heavy to lift, but most batteries have one thing in common-they store energy and change it into electrical energy. The cell is the basic unit that produces electricity…’’
Continue reading the sample here.
In case you may need help on how to write a scientific research paper, simply talk to us. Alternatively, you can also simply navigate to our homepage for more on how to easily acquire custom research paper help.
Oxidative phosphorylation refers to a metabolic pathway where cells’ mitochondria use their enzymes, structure and energy that is released by nutrients’ oxidation in reforming ATP. Oxidation phosphorylation is simplified as OXPHOS. Despite different life forms in the planet earth using different types of nutrients, ATP is the sole molecule that offers energy to the metabolism process. Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in almost every aerobic organism.
As a pathway, oxidative phosphorylation is perhaps, so pervasive since it allows for a highly efficient way via which energy is released as compared to the alternative processes of fermentation such as the anaerobic glycolysis. Electrons transfer takes place during the process of oxidative phosphorylation.
Electrons transfer occurs when electrons are moved from the electron donors to the electron acceptors such as redox reactions and oxygen. Redox reactions that take place during oxidative phosphorylation release energy. This energy is used in the formation of ATP. Redox reactions in the eukaryotes are performed by several protein complexes in the intermembrane wall mitochondria of the cell. In the prokaryotes, the proteins are situated in the inter-membrane space of the cells. The linked protein sets are known as the electron transport chains. In the eukaryotes, there are five major protein complexes that are involved. On the other hand, prokaryotes have various enzymes that use different electron donors as well as acceptors.
Energy that is released when the electrons flow via this process of electron transport chain is basically used in the transport of protons across inner membrane of mitochondria in a process known as the electron transport. This process also produces potential energy in pH gradient form. It also generates electrical potential across the membrane. This creates a store for energy that is tapped by letting proteins flow back across mitochondrial membrane downing this gradient via large enzyme known as ATP synthase. This process is called chemiosmosis.
The energy is used by the enzyme in generating ATP from the adenosine diphosphate in the phosphorylation reaction. Proton flow drives this reaction which in turn forces rotation forces of the part of enzyme. ATP synthase acts as the rotary mechanical motor of the process.
Despite being an important metabolism part, oxidative phosphorylation produces reactive species of oxygen including hydrogen peroxide and superoxide which then leads to the propagation of the free radicals which damage cells and facilitating diseases and senescence or aging. Many poisons and drugs that inhibit activities of the enzymes that carry out oxidative phosphorylation target them.
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Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein 1
Multidrug resistance associated protein 1refers to a protein that is encoded by ABCC1 gene in humans. The protein that is encoded by ABCC1 gene is part of the genes that belong to a super-family of the ATP-binding cassette or ABC transporters. ABC proteins are responsible for the transportation of different molecules across the intra and extra-cellular membranes.
There are seven divisions or distinct subfamilies of the ABC genes. These are the ABC1, MRP, MDR/TAP, OABP, ALD, GCN20 and White. Multidrug resistance associated protein 1is a full transporter belonging to the MRP subfamily that is involved in the multi-drug resistance activities. The function of this protein is to act as multi-specific organic anion transporter with the oxidized glutathione, activated aflatoxin B, and cysteinly leukotrienes as the substrates.
The protein is also responsible for transporting sulfate conjugates and glucuronides of the steroid hormones as well as bile salts. Different splice variants result from alternative splicing of the exon deletion but original reading of the open frame in all the forms is maintained.
Multidrug resistance associated protein 1is among the major obstacles when it comes to treatment of cancer. This is because it not only hinders treatment, but also proper prognosis of cancer patients. It transport different therapeutic agents and a wide range of physiological substances and it can also play a significant role in development of resistance to drug in different forms of cancer including prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and childhood neuroblastoma.
Many patients of neuroblastoma in the current world disseminated this disease during diagnosis. Despite undergoing intensive treatment, prognosis of such patients remains dismal. Evidence that shows that multidrug resistance associated protein 1targets the genes that are involved in multidrug resistance in the neuroblastoma is increasing rapidly. Considering the significance of multidrug resistance associated protein 1overexpression in the neuroblastoma, its inhibition can be an important approach clinically in improving the patient outcome in the disease.
Developing a resistance to different cytotoxic drugs is the main cause of failure for treatment in different types of infections and malignant diseases. Thu, despite making significant advancement in the treatment of cancer, multidrug resistance associated protein 1is still a major problem in the medical or clinical field.
It causes poor outcome for patients and limitation of therapeutic options in different cancers. As such, having a better understanding of mechanisms leading to multidrug resistance associated protein 1is very important. It can help in improving the existing regime of chemotherapy in treatment of cancer and neuroblastoma.
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Electron Transport Chain
Electron transport chain refers to several compounds that are responsible for transferring electrns from the electron donors to the electron acceptors through redox reactions while coupling the electron transfer process with protons (H+ ions) transfer across the membrane. This results in the creation of the electrochemical proton gradient responsible for driving synthesis of ATP or chemical energy generation in form of ATP or adenosine triphosphate.
The electron transport chain is used in energy extraction through redox reactions during photosynthesis from the sun or such as the case of sugars’ oxidation, cellular respiration. In inner mitochondrial membrane in the eukaryotes, there is a crucial electron transport chain that serves as the main oxidative phosphorylation site via the use of the adenosine triphosphate synthesis. Thylakoid membrane of chloroplast in the photosynthetic eukaryotes also has an electron transport chain. Electron transport chain is also found in the cell membrane of bacteria.
Light drives water conversion into NADP+ and oxygen to NADPH with H+ ions being transferred across the chloroplast membranes in the chloroplast. Oxygen conversion into water, NADH to the NAD+ and a succinate to fumerate required for the generation of proton gradient takes place in mitochondria. Electron transport chain is a major site where leakage of premature electron to oxygen and generation of superoxide with potential result of an increase in oxidative stress occurs.
Catabolic processes have FADH2 and NADH as their byproducts. These are in reduced forms. FADH2 and NADH are used by metabolic processes in transporting electrons in form of the hydride ions (H–). The electrons are then passed from FADH2 or NADH to electron carriers that are membrane bound which then passes on to the other carriers until when they are delivered to oxygen which result in water production.
During the process of passing electrons from one carrier to the other, hydrogen ions transfer also takes place in the inter-membrane spaces at the three points in electron transport chain. Hydrogen ions transportation results in greater hydrogen concentration in inter-membrane spaces than in matrix that can be used in driving ATP synthase and production of ATP which is a high energy molecule.
Energy that is obtained via electrons transfer is used in pumping protons from the matrix of the mitochondria into inter-membrane space which creates the electrochemical proton gradient found across the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The electrochemical proton gradient enhances ATP synthase to use H+ flow via enzyme back to the matrix generating ATP from the adenosine diphosphate and the inorganic phosphate.
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