Impact of Globalization on Financial Markets
In the recent times, globalization of the world financial markets can be seen as a significant milestone that has happened in the financial markets. Various factors have contributed to globalization that include the advancement of technology and remote access, which the financial markets companies have been utilizing. The rise of international institutions providing financial services to various sectors and firms, irrespective of geographical areas and jurisdictions has also contributed to globalization. Other factors include the liberalization trends, reduction and in some situations the removal of trade barriers and restrictions on foreign ownership, the collaboration, merging and integration of the regional financial exchanges as well as the clearing and settlement organizations that exists in the global fronts among other factors. Financial globalization as seen by many analysts is beneficial and advantageous since it leads to the improvement of the market efficiency, and it leads to the lowering of risks because of diversification. Moreover, globalization has been credited in the usage of arbitrage. Contrary to the benefits that globalization brings, it leads to price volatility and instability in the market since the correlation of the major stockholders and the trading. This implies that when the major stock markets are affected by any condition, the effect is felt by almost all the players in the financial markets. As explained by Mishkin (2007), globalization refers to the opening of the domestic markets to foreign trade and direct investment as well as the interaction and cooperation of the local and foreign capital and financial institutions. This being the case, globalization of financial markets has mixed reactions and effects on the performance of the global financial markets. Despite this fact, globalization has helped in fostering faster cash inflows in the economy, though this does not give any evidence of faster growth or equivalent growth. In the light of the above, this paper aims at identifying the effect of globalization on the financial markets with an emphasis on the capability of globalization to internalize the financial markets, the globalization of finance, new financial products invented, good and effective financial reporting and liberalization effects.
History of globalization
Globalization refers to the growing interdependence that exists between countries that usually arise as a result of increasing integration of trade, people, finance and ideas in the market place (Bigman, 2007). The main elements of global integration include the international trade and the cross border investment flows (Bigman, 2007). The history of globalization started after the Second World War but has seen significant increase since the 1980s. This increase has been generated by two main factors, which include technological advancement, which has led to the reduction of the cost of transportation, communication and the costs that are involved with the computation whereby the firm finds it economically feasible to locate various production phases in different countries (Bodie, 2013). Globalization has also been affected by the liberalization of trade and the rise of the capital markets. Most of the governments have reduced the conditions that foreign countries are supposed to meet before investing in their countries. The existence of non trade barriers, limited export restraints and few legal requirements led to the creation of various organizations like the IMF, World Bank among others. The WTO established in 1995 is an example of organizations that promote free trade instead of protectionism. Research indicates that globalization has increased economic growth in country economies like china, Korea and Singapore. Despite this fact, it should be noted that not all of the developing countries benefit from globalization. The less developed economies have been slow to adapt to the international integration, with some especially the sub Saharan Africa having a declined share since the 1960s. Since the drop of oil share in the 1980s, many countries have been engaging actively in globalization. This comes with both benefits and challenges.
Advantages of financial globalization
One of the merits to nations participating in globalization is engaging in foreign market trading includes the access to larger international market (Taylor, 2002). Some national economies benefits from the international division of labor and are able to face the competition in the global arena. The local producers are also able to produce more efficiently because of the pressure that comes from international competition as well as the global specialization. The net effect of this is that the consumers are able to enjoy a wide range of local and international goods at reduced prices. Another benefit that national economies acquire from globalization of trade is the technological spillovers ( Kenen, 2007). As a result of the countries trading in foreign financial markets, knowledge and other skills are embedded on these countries and this helps them to catch up faster with the developed countries. Economies that isolate themselves suffer from information, skills and expertise deficiency and this makes it difficult to compete in the international markets. Financial globalization also helps in the reduction of capital since capital flows in different countries will help increase the local stock markets to a more liquid state. This will help in reducing the risk premium and hence lowering the capital costs. Others include widening the liquidity constraints, diversification, and the development of the financial labor market
Disadvantages of financial globalization
Challenges that countries face as they trade in the international arena includes strong competition. Competition has direct impact in that those who are not able to adapt to the international standards and are less competitive are forced out of business. Overreliance of the international market for essential national supplies is dangerous since international effect may affect the national outlook. For example, reliance on the delivery of food from the international market may lead to disaster when imports are cut off. For the developing countries, protectionist is necessary to protect the local economy. This is dangerous as it allows the local producers to produce less efficiently. Nations that try to produce everything domestically may lack the international specialization benefits. Overreliance of the international market for a product or several products can be disastrous if the world’s demand for the product is affected by factors beyond a nation’s intervention. This being the case, to correct the terms of trade that can be affected, a country should engage in diversification. In general, financial globalization leads to financial imbalances as well as the creation of the financial laissez faire.
Despite the risks associated with globalization, in the recent times, most of the countries have opted to globalize their economies and this has affected their financial markets (Kenen, 2007). Many countries have invested in the international financial trading more than they do in their GDP. The foreign investment is important to most economies and especially the developing countries because they are more in need for the goods and service, labor and the natural resources. Despite having these products in their nationals, they may lack the capacity to produce and therefore requires the presence of large multinationals that will provide the labor, expertise and capital to finance these projects. This helps to induce capital inflows into the country that benefits the country’s economy. It also helps in bringing down interest as competition between the local and international companies compete for the supply of their services. If the country is growing, the possibility of getting foreign direct investment is high since the investors view such places as being less risky. The below illustration showing the development countries and financial globalization
Reference: Economics, Management &
Financial Markets, Dec2013, Vol. 8 Issue 4, p42-58, 17p, 1 Diagram
Diagram; found on p53
Overall, globalization has helped countries to increase outward orientation and this helps such nations to improve their balance of payment. At the same time, globalization has enabled countries to exchange technologies thus improving productivity nationally. At the same time, the increase of foreign interaction in the local market has helped boost the competitiveness of the domestic market. The improved productivity is likely to lead to backward linkages effects.
Financial market liberalization
The regulatory changes that have been implemented in the last decade have been adopted by many of the global stock exchanges. Globalization has enabled the member countries to adopt liberalization of the stock markets as well as the regulation of the financial institutions. Through linearization, many of the countries have been able to remove the restrictions that are levied and imposed on other states. This has helped attract more foreign investors to invest in the national stock exchanges, thus, increasing the foreign shares in the national stock exchanges as well as permitting direct investment from the foreign investors.
Through globalization, various legal changes were introduced in the major financial stocks. The legal changes included their economic status, profit targets as well as other conditions that include the place of financial market trading, revenue sources, legal entity and owners among others. This led to the majority of the global stock exchanges undergoing demutualization and privatization. The legal changes have made many of the financial stock exchanges be owned by private and public enterprises. It should be noted that due to the changing global changes, some of the states that did not allow foreigners to have a stake in their national financial stock have been issuing special shares for the foreigners.
The financial globalization has been on the increase since the 1990s. Advanced countries have invested in the international markets large amount of money that is more than their own GDP. This has led to substantial capital flows in the world, but despite this fact, financial globalization has failed to improve the global productivity (Underhill, 2010). The less developed economies do not receive their part of the global share though they contribute to the global economy. The integration of global finance helps in promoting income growth through better allocation of investments and insurance possibilities and this helps in improving the macroeconomic policies and other structural reforms (Taylor, 2002).
Despite this fact, when there is a large capital inflow into a country, numerous challenges can be faced which implicates the macroeconomic management (Jaumotte, Lall & Papageorgiou, 2013). The increased private capital inflows are likely to generate an upward pressure on the real exchange rates. This may lead to the currency deteriorating or increased competitiveness thus leading to macroeconomic dilemmas. It should be noted that with increased capital inflows, there often credit booms in the country, which affects the credit quality. This is likely to impact on the cost of the financial assets and real estate prices and this affects the wealth condition of the economy. In situations where such inflows are available, there is a possibility of misappropriation and misallocation of the fund. This has the effect of deteriorating and destabilizing the financial systems. At the same time, the financial crises may bring in other economic and social costs. In general, the sudden inflow of capital affects the financial and other banking institutions.
Global markets can be said to be the markets where the law of uniform price applies. This means that irrespective of the location that one is, the prices remains relatively the same when purchased and then sold outside the national boundaries. Globalization of the financial markets has helped the industry players to spread financial innovation globally. The global finance the continued integration of the international financial markets has led to the reduction in the cost of public corporations around the globe. The worldwide diversification of these corporations has enabled the investors to spread the risks associated with the running and holding of stocks for these organizations. It has also increased the synchronization/correlation of the international business and the world financial markets. Globalization has enabled banks and other financial institutions to diverse and expands geographically. They have therefore acted as lenders and borrowers across national borders. Innovations are being made whereby newly issued securities are offered to the public so as to attract the international investors. These have led to the elimination of the barriers to entry while increasing the liberalization of the national financial market. The increased liberalization has made more money available thus helping in the improvement of financial possibilities. With the cross boarder business, financial transactions have become easier and more secure.
Internationalization of the Financial and Stock Market
Because of the emerging technology, many countries have adopted new financial market practices that have helped in the advancement of the financial market in the global arena (Hausler, 2002). One of such is the use of the internet services to trade in the stock markets. Through the internet, many financial transactions are channeled directly through the internet stocks trading. This has prompted the internet to change the direction and the mechanism used in the financial and stock exchange to make decisions about the global stocks. The trading decisions in the contemporary times spread globally unlike in the past where it was concentrated on the stock exchanges only. This has been attributed by the use of the internet where the financial transactions have been increasing over the internet. The online stock and financial market is said to be more speculative, more active, but less profitable (Barber, 2002). Because of this, the reaction of the internet advisors, investors and other specialists is usually unpredictable when the market is unstable (Barber, 2002). Technology has enabled many foreign traders to transact in the global stock market. This has been made possible by the growing practice where GDR and ARD instruments are being used in the US and other European markets in international public offerings.
Cross listing is a strategy that has been employed by many firms to trade in the international financial markets. Cross listing is a situation where the shares of a give firm are traded on more than one stock exchange (Sabri, 2002c). Firms, which do not meet the requirements for cross listing usually, use depository receipts to trade in the international market. Cross listing of the stock and financial securities improves the financial and economic ties between various regions and increases and develop their linkage between (Sabri, 2002c). Despite this fact, cross listing is likely to weaken the local stock exchanges by reducing their annual revenues. It may also lead to the local stock exchanges lacking the local confidence if the major player decides to transact more on the international front than in the local financial and stock exchanges. Cross listing may also lead to price fragmentation of the local stock exchange.
Unlike the traditional financial market setting, where the stock exchanges were the sole tool and avenues of stock and financial markets where the prices of various stocks are determined, the advancement of technology has enabled the alternative trading system to take place. The alternative trading system uses the electronic communications networks, which offer the investors to order or send their orders in real time using the electronic system. This has the advantages in that it helps eliminate that conflict the usually do appear between the brokers and dealers in relation to the interests of the securities (Macay & O’Hara, 1999). On the other hand, it helps the players to trade throughout since electronic transfer can be affected any time by the system and does not rely on the availability of the brokers. The capability of the firms of individuals to trade anonymously in the financial market has been promoted by alternative trading methods. This situation could not have been achieved in the traditional system since the work was restricted to the brokers and the dealers in the stock market. Using this type of trading, less costs are incurred, the regulations are reduced and can be very efficient when the market trading is booming.
Financial Sector Development
Financial globalization has helped promote development of the financial sector. The presence and participation of the foreign investors in the local financial institution helps the institutions to be able to increase the financial pool while at the same time increasing the availability of funds. International financial institutions at the same time are likely to affect the competition rate in the country in the sense that they may lead to the reduction of interest by the local institutions. At the same time, it will help the local institutions to be more efficient to keep up with the international standards thus improving the domestic financial market. The global presence of the financial markets may help in reducing the economic shocks and economic slowdowns in the sense that, as the economy experiences shocks and slow downs, the international financial institutions may offer borrowing which reduces the macroeconomic volatility of the financial sector in the country. The effect of globalization may also help to improve the macroeconomic policies and regulating institutions with the aim of attracting more investors (Prasad et al., 2003). This may lead to the reduction of barriers and other restrictions on the outward and inward flow of capital thus attracting more capital into the country. Financial globalization can be defined as the integration that exists in the global markets this being the case, globalization and liberalization help in the economic development of the states involved and reduces barriers that came as result of international trading. The chart below shows the movement of capital flows in the developed countries
Obtained from http://dgff.unctad.org/chapter1/1.2.html
Globalization enables cross border transactions as well as mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures (Evenett, 2004). This being the case, the globalization risks can be shared internationally sine the cost of capital is likely to be reduced as a result of cost sharing and the firm merging or acquiring other services in already an existing platform. This reduces the costs that would have otherwise been used as startup costs, it also reduces the legal requirements and costs that are new entrants ought to pay to the state. This leaves more capital for trading. Diversifying risks, therefore, reduce the cost of raising capital.
Unlike in the past where only a few companies could engage in financial market trading, new products have been introduced that accommodates many players in the financial markets. Moving of capital from a foreign to a domestic country, not only increase the GDP, but also augments the domestic savings, thus allowing for increased consumption or investment beyond ordinary budget constraints (Banytte, 2009). The presence of increased international finances is likely to facilitate increased growth, thus, leading to higher output and increased total GDP. Through globalization therefore, a person who had a lower opportunity cost of investing could do so since money could be available to borrow. This helped in widening the liquidity constraints this can be explained in the case of Australian GDP as a result of financial market engagement.
Capital inflow occurs because of the desire to have increased returns with tolerated risks. The international markets search for places to invest thus stimulating and increasing the investment in the emerging markets. The search for new markets to invest in, leads to diversification, and when barriers are eliminated, the firms are likely to enjoy the economies of scale, wider markets as well as tougher competition. As capital and investments are channeled into the country, the country enjoys financial influx as well as spillover effects, which could include technical Knowhow experiences, managerial experience from the investors and the promotion of technological development. This could lead to the increase in aggregate productivity of a country. Foreign direct investment also serves as a stimulus for economic growth.
Negative Effect of Globalization on Liberalization
Liberalizing the world’s financial markets is likely to lead to volatility of the market prices. As indicated earlier, globalization has the effect of affecting the foreign exchange rates in the country since the controlling parameters are the global trend (Kohli, 2011). This being the case, the power of the national authority to control and protect the national financial markets may be impossible, especially in a situation when the global condition is unstable. Taking the world trade center as an example or during the time of recession in the United States, or even the conflict arising in the Middle East, it has been witnessed that the increased prices of the oil and oil products have affected the global financial markets. Similarly, in the case of the recession, where the effect of the crisis in the US affects the performance of the financial markets in the global arena. This indicates why there could be an increase in financial market trading, but a noticeable instability could be experienced in the trading. One effect of globalization is the fact that it also destabilizes the national economy of a country due to the equity flows. The developing, or those countries which have unstable and weak currencies are most likely to lose in case the global price dwindles.
Reference: IMF Economic Review, Jun2013, Vol. 61 Issue 2, p271-309, 39p, 5 Charts, 7 Graphs Graph; found on p283
As a result of liberalization, competition arises among the financial systems, both in the local and international stock exchanges. The effect of this is that local financial institutions are put on pressure to adapt to the international financial markets and this is likely to bring instability to the local financial markets and the financial institutions. Because of the link between the international financial players, volatility surprise in one market, may lead to similar effects in other financial markets. For example, the effect of the WTO affected the stock performance in Japan, UK and China. In the less developed countries, the effect could be severe since it could affect the national growth. This being the case, liberalization is likely to have a spillover effect on financial markets. This may not be good for the emerging markets and may deter integration of the developing countries. In general, it may lead to the incomplete harmonization and increased volatility of the capital flows (World Bank, 2001).
Globalization has reacted to the technological advancements thereby forcing all the players in every sector to adjust, update and expand their activities. In the financial and capital markets, the effects of globalization are as follows.
Globalization has resulted in the deregulation of markets through the elimination of the foreign exchange controls as well as reducing the taxes that are imposed on the investors (Harker, 2009). There has also been the reduction of the restrictions that foreigners had been levied on the purchase of the domestic securities. This has made the sector be more active, vibrant and competitive having local and international players in the same stock exchange. At the same time, globalization has led to the advancement in the telecommunication sector, such that all the players in the financial exchanges can trade in the same stock exchange. Through globalization of the information science, investors and financial players are able to transmit and access real life information on the stock exchange, thereby enabling the investors to monitor the global prices and markets. This is important, as they will be able to monitor the impact of their investment in the global arena. At the same time, money can be transferred on a real time basis across borders in the international financial markets.
The capability of money to transact in the international market and especially the cross border transactions has enabled the equity flow thus enabling firms to increase the investment returns (Kunnanatt, 2013). The increase in investment has enabled many firms to be able to raise capital, through the international listing. The sourcing of capital in the international stock exchanges has enabled the various forms to acquire an international image. This has helped the international stock exchange to acquire a national and international outlook, thereby improving the national and local stock exchanges.
Since the main trading in the financial markets is in terms of monitory terms, many of the financial institutions have been engaged in the trade. This has led to the institutionalization of the sector whereby services like mutual funds, pension funds and other insurance services are traded. With the globalization of the financial markets, individuals and firms are able to gain the opportunity for smooth consumption by borrowing from the international investors. At the same time, globalization is credited with the rapid spread of technology, the financial innovation and improved financial performance. With globalization, settling and other trading systems can be made available to all the market participants. This could help in the expansion of the financial and stock market innovation.
The Problem of Internationalization
Because of internationalization, the use of internet advice has been credited to improve the stock and financial market performance through information dissemination (Outreville, 2010). Despite this fact, speculations from the internet site may create panic on some securities when the recommendations on selling are made. These may impair the efficiency of the financial and stock market. Increasing the total foreign trading in the international stock markets may lead to speculations, which in turn may bring about instability. Some players in the financial markets may initiate changes that may affect other players in the system.
The market inefficiencies may arise and these could lead to financial instabilities. This is as a result of the information asymmetries and the transaction costs. The inefficiencies could be portrayed in various ways including the externalities and the coordination issues (Arestis & Basu, 2004). Externalities would arise in the course of electing the market infrastructures like the market payment and the settlement systems. Coordination deficiencies could arise as a result of the relationship that does exist between the borrower and the lender of the information asymmetries. Financial crises could also arise when restriction of capital flow occur in given cases. An example of financial crises arising is when the government imposes minimum reserve requirements and penalizing capital flows would have effect on the economic growth in the long term.
The financial integration has led to some kind of vulnerability whereby the foreign purchaser of the equities and the domestic currency has grown in an enormous way. This has led to the increase of foreign investment, which in some countries exceeds the direct investment; the effect of this is that in case there is a loss of confidence from the foreign investors because of global, political or economic factors, negative effects would arise in the sale of these claims (Gao, 2013). At the same time, should the investors leave a country, there could be great effect on the prices of the countries stocks and bonds and the currency of the country could depreciate due to the shock effects.
Financial globalization may also lead to financial market crises through the aspect of contagion (Wyplosz, 1998). This is through the multiple effect of shock that is transmitted across nations through various links including, real links, through financial links, or herding behavior. Contagion could occur in real link especially trade links where countries compete among themselves and in the same external market. The effect of this is that a devaluation that may occur in one country may affect the competitive advantage of the other country. This would lead to both countries devaluing their currencies in an attempt to rebalance the external sector. The financial link exists when two countries’ economies are related through the global financial system. Any negative shock in one country may affect the value of the currency in the other country. Financial crisis could also arise because of herding behavior or panic between countries. Since the information is asymmetric, investor’s remains uninformed a therefore base the future markets of the way other markets are reacting. In some cases, when a country becomes dependent on another, the sudden shift of external factors like shifts in capital flows would create financing difficulties as well as economic downturns in the dependent country. Globalization can lead to imperfection in the global financial market. Imperfections can lead to herding effect, speculative behaviors and crashing of the international market. This may occur even if the country has sound fundamentals. The imperfections like speculation can lead to the deterioration of the fundamentals thus leading to crises.
Globalization has affected the way financial markets operated in the modern times. Unlike in the traditional times when the financial markets were positioned in a central place, the current financial trading can be undertaken generally from anywhere thus reducing costs that are incurred by the brokers and interest charged on the owner of the security by the brokerage firms. It also reduces the legal requirements by the parties to the trading. Internet and the computer based trading have helped the modern trading to be more vibrant and effective unlike the traditional near manual approach. the modern trading setting has helped the various players to access instant information on what is happening in the international stock exchanges, thus making it easy to make decisions on where to invest and in what stocks. Through globalization, various financial markets have been able to consolidate, merge, and engage in alliances among other options. This has helped investors to invest outside their national boundaries, thus helping in multi listing of the companies. It has also affected the trading systems in the sense that the modern trading patterns call for faster, real time transaction, which contrasts the traditional setting where small orders were likely to take lesser time to process while the large orders took longer time. The contemporary times have an order driven system where the barriers that complicated transactions are on the verge of being completely eliminated.
The international global market has had significant changes in the recent times because of the global economy. In the modern times, trading has increased with over 50000 securities, dealers and brokers are numerous while the intermediary agencies and stockholders numbering in their millions. There has also been a significant change in the financial trading mechanism due to the technological advancement, communication proper financial management. Globalization has helped the transaction costs of the financial markets to be reduced, increased the transaction traded while at the same time increases transparency and information sharing among the parties involved. Despite this fact, there have been market inefficiencies, fragmentation of the market and new legal implications. Though these negative do not occur all the time, there is need to avoid the effects of globalization ion the financial markets.
In the face of the changing global environment, globalization can be enhanced if various strategies are put into consideration. One of the strategies that firms ought to put focus on is the technology. Creating a more robust technology is important to solve the problems that may be arising from the financial markets. With increased technology, firms and other players in the financial markets will be able to expand even in the remote areas thus ensuring an increased trading coverage and accessibility. Support offices also when established would help the participants to ensure a complete transfer of information to the developed and the developing markets. This has the potential of enhancing regional cooperation. At the same time, member countries are tasked with the role of protecting the investors the investors. This can be achieved when governments loosens some strings that prohibit investors to actively participate in the financial market.
Top of Form
Top of Form
Bottom of Form
Bottom of Form
Top of Form
Bottom of Form
Arestis, P., Basu, S. (2004). Financial globalization and regulation: Research in International Business and Finance Volume 18, Issue 2, June 2004, Pages 129–140 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027553190400008X
Banytė, J., & Raišytė, V. (2009). Global financial crisis: reasons, effects and solutions globalization: Quo Vadis?
Barber, B. M., & Terrance, O. (2002). Online Investors: Do the Slow Die First? Review of Financial Studies, 15, 455-487.
Bigman, D. (2007). Globalization and the least developed countries: Potentials and pitfalls. Wallingford, UK: CABI.
Bodie, Z., Kane, A., & Marcus, A. J. (2013). Essentials of investments. New York: McGraw-Hill-Irvin.
Evenett, S. (2004). The cross-border mergers and acquisitions wave of the late 1990s. In Challenges to Globalization: Analyzing the Economics (pp. 411-470). University of Chicago Press.
Gao, H. (2013). Convertibility as a step for the RMB internationalization. Economic Change & Restructuring, 46(1), 71-84. doi:10.1007/s10644-012-9137-0 http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=6775880f-af78-4aa9-bab2-3defd9dde424%40sessionmgr4004&vid=2&hid=4108
Harker, P. T. (2000). Performance of financial institutions: Efficiency, innovation, regulation. Cambridge [u.a.: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Hausler, G. (2002). The globalization of finance. Finance and Development,39(1); proquest library research, 10-12. file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/NONE.pdf
Jaumotte, F., Lall, S., & Papageorgiou, C. (2013). Rising Income Inequality: Technology, or Trade and Financial Globalization?. IMF Economic Review, 61(2), 271-309. doi:10.1057/imfer.2013.7 http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=05872fa8-6f70-4916-9b94-ba20deb879b8%40sessionmgr4001&vid=1&hid=4108&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=88391246
Kenan, P. B. (2007). Benefits and Risks of Financial Globalization. The Cato J., 27, 179.
Kenen, P. B. (2007). The benefits and risks of financial globalization. Cato Journal, 27(2), 179-183. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/195596421?accountid=1611
Kohli, R. (2011). Managing Capital Flows In Intermediate Regimes: The Case Of India. Journal Of International Commerce, Economics & Policy, 2(2), 351-371. doi:10.1142/S1793993311000348
Kunnanatt, J. (2013). Globalization and Developing countries: A global participation model. Economics, Management & Financial Markets, 8(4), 42-58. http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=97ada127-aaf0-4a64-b215-b00867ce53c3%40sessionmgr4003&vid=1&hid=4108&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=94247826
Macey, J. & Maureen, O. (1999). Regulating Exchanges and Alternative Trading Systems: A law and Economics Perspective. Journal of Legal Studies, 28, 17-54
Mishkin, F.S. (2007). Is financial globalization beneficial? Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 39, 259-287.
Outreville, J. J. (2010). Internationalization, Performance and Volatility: The World Largest Financial Groups. Journal Of Financial Services Research, 38(2/3), 115-134. doi:10.1007/s10693-010-0090-7 http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=fa422e84-bc47-4001-bb70-7b6bf9e822cc%40sessionmgr4005&vid=1&hid=4108&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=65018793&anchor=GoToAllQVI
Sabri, N. R. (2002a). “Increasing linkages between global stock markets and price volatility. Research in International Business & Finance, 16, 349-373.
Sabri, N. R. (2002b). Roots of stock market volatility and crises: a synthesis and suggested remedies. International Review of Comparative Public Policy 13, 1-53.
Sabri, N. R. (2002c). Cross listings of stocks among European Arab markets. Finance India, 16, 205-227.
Taylor, T. (2002). The truth about globalization. Public Interest, (147), 24-44. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/222122198?accountid=1611
UNCTAD. (2012). development and financial globalization./ facts and figures accessed on 13-04-2014 from http://dgff.unctad.org/chapter1/1.2.html
Underhill, G. R., Blom, J., & Mügge, D. (Eds.). (2010). Global financial integration thirty years on: from reform to crisis. Cambridge University Press.
World Bank. (2001). Global Development Finance 2001. (The World Bank, Washington D. C.)
Wyplosz, C. (1998). Globalized financial markets and financial crises.Regulatory and supervisory challenges in a new era of global finance.
In the context of the world economy, explain what you understand by ‘globalisation’ and discuss the broad impact of globalisation on one country of your choice.
Support your answer with empirical evidence relating to your chosen country While your essay might consider a number of definitions of globalisation, it should focus particularly on the impact of globalisation on the country of your choice referring to the range of issues explored such as economic development, international trade , multinational enterprise and foreign direct investment, international finance system and crisis, exchange rate and regional economic integration.
You are encouraged to write concisely and to make use of graphs and tables to depict change in key variables over time (i.e. variables relating to imports, exports and trade openness, to foreign direct investment and other international financial flows, to international migration, and so forth) Empirical evidence might also include descriptive data, institutional arrangements and changes in them (e.g. regional integration arrangements, exchange rate systems, membership of international agencies, and so forth), government actions and policy measures (e.g. government strategy and policy associated with economic growth, industry and immigration, and so forth), and more. easy basic english please
Armada is a popular Spanish word for a fleet. In 1588, the most fortunate fleet in Spain, the la felicissima armada, made up of 150 Spanish, Portuguese and Naples ships was made. This was the largest fleet of the time across Europe and it was considered invincible by Phillip II of Spain. A description of the fleet was later published in Europe with a main goal of spreading fear amongst the enemies of Spain.
Planning of the Armada Campaign
Planning of the Armada campaign was done by King Phillip II of Spain. He came up with the plan as he intended to sail with his army and navy up the English Channel. The group of about 30,000 men wanted to link up with forces in the Spanish Netherlands led up by the Duke of Parma. They also planned to invade England and spread Catholicism across the region.
Why invade England
King Phillip II had different reasons for invading England. He wanted to put an end to religious differences between the two countries, expansion in the new world of Americans and competition for trade in the region. These were his major reasons among others.
Mary queen of Scots and claim over the rule of England
As a child, Mary had been brought up in a catholic background in France but returned to Scotland to rule. Her grandmother was the sister of Henry VIII and after she suspected that there was a plot to kill her husband Lord Darnley, she fled to England and was imprisoned for 18yrs. This is because Queen Elizabeth feared any plots against her throne.
In 1586, Mary Queen of Scots was executed sending shivers across Catholic Europe. This is an event that also added up to the reasons as to why King Phillip II wanted to invade England in a bid to avenge the killing of the queen.
King Phillip also wanted to help sea beggars and by invading England, he would easily achieve his goals. The Sea Beggars was a small group of noblemen Protestants determined to drive Spanish out of Netherlands. They led a revolt against Spanish occupation under the leadership of William and later on his son Justin of Nassau after his father died.
During the resign of Mary I of England, Sailor Sir Francis Drake enraged King Phillip. It is during the same period that England expanded its trade activities in 1560s and 1570s while building a strong navy. Francis Drake therefore joined the navy as a very young boy and made his name by attacking different treasure ships sailing from America to Spain.
However, his daring act was in 1586 when he set alight Spanish ships in Cadiz harbor with an aim to singe the King of Spain’s beard. This angered King Phillip and added up to his reasons to invade England. He then established a strong superiority navy under the Spanish Armada to spread Catholicism in England.
The Duke of Medina Sidonia was elected the commander of the great Armada and on board, was army soldiers ready to invade England. They fought a fierce battle before and during a stormy weather that destroyed many ships. 65 out of 150 ships in the Armada returned to Lisbon.
This paper was written by a specialized writer at Essays Experts. We have a team of professionals that guarantee you only successful essays.
Evolution of Behavior
Human behavior study has developed to become the assessment of the human beings’ past in order to comprehend the future. According to evolutionary psychologists, past adaptations of human ancestors are related to human behavior (Downes 2010). These adaptations helped our ancestors in reproducing and surviving. For the behavior patterns that have been observed in the contemporary world to be understood, evolution needs to be appreciated via which the ancestors passed. To evolutionary psychologists, the brain is a computer that natural selection designs to extract vital information from human’s surrounding (Downes 2010). The brain is an evolved computer which determines the behavior of a person as a way of reacting to the extracted information. As such, to understand human behavior better, cognitive programs which generate behavior should be articulated (Downes 2010).
Adaptations are involved in the brain’s cognitive devices. The activities, survival and reproductive efforts of the ancestors were promoted by these adaptations. Programs for special purposes were developed by the brain via natural selection and in response to certain environmental conditions (Downes 2010). The selection of these programs occurred due to their ability to enhance the capacity of the organisms to survive as well as to yield offspring. Body organs are used by evolutionary psychologists as the psychological mechanisms’ analogy that produces behavior. There is no general-purpose organ of the body. Instead, the body has organs. Every organ performs a certain purpose. Similarly, behavior provides specific advantage to an organism helping it to reproduce and to survive.
Today, there is a behavior that has been observed and its explanation baffles the approach of evolutionary psychologists. Kolbert (2012) explores the variation in the behavior of the Matsigenka tribe’s children in Peru as well as the behavior of Los Angeles’ children in a book entitled Spoiled Rotten: Why do Kids Rule the Roost? She provides anecdotes to the behavior patterns that have been observed. The Matsigenka children are responsible and they make attempts to be useful. The author provides the example of a girl aged 6 years called Yanira. This girl goes on a trip with an anthropologist, Carolina alongside other members of the tribe to get palm leaves that are used in thatching. The observation of Carolina is that though this girl does not play a specific role, she is useful to the group because she cleans sleeping mats, fishing and even stacking palm leaves. She gathers crustaceans, cleans and boils them after which she serves them to other group members (Kolbert 2012). Yanira does not ask for anything from the members since she is self-sufficient.
The behavior of Yanira can be explained by evolutionary psychologists. Her tribe, which resides in the jungle, struggles to exist. As such, children adapt to specific behavioral characteristics while growing and these allow them maximum survival chances in the harsh jungle life. Children who fail to learn self-sufficiency quickly have limited survival chances because the jungle is unforgiving. Yanira exhibits maturity despite being a child. She has developed this maturity due to the demands of the environment that she is accustomed to. Peru jungle’s children have to learn wild survival tactics quickly or they will die. According to evolutionary psychologists, behavior can be explained better in the way through which humans adapt in order to solve specific problems that were faced by the ancestors at some point (Downes 2010).
The behavior of Yanira is a complete contrast of the behavior of Los Angeles’ children. Angelinos depict a unique lack of competence and initiative in performing even simple tasks (Kolbert 2012). Apart from being incapable of tying their own shoelaces, these kids also decline to act as per the instructions of their parents. The feeling of Kolbert (2012) is that American children may represent most indulged kids in history globally with few exceptions. The American children exhibit a behavior that does not provide them with any advantage in their life when it comes to reproduction and survival. This behavior can be a development’s regression. Without chaperons, young people cannot be responsible for themselves. These children cannot cook and they will starve when left alone in a place without food outlets.
Despite being useful in behavior explanation, evolutionary psychology makes some assumptions whose testing is difficult. For instance, if a person can establish how natural selection shaped the brain, then they can understand its functioning (Gottlieb 2012). Nevertheless, scientific studies have shown that knowing an organ’s evolution is not necessary in deducing the way it functions. For instance, biologists do not resort to organ’s evolution in order to deduce the way it functions. To understand the growth of our ancestors’ minds, we just need a notion of their mental equipment. This exercise risks being misinterpreted. Just like Gottlieb (2012) observes, one can have a plausible explanation regarding the way a specific behavior assisted hunter-gatherers in their reproduction and survival. However, this might have been established for various reasons and earlier.
Particular characteristics and behaviors observed in natural settings may lack satisfactory explanations. For instance, human infants have flexible skull bones at birth. These give elastic properties to the head. One can argue that flexible skull bones are an adaptation of the baby which enables it to navigate the narrow canal during birth. Nevertheless, even a chick has similar characteristics despite the fact that it hatches from an egg. As such, such an explanation is incredible. The same argument can be extended to human behavior. This makes identifying a specific reason for a certain behavior accurately difficult. For instance, a wide assumption is that step-children are likely to be abused by a step-parent physically and emotionally. However, a biological parent can also abuse a child of his/her own. An evolutionary reason as to why parents may abuse their own children might not exist.
There is a romanticized look of the past with an aim of establishing the appropriate behavior or lifestyle for the current “cavemen lifestyle” (Goldstein 2010). According to some cavemen lifestyle’s adherents, this can be interpreted to mean consuming large amounts of meat while fasting between the meals in order to estimate the lean periods that were faced by the ancestors between hunts (Goldstein 2010). The comprehension of the lifestyle of cave dwellers is not global. There are different notions that people have in regards to what comprises the routine of the life of cave dwellers on daily basis. There are modern cavemen who take raw meat since their belief is that it represents the diet of the original cavemen.
Caveman lifestyle has a positive aspect because it encourages people to engage in strenuous physical activities. This makes modern cavemen fit. They have fitness regimes that are designed specifically to mirror the caveman’s exercises. The intense activities of the cavemen enabled them to adapt a healthier lifestyle as compared to the lifestyle of the people in modern America. Cavemen have a Caveman (Paleo) diet (Zelman 2012). The claim of those who follow this diet is that there is a genetic programming for people to eat the way cavemen did prior the agricultural revolution (Zelman 2012). This diet comprises of lean meat that is reared genetically, organ meat, fruits, wild fish, nuts and vegetables. This diet discourages sugar, salt and synthetic foods.
It is easy to come up with a well-written sample essay on Evolution of Behavior. All you have to do is to get in touch with our experts at EssaysExperts.net. They are the best in the market!
Downes, S. (2010). Evolutionary psychology. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Zalta, E. N. (ed) (Fall Ed). Retrieved on 12 January 2012 from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2010/entries/evolutionary-psychology/
Goldstein, J. (2010). The new age caveman and the city. The New York Times. Retrieved on 15 January 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/10/10caveman.htm
Gottlieb, A. (2012, September 17). It ain’t necessarily so [Review of the book How much do evolutionary stories reveal about the mind?]. The New York Times.
Kolbert, E. (2012, July 2). Spoiled rotten [Review of the book Why do kids rule the roost]. The New York Times.
Zelman, K. (2012). Caveman diet.WebMD. Retrieved on 12 January 2012 from http://www.webmd.com/diet/features/diet-review-the-caveman-paleo-diet?
As cloud computing grows into a core disseminated computing policy, safety turns out to be a genuine concern. This is in regard to the point that cloud computing is swiftly turning to be the approach computing is carried out. The influences of Harauz, Kaufman, and Potter to the IEEE Security and Privacy Proceedings denote that Elastic Compute Cloud (E2C), US internetworking (USi) and Web 2.0 are a number of accessible cloud computing services (61-62). Cloud computing, the link of several computers via actual communication network for example internet, got protection as well as trust as its key focuses. Even though cloud computing has several merits, its vulnerability to dangers is existent. The possible and freely available platform with several users from different backgrounds undertaking their day to day chores via a shared virtual technologies, the persistent development of technology as well as the existence of hackers and other cyber wrongdoers spur data safety emphases. As its applications multiply, majority of these hackers as well as cyber lawbreakers may find out new methods to take advantage of the system and its vulnerabilities.
Numerous dangers and difficulties in cloud computing increase the compromise danger on data. Data security is focused on the discretion and dependability of information (Mather, Kumaraswamy & Latif 357-450). It entails safeguarding data against illegitimate users. In the computing world, when servers are compromised there could be significant detriment to the cloud users as well as providers. One key threat that can be detrimental to cloud users together with providers is the loss or leak of crucial data such as credit card and social security numbers and private messages. This is a core emphases in this technology era where most of private information is kept online. A network computing blogger perceives that while some in IT management fault technology on information safety emphases, other elements for instance outdated corporate security policies add up to these data safety concerns (Turner, “Data Protection in the Cloud Era”).
In cloud computing, information transmission prompted via the virtual settings brings up numerous storage emphases where users may fail to recognize the real location of their data storage or the nature as well as source of information that is kept along with theirs (Harauz, Kaufman & Potter 62). Sajal, Kant, and Zhang state that users as well fail to recognize if their information is kept at a reliable non-trusted data center (358). This brings out essential concern where data reliability and storage is concerned. Cloud storage is a suitable and cost-effective means of keeping records (from music files to pictures to sensitive documents) on a server in the cyberspace. It not only replaces getting rid of aging records to make space for new ones and buying an external hard drive, but also allows user to secure, match, as well as get information across a number of devices via an internet link. Dropbox, Amazon Cloud Drive, SugarSync, Google Drive and Windows Live Mesh are a number of the accessible cloud storage services. Harauz, Kaufman, and Potter (62) provide the least possible condition of a cloud storage provider as being capable of offering a weathered encryption plan to safeguard all information in the shared storage setting. Others incorporate securing against illegal reach to information via rigid access controls, data gridlock at regular intervals, as well as the storage of this backup information in a safe setting.
In these capabilities, data safety is essential, however extra imperative emphases that require attention occur. For example, is safety the duty of the service provider or the users who keep their data and applications? The 2013 data breach investigations account by Verizon says – once more – that cloud data security relies on individuals as well as technology (Brenner, “Is Anyone Really Responsible for Your Company’s Data Security?”). As stated by Verizon, majority intrusions for a number of years-78 percent this year- are “low difficulty” and simple or mid-level security processes could avert them. This spells an administration calamity and not just a technological problem. On top of this, legal issues for instance regulatory compliance, e-discovery and auditing crop up, for example, the security breach at Heartland Payment Systems Inc. where information on millions of credit cards vanished. To withstand these and other disquiets, a security model that enhances privacy, reliability and accessibility is essential. This concept could permit every cloud to offer a gauge of its current and probable privacy, accessibility and reliability. One of the chief problems in the whole set up is the establishment of confidentiality and guarding of the information at one go.
Evidently, cloud computing is as well an extremely easy target for hackers. A number of service providers for instance Google and Amazon have the fundamental set-up to repel as well as overcome cyber-attack, however others do not have this degree of proficiency. Because of their design’s vital nature, clouds provide the opportunity for orchestrated attacks to several websites, and with unsuitable security, a single cruel deed could compromise hundreds of websites. Thus, larger providers usually require their users to put all their information in the provider’s cloud for the sale of cloud’s reliability. A cloud system with multi-configurations as well as numerous entities is deliberated as safe as its feeblest connection (Harauz, Kaufman & Potter 63). This turns out to be a high-priority target for hackers due to the poor security linked with every single entity. Hackers hunt for providers with the easiest vulnerabilities to abuse and note them as the most probable target. Unluckily, most of breaches consume time to realize and these hackers have a routine of hanging around particularly when they enter into business setups. The security dangers that must be reduced incorporate sensitive data access, privacy, data segregation, recovery, bug exploitation, accountability, management console security, malicious insiders, and multi-tenancy and account control problems.
Solutions to cloud security problems incorporate cryptography and certainly public key infrastructure (PKI), standardization of APIs, the utilization of multiple cloud provider, legal support as well as enhancing virtual machine support. In business environment, the application of latest device for better information safety planning and installing corporate-critical application on centrally controlled serve in the data center or in the cloud will improve data safety. Cloud providers should capitalize in danger assessment to guarantee data encryption, create safe platforms and infrastructures, as well as promise auditing to create compliance. Presently, there is an industrial attempt to computerize security together with virtual device. Implementing global universal security policies, and testing them carefully before adopting may improve cloud computing. This will put countless cyberspace users at peace and will surge not only the output of the cloud computing, but also the reliability of this latest improvement in computing. Cloud computing corporations must look analytically at the requirement for establishment of security on this platform to lead in the area. It is not only due to the fact that this is the latest method of computing, but also actually what is yet to come.
Need a well written academic paper fro experts,go no further.At EssaysExperts.net ,we offer the best paper to our clients.We understand the requirements of all papers given the time we have been in the industry.Place your paper with us and be among the successful team.
Brenner, Joel. “HBR Blog Network.” Harvard Business Review. N.p., 19 June 2013. Web. 25 Nov. 2013. <http://blogs.hbr.org/2013/06/is-anyone-really-responsible-for-your-companys-data-security/>.
Das, Sajal K, Krishna Kant, and Nan Zhang. Handbook on Securing Cyber-Physical Critical Infrastructure: Foundation and Challenges. Waltham, MA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2012. Print.
Harauz, John, Kaufman, Lori M and Potter Bruce. Data Security in the World of Cloud Computing. 61-64. 2009. Print.
Mather, Tim, Subra Kumaraswamy, and Shahed Latif. Cloud Security and Privacy. Beijing: O’Reilly, 2009. Internet resource.Trainer, Tom. “Network Computingwww.networkcomputing.com.” Network Computing. N.p., 18 Sept. 2013. Web. 25 Nov. 2013. http://www.networkcomputing.com/cloud-computing/data-protection-in-the-cloud-era/240161485
Newman, Henry. “Data Storage Issues: Cloud Computing Fails Again.” Data Storage Issues: Cloud Computing Fails Again. N.p., 13 Nov. 2013. Web. 25 Nov. 2013. http://www.infostor.com/blogs_new/henry_newman/data-storage-issues-cloud-computing-fails-again.html
Access to Water
This study seeks to broaden our understanding with regards to the ethical issues associated with water management issue since it has become one of the controversial topics in the current world. The work also feeds into the factors that affect the environmental ethics in view of the interaction of ethics and economics. The work is based on some reflections with regards to water ethics because of the continuous discussions it continues to elicit in terms of both policies and practices of water resource management. The submission of ethical concepts is directly connected to and hence significant to the water resource management. It assists in the process of decision making, which can be a challenging issue as it involves different scientific domains, and requires that the different sources of water use, including the supply and demand side be considered. The paper closely examines some viable or applicable ethical principles to resolve moral dilemmas that involve the management of water. It was argued that as opposed to assessing the ethical issues of water management again, more efforts should have been directed towards promoting the best ethical practices with some pertinent principles identified being the theories of Human Dignity and the Right to Water. The work then concludes that ethics form both the foundation and normative content of certain decisions as it provides the reason and explanation. It is necessary to acknowledge that even though the access to water is crucial, it sometime comes at a cost, yet the procedures used in determining the water price ought to satisfy and meet the operation and maintenance costs. This principle also calls for an impartial explanation of water status reports and the availing as well as ease of access of such reports to the public. Measures, standards and indicators ought to be established, not only for the purposes of human health, but also for the protecting the global ecosystems, swampland and their habitats and species.
Environmental, Ethical, and Moral Issues & Themes
The issue of water management has become one of the highly debated that touches on the world resources today. It is becoming more obvious that the water crisis witnessed by the world today is as a result of climate change, rapid, industrialization as well as urbanization, ongoing population augmentation and mismanagement of water resources. For instance, the Asian Development Bank attributes mismanagement of water resources as one of the most significant explanations for the “unprecedented” water crisis being seen in the Asian developing countries. Asian Development Bank further points out that future water crises will not occur as a result of genuine physical scarcity of water, as has been predicted by many organizations, individuals and institutions at present. Instead, the ongoing disregard of suitable wastewater management practices will be the main contribution.
For example, issues such as increased water prices, augmented water cuts owing to unpaid water bills and putting in place the prepaid water meters make it apparent that the existent reform processes based on economic values are in conflict with existing ethical and moral values as far as water is concerned (Gleick 1999). Moreover, scarcity and competition increase pressures to get water now from any available source, irrespective of the long-term ecological impacts that may even affect the water sources. Water markets and trans-basin transfers have been popularized in policy proposals with the aim of meeting the consumer demand. As a result, water has become conceptually and politically delinked from its places of origin, and in particular watersheds, ecosystems and landscapes, with some attempts to protect the environmental features being thwarted.
These management practices ought to ensure a lasting, consistent, and flexible water supply capacity that can meet diverse water consumption, as well as maintain a stable correlation between the practices associated with usage of water and their related environmental outcomes. However, challenges that affect water resources management exist at each stage of the development, usage and management of water resources (Brechin 1999). Such problems that have been attributed to water management include:
- Physical Problems: Physical problems are still commonly experienced in certain parts of the world, for instance, Asia and the Pacific regions. Such problems may take the form of poorly developed water supply and wastewater handling amenities, as well as imperfect water metering/monitoring systems.
- Water Pricing Problems: Low water prices can come about as a result of good water policy or availability of sufficient water resources. Despite its benefits, it has been named as one of the leading factors that contribute to excessive water use, for example in agriculture. The procedures used in setting up the water price should be able to meet both the operation and maintenance costs (Jerome, James & Ramón 2004). In China, for instance, the pricing of water is generally based on irrigated land area, or solely based on the electricity that has been utilized. The water prices that are applied for industrial and domestic uses do not therefore include the actual cost of water.
- Organizational Problems: Organizational problems have been attributed as the cause of most of the water conflicts. “Integrated Water Resources Management” is yet to be fully implemented in most parts of Asia and the Pacific. The case study, “A Brief Introduction to the Trans-jurisdictional Water Quality Issues in China”, introduces the overlapped and distributed institutional organizations.
- Achieving conformity on ethical issues appears to be an uphill task, yet, it is not unachievable (Jerome, James, and Ramón). The fact that there are numerous issues linked to water ethical issues necessitates the need to view the matter from a universal perspective.
Jerome, James and Ramón (2004), further state that:
Ethical values take different forms in different cultural groups. In western societies, ethical restrictions tend to take the form of behavioral rules, which ultimately are codified in law. In non-western societies, they may take the form of taboos or rites, which develop into customs of behavior with the social sanction of the community. ( 2004)
From the above text it is easy to deduce that there are major dilemmas in applying the moral values on the society scale which are centered in-between the macro sphere of global norms and the microsphere of inter-personal relationships (Jerome, James & Ramón 2004). Even though it is obvious that all three levels are pertinent with regards to water ethics, there has been a problem in distinguishing the ethical interpretation of water and religion viewpoints. For instance, during the International Conference on Water and the Environment that was held in Dublin in January 1992, it was agreed that water has an economic significance in all its competing uses and, thus it should be regarded as an economic good (Al-Jayouroi 2000). However, the Muslim fraternity was against this proposition because this description of water as an economic good differed greatly from the Koran, which describes water as the source of all life and a gift of God. Jerome, James & Ramón 2004 suggests that supposing this problem had been noticed in the beginning of the conference, then it would have necessitated the change of wording of the phrase. After six years, another problem in relation to the prior issue was raised in the conference in which context, Muslims abide by the belief that water needs to be given free to the people instead of being sold for monetary value.
The Context of Environmental Ethics
Despite some pertinent differences in beliefs of different individuals and groups, water ethic ought to be viewed in the context of a general environmental ethic (Mary & Jocelyn 2000). It is essential to use the environmental perspective as a distinct and unique way of dealing with a long-standing controversy in the field of moral development. This means that each individual in the community must be held accountable for water management given the significance of this resource in human life and development. The issue of upstream and downstream interdependence within a watershed, frequently poses the threat for water management hence necessitating the need for an incorporated water management approach.
Roles of Water Ethics
This topic is constantly being discussed in different forums addressing both policies and practices of managing water resource. The submission of ethical concepts is directly connected to water resource management and hence remains relevant to this topic. It helps in the decision making process, which is a difficult subject that involves different scientific domains, and demands the attention of various sources of water use, including the supply and demand sides. In this delicate environment with diverse variables, ethics is mainly charged with the responsibility of providing operational aid and conceptualization of different perspectives, while still focusing on the action, consequences or the motives, which analyze the concepts of rights and duties. Ethics forms both the basis and normative content of particular decisions as it provides reasoning and explanation.
Increased privatization of water and human rights in developing countries can result in massive unrest in most developing countries. Most countries have managed to establish policies that promote private ownership and control of public water supply, which can be seen as a gross violation of human right to accessing water. Basically, public rights and interests in water can be a conjectural basis from which private rights as well as interests in water can be derived. However, as a practical concern, private rights in water are given primacy, subject to a few key public interest restrictions. Given the essential nature of water as a basic element for human life, it is wrong to deny any human being access to water because of their financial capacity either as an individual or group of people. The importance of water makes it essential for human beings to have access to clean water (Gleick 1999). It is fundamentally correct to assert that every person has a right to life in a water source that is at the minimum healthy and functional.
Frameworks for Water Ethics
The World Commission on the Ethics of Science and Technology, UNESCO organized and sponsored working groups that tried to look into the question of water ethics (Jerome, James & Ramón 2004). This led to the publication of 14 essays and 5 case studies which argued that instead of carrying out assessments once again regarding the ethical issues of water management, it would be better to strive to promote the best ethical practices and principles identified which included:
Human dignity: without water life ceases to exist.
Participation: which entails involving all individuals, especially the poor, in water planning and management; with gender and poverty issues being taken into account when nurturing this process.
Solidarity: the upstream and downstream interdependence within a watershed that often poses threats for water management necessitating the need for an incorporated water management approach.
Human equality: all people must be given the basic life necessities equally. Given the importance of water to human life, it is necessary for organizations and individuals to provide water to very person irrespective of their status in the community.
Common good: water is a common good, without which human latent and self-respect can disappear. The description of water as an economic good is in contradiction with the Koran, which describes water as the source of life and a gift of God (Jerome, James & Ramón 2004).
Stewardship: It is necessary to safeguard and carefully use water resources for intergenerational and intra-generational equity and the promotion of the sustainable use of life-enabling ecosystems (Craig 2009).
Transparency and universal access to information: the lack of data that can be accessed in a form that is understood by all, promotes the exploitation of others by some parties that understand this data.
Inclusiveness: water management policies ought to address the interests of every person who resides in a water catchment area. In this case, the interests of the minority, the poor and other disadvantaged in the society must be indemnified.
Empowerment: There is need to facilitate participation in planning and management, and there is need to create opportunities and platforms for discussion. Communities and individuals must be involved in such debates so that they can make pertinent decisions regarding their water (Horowitz 1996).
Theories of `Human Dignity and the Right to Water
Article three on human dignity and human rights stipulates that human dignity, human rights, and freedom must be respected, while article 14 on social responsibility and health advocates that the central purpose for governments should be the promotion of health and social development for their people. These touch on the ethical principle of human dignity, which has continuously arisen in many reports on ethics (Craig 2009). It is also depicted in many reports that address the use of water. The vital test lies in finding the right balance between the interests of individuals, society, and other non-human users of water.
Principle of Equity in Availability and Applicability of Water
This is very important at all levels and should start from the local communities to the universal scale. It is not right for one individual to have access to too much water in excess of what he/she needs, while another absolutely lacks access to water. It is necessary to practice equity for water rights and apply a policy that provides an equal amount of clean healthy water for human use while avoiding any extravagant water usage.
Ecosystem Requirement and a Healthy Environment
The deep and endless affiliation with water is first proven by the biological dependence whereby our body weight is made up of nearly 95 percent water (Gleick 1999). The other is socio-biological affiliation to water, together with other parts of the environment where the common themes brought out in the comments and pictures of nature and life was water, most fundamentally rivers and oceans with ponds having birds, fish and other animals. Most religions also use water for cleansing purpose and all these factors combined confirm the frequency of water as an image of the environment.
Principle of Vicinity
There is no doubt about the irregular distribution of freshwater resources that make it challenging to access dependable freshwater resources. Legal barriers also make it difficult to access these because of legal barriers, for example in cases where an upstream land is privately owned or under the authority of another country. Under the principle of vicinity it is implied that in case the need for water arises, the first alternative will be to utilize the closest water resources. This principle therefore gives first priority and consideration to those people living closer to water when it comes to usage in comparison to those that are far away. Nevertheless, it should be noted that such consideration is not a privilege, but is only dependent on their approval of the situation. Those who are close to the water sources ought to utilize such sources carefully, bearing in mind to avoid any contamination.
Principle of Frugality
This principle directs that people living close to the water sources should avoid wastage and using the water beyond their genuine needs. People ought to only consume the amount that meets their essential living needs, comfort and for sustaining the local ecosystem. This is to enable water not to be misused by other communities in different regions that lack the essential commodity. Water can also be stored for future usage and to this effect, the government needs to set up a policy to adjust the levels between the areas that have a good supply of water and those that face water shortage challenges so as to balance water utilization.
Principle of Transaction
This principle calls for the trade of saved and surplus water that is gotten from the located source as a product in the water market using water banks, water exchanges or transfers. Such trade should, however, bear in mind the private right of users to use and own water resources. In many parts of Asia Pacific countries, water resources are considered public properties with the exception of those used for household purposes. The state therefore grants the permits that are utilized in facilitating water appropriation.
Principle of Multiple and Beneficial Use of Water
The involvement of an all inclusive approach in running water resources, makes it essential for multiple usage. Since humans heavily depend on water, no other water use should be prioritized, even if it is considered equal. While considering this point, it is important to note that the beneficial use of water resources entails the multiple uses over different sectors. For instance, it is advantageous to build a multipurpose hydropower that promotes irrigation and the generation of electricity as opposed to putting water sources to a single use. However, if the multipurpose use of hydropower will affect the extremely important human needs for water, the criteria of selecting beneficial use should be the one which satisfies the higher utilization of water. Nonetheless, this should not be interpreted to imply that minorities should be sacrificed in favor of majorities when addressing the human needs for water.
Principle of Mandatory Application of Quantity and Quality Measures
This emphasizes that both supply and allocation should be viewed as both scientific and ethical responsibilities. Precise, dependable and up to date data on water sources can facilitate monitoring the status of all water bodies and help to establish definite lasting strategic policies that will attain and sustain the preferred status of water situation that promotes healthy environments. Such data can also provide the appropriate responses and intervention mechanisms that can be used to address the negative trends and changes such as pollution or any other problem (Orlando And Peter 2002). This principle also calls for an indiscriminate and clear explanations of water status reports as well as availing and easing access of such reports to the public. Measures, standards and indicators need to be established not only for the purposes of human health, but also for protecting the global ecosystems, swampland as well as their habitats and species.
Principle of Participation
The interests of all groups, and especially those of the poor and the underprivileged, ought to be considered in all policies that govern water management. These can be attained by providing education, open journals of water data, community hearings, virtual forums and deliberations. All individuals should be compelled to participate whenever any issues arise that affect the management of water. For example, many concerns have been raised by the opponents of aqua fluoridation who consider it as a form of an obligatory mass medication and assert that while obtaining approval from all water consumers is desirable, it is not an easy thing to achieve. On the other hand, the suppliers precisely manage the exact concentration of fluoride that a population can receive and this goes to show that if all stakeholders would be involved in policymaking, it would have been easier to make the concerned parties to comprehend the concepts behind fluoridation.
Two conclusions can be drawn from the current situation being witnessed and that has elicited strong debate regarding the controversial resources in the globe today. Despite the fact that today’s world is witnessing water crisis caused by climate change, rapid industrialization as well as urbanization, ongoing population augmentation and mismanagement of water resources, the situation can be managed or controlled (Craig 2009). Management practices should be set in place, so as to foster a lasting, constant, as well as flexible water supply capacity which will be able to meet versatile and diverse water consumption, in addition to maintaining a stable correlation between water usage practices and their related environmental outcomes. It is necessary to practice equity for water rights and apply policies that provide an equal amount of clean healthy water for human usage without any extravagance and wastage.
In addition, even though in this delicate environment with diverse variables, the main objective of ethics is to provide operational assistance and conceptualize the different perspectives, the focus should remain on the actions, consequences or the motives, that analyze the concepts of rights and duties. Ethics forms both the basis and normative content for the decision making process given that it provides reasoning and explanation. It is necessary to acknowledge that despite being crucial, the access to water it may come with a price. Yet, it is important to ensure that the procedures used in setting the water price must satisfactorily meet the operation and maintenance costs. This principle also calls for an impartial explanation of water status reports and availing as well as easing the access of such reports to the public. Measures, standards and indicators must be developed in order to protect human health, and also for the indemnify the global ecosystems, swampland and their habitats and species.
AL-JAYOUROI 2000, ‘Islamic Water Management and the Dublin Statement. In: Water
Management in Islam’, Journal of Water International, vol 26, no. 4, pp. 481–9.
BRECHIN, S,R 1999, ‘Objective problems, subjective values, and global environmentalism:
Evaluating the postmaterialist argument and challenging a new explanation’, Social Science Quarterly, no. 80, pp. 793-809.
CRAIG, A 2009, ‘Water Privatization Trends in the United States: Human Rights,National
Security , and Public Stewardship’, William & Mar y Environmental Law and Policy
Review, vol 33, no. 3, pp. 786-849.
GLEICK, P 1999, ‘The Human Right to Water’, Journal of water policy, pp. 487–503.
HOROWITZ, HS 1996, ‘The effectiveness of community water fluoridation in the United States’,
J Public Health Dent , pp. 253-8.
JEROME, DP, JAMES, D & RAMÓN, L 2004, ‘Water and Ethics’, Series on Water and Ethics,
MARY, M & JOCELYN, D 2000, ‘The Ethics of Water Fluoridation ‘, Journal of Canadian
Dentalt Association, pp. 592-3.
MCNALLY, M & DOWNIE, J 2000, ‘The ethics of water fluoridation’, Journal of Canadian
Dental Association, vol 66, no. 11, pp. 592-593.
ORLANDO, L & PETER, H,K 2002, Water, Air, Fire, and Earth: A Developmental Study in
Portugal of Environmental Moral Reasoning’, Journal of environment and behavior, vol 34, no. 4, pp. 405-430.
Corporate Social Responsibility
Examination of the CSR Strategy
The most verified economic advantage of operation corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies is connected to areas such as operational cost savings, branding, company status and human resource (Tzu 17). This paper therefore will be looking at what an operational CSR approach involves via investigating the strategy’s usefulness at Hewlett-Packard (HP). The Corporation’s plan looks at the worldwide social and environmental issues utilizing their portfolio and skill in dealing with difficult problems. Such consist of enhancing the ease of access and quality of education, improving energy productivity and also ensuring healthcare is progressively easy to get, inexpensive and available. The corporation undertakes such problems all-inclusively, going further than disjointed as well as quick fixes solutions. These facets prove that HP has been working on a useful CSR approach that has witnessed the corporation being rated amongst the topmost Fortune 500 corporations. This paper, as a result, will be founded on the thesis that ‘Hewlett-Packard has an effective CSR strategy.’
Effective CSR Strategy
An operative strategy ought to hold a social drive that is business centered. Majority of CSR approaches in numerous corporations overlook the basics of a corporate like its operation. HP’s strategy is, as a result, useful due to the fact that it is convincing as well as apparent, whereas backing an inclusive corporation’s strategy. Hewlett-Packard (HP) in the corporate approach emphasizes on turning the company into the topmost IT Corporation globally. The corporation’s aim is apparent as well as motivating to their worker. HP has in the same way created three self-reliant approaches incorporating capital plan, efficiency to accomplish their purposes as well as targeted development. The company’s CSR efforts back their usual business roles like production, marketing as well as sales to name but a few. Many other corporations, nevertheless, are not sure which objectives they ought to create or approaches to undertake (Wheeland 1).
Operational strategy ought to have an intense effort whereby a corporation looks at a particular goal every time. Backing most social problems all together fails to accomplish success on their CSR strategy. HP, nevertheless, has shown guidance in their approach by concentrating on their efforts on a particular social problem dealing with communal difficulties through education, healthcare as well as entrepreneurship. The firm brings into line this social problem to their in-house and exterior means. In 2011, for instance, nearly 1.2 million individuals merited from the Hewlett-Packard (HP) entrepreneurs learning initiative (HP LIFE), which let the people reach technology and also real teaching. The same year, about 744,000 workers from HP offered to serve the communities worldwide at the cost of $26 million US dollars.
Uniting with professionals is in the same way an imperative facet of an operational CSR strategy. Leadership, in addition, requires building a great echelon of integrity. This can be ably undertaken through relations with professionals in social matters and NGOs. The corporation utilizes their wide portfolio, professionalism as well as technology to hunt for the means of administering particular globe’s social difficulties and associates together with states, corporations, social businesspersons, NGOs, scholars and selfless leaders to aid in mounting accessible, viable solutions to CSR. HP has united with numerous shareholders in their solid efforts to encourage viability. The company’s efforts have been shown via numerous accomplishments the firm has reached via such associations (Hur 7).
HP has a incessant venture with the ‘Business of a Better World’ (BSR) to improve the supply chains’ working situations, certainly focusing on those situated in China. In 2007, for instance, HP in association with China Training Institute as well as BSR improved the ‘Focused Improvement Supplier Initiative’ (FISI). This project provides 40 top-levels distributors to HP with the assets as well as tools focused on improving CSR management in their amenities (Hur7). Moreover enhancing the working situations, the program as well emphasizes on teaching the people in administrative positions as well as employees. The venture incorporates their social evolution worth into their general whereas their managerial exercises as well as ethics push their economic merits in the advancement of their social or environmental situations.
The above debate backs the thesis that ‘HP has an effective CSR strategy’. Numerous ways via which the corporation’s CSR strategy works are a complete evidence of its usefulness. The company controls the global social as well as environmental problems and difficulties via their portfolio and expertise in dealing with challenging issues for instance encouraging quality learning, guaranteeing the cost-effectiveness or easy reach of exceptional healthcare whereas improving energy productivity. HP deals with these problems in a general way, away from the simple conventional solutions.
Wheeland, Matthew. “HP CSR Report Highlights Helping Customers Solve Green Challenges.” Greenbiz.com News. 10 May 2011. Web. 15 Nov. 2013.
Tzu, Sun. “Building your CSR Business Strategy.” CSR Management Journal, 1.1(2011):13-24.
- “Social Innovation.” Global Citizenship Report 1.1(2011):146-156.
Hur, Eileen. “Hewlett-Packard’s Global CITIZENSHIP Program Social and Environmental Responsibility (SER) Program: The Model of CSR Alliance with Profit, the Corporation’s Ultimate Goal.”CSR Management Journal 1.1(2012):1-16.
Divorce is one of the main problems that have penetrated today’s society and has negative effects on societies economically, socially and psychologically especially for the parties involved. Economically, parties involved in divorce litigation which has financial implications and may ultimately cost the wealthier couples more when they have to divide their property. Socially, a person may be viewed as a failure especially if they go through more than one divorce. This may have psychological effects on such persons as they go through criticism and the pain of divorce. Additionally, where children are involved, they may suffer psychological toll after the divorce. Children may also exacerbate divorce legal battles as parents seek custody and this may result in the children choosing sides in certain cases. This can be psychologically tumultuous for the children and cause strain between parents. This can result in emotional, psychological and legal battles. Although in most cases women are given custody of children, there are instances where men are awarded custodial rights. This can cause devastation for the women and divorce can be even more complicated in same sex families.
Divorce has suddenly become a very important issue that needs to be urgently addressed because of the frequency with which divorce cases are occurring. The fact that divorce negatively affects children also makes it important for society to prevent it. According to statistics from the
U.S. Census Bureau, one in every two marriages end up in divorce (McCurley & McCurley 1). In the United States, the estimates of first marriages that end up in separation of divorce range between 40-50%. This estimate grows even larger to stand at 60% for second marriages (Hawkins & Fackrell 42). The past five decades have seen an escalation of divorce as compared to the 1970s and 1980s.
Regardless of the soaring rates of divorce, the importance of marriage cannot be overlooked especially considering that it has been attributed to increasing couple’s lifespan. McCurley & McCurley states that “married people live longer, suffer fewer health ailments, have higher net worth and are sexier than single people” (1). The need to stay married is not only for purposes of safeguarding the welfare of children in the picture but also enhancing the overall well-being of the couples involved. This makes it imperative for any forward-thinking society to foster lasting solutions that deal with divorce related concerns.
Professional help through marriage counseling is considered one of the plausible solutions that couples can take in a bid to salvage their marriage. During marriage counseling, the counselors usually assist the parties involved to explore the main causes of their problems and possible solutions to them. Marriage counselors often use their knowledge and understanding of human behavior and psychology to help couples resolve their problems and sustain their marriage. Through counseling, couples are given a platform for interacting with a neutral third party, in this case the counselor, who not only points out their individual weaknesses and wrongdoings, but also helps each one see the best in the other.
Any relationship and marriage in particular is a union between two people who mutually consented to being together. This makes it pertinent for these two parties to come up with effective solutions when their relationship or marriage encounters challenges. In most cases, problems arise when the couple stops communicating and spend more time with other people or pursuing parallel goals. This makes it essential for the couple to come up with tailored solutions that are fit for resuscitating their partnership. . It is therefore logical to say, “Your relationship will improve when you stop working at changing your mate and warmly allow your mate to be whoever they are” (McDonald & Jackson, 15). Couples can thus keep their marriage intact by accepting their partners as they are and working together.
While lack of commitment is one of the reasons why about 73% of couples divorce, sexual infidelity tops the list as the commonest cause for divorce (Hawkins & Fackrell 44). Lack of commitment may arise when couples ignore gaping problems in their union because of other commitments that consume their time and energy. Additionally, some couples tend to encounter this problem because they push aside the contentious issues in their marriage. Ultimately, failure to communicate stalls a relationship and reduces commitment between the parties. By working out their issues, couples can use communication as an important tool in resolving their differences (Amato & Previti 605).
In the face of a turbulent relationship, women will often be seen to be more vocal than the men because by nature, they observe their relationships more keenly (Amato & Previti 605). Men, on the other hand, often withdraw from conversation and avoid discussing the concerns in their relationships. This culminates into women initiating divorce procedures against them. On the other hand, males tend to withdraw from discussions concerning relationships, and the more reason why women initiate divorce. Open communication is therefore the best way for working through marriage problems and avoiding divorce. Even though consulting with third parties such as marriage counselors may offer viable solutions, the longer lasting solutions are those that are initiated by the couple after intimate discussions and mutual agreements. Third parties may also not receive support from both couples and hence their solutions may not be viable in every marriage.
Lack of communication between married couples is viewed as extremely dangerous as it creates loopholes for other factors such as infidelity, which may lead to divorce. Infidelity being the number one cause for divorce is perceived differently by the sexes. Whereas women feel that emotional infidelity is wrong, men perceive sexual infidelity as negative. According to research, 71% of unfaithful men and 49% of unfaithful women state that infidelity arises as a result of ineffective communication concerning sexual needs between couples (Norhtrup et al).
In order to avoid divorce, couples must endeavor to work things out by committing to each other and communicating openly about their concerns in the relationship. Research shows that most divorcees wished they would have resolved their differences and avoided divorce. Even though infidelity is a major cause for divorce, lack of commitment is the main reason why couples fail to resolve their differences. Despite the importance of marriage counselling in helping couples resolve their problems, a marriage can only be saved when the couple involved decides to communicate and work through their differences together.
Visit us at essaysexperts.net for more information.
Amato, Paul, R & Previti, Denise. “People’s Reasons for Divorcing: Gender, Social Class, the Life Course and Adjustment.” Journal of Family Issues, 24.5 (2003):602-626
Hawkins, Alan, J. & Fackrell, Tamara, A. Should I Keep Trying to Work It Out? Utah: Utah Commission on Marriage, 2009. Web. 19 October 2013
McCurley, Mike & McCurley, Mary Jo. Divorce: Prevention Survival & Recovery. n.d. Web. 19 October 2013
McDonald, Homer & Jackson, Dean. Stop Your Divorce. Florida: New Information Inc, 2011. Web. 19 October 2013
Northrup, Chrisanna et al. The Normal Bar. Harmony, 2013. In Huffington Post. “Why People Cheat: ‘The Normal Bar’ Reveals Infidelity Causes.” The Huffington Post, 2013 January 22. Web. 19 October 2013. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/01/22/why-people-cheat_n_2483371.html
Research Paper Examples And Essay Help Services
Are you searching for a site to find research paper examples and essay help services? EssaysExperts.net is the perfect answer to your search. Research writing is the most important and challenging task for university students. Research paper is the final project you do to determine your candidature therefore you cannot afford to mess with your research paper.
Successful research paper demands good research skills, experimental skills and perfect analysis of data. It also demands enough time to conduct research and compile the whole paper. Students at this stage lack time due to numerous assignments, jobs and family commitments. In order to cope with the research pressure, students opt for custom research paper services. (more…)
Research Paper Topics
School assignments on research papers may be open or you may be asked to write on a particular topic. The selection of Research Paper Topics is always quite a task for many students. Students face the dilemma of selecting a subject matter that is either too expansive or is too restrictive. When faces with these situation, it would be better to look for assistance from professional writers from essaysexperts.net. Furthermore you can ask for a Research Paper Example to view the quality of work.
Research Paper Example
Every course that a student takes will require developing good writing skills. Unfortunately, there has been a worrying trend that many students do not actually have good writing. In this case, such a student would do well to source for a Research Paper Example to help learn the basics involved in writing. The student can get this sample from a professional and competent Essay Writer. One example is the EssaysExperts.net that provides well written samples for students to view. This is a vital service that gives many need students the chance to improve on their writing skills.
Research Paper Topics
Most students view Research Paper Topics with apprehension although this should not be happening. With just a little training, it could be an enjoyable and simple process. One of the best ways to go about this is learning from professional essay writers. Alternatively, students can Buy an Essay written by professional essay writers in order to model their writing techniques. Research Paper Topics writing is a technical endeavor, and as such, it follows specific guidelines and procedures that can be learned by less experienced writers. A good place to start when looking to Buy an Essay or dissertations is essaysexperts.net. The website boasts has competent and fully trained writers, editors and other professionals who will ensure that the specific articles, essays, or documents bought are of the highest possible standard, and all at an affordable price.
The professional writers at essaysexperts.net have a clearly developed workflow procedure when it comes to Research Paper Topics. This enables them to complete their work on schedule and within budget, so that the clients who come to Buy an Essay from them are assured of consistently high quality work delivered within the targeted deadline. The workflow procedure has four stages, namely title and topic background research, in depth research, article and essay development and finally proofreading.
Steps in Research Paper Topics
- When writing Research Paper Topics, the topic and the title must be first in the process. The writers assigned to the task are thoroughly versed with the subject matter of the dissertation. This is because all clients who Buy an Essay from essaysexperts.net deserve the very best writers working for them on their dissertation or essay writing project.
- Secondly, you must carry out in-depth research. No effort is spared in ensuring that the sources required for a particular Research Paper Topics task are obtained and properly cited as data and information is gathered for the dissertation. Plagiarism is a major academic misdemeanor, and most students would prefer to Buy an Essay that is correctly referenced according to the MLA, APA, Harvard, or Chicago format of referencing, since these are the most common referencing styles used in most academic settings. Writers at essaysexpert.net are familiar with all the four styles of citation.
Research Paper Topics writing requires that one follows the guidelines provided by the academic supervisor, teacher, or lecturer who assigned the work. As soon as the writers have finished gathering information, they need to format it in a way that complies with the guidelines provided. The use of colloquial language, slang, word contractions, and abstract phrases are undesirable in academic writing.
Run on sentences are usually an indication of a poor writing style and so writers should seek to write sentences that are concise and to the point. In most writing situations, it is better to use simple word structures as opposed to complex sentence constructions, since the readers or clients who Buy an Essay may not work out the meanings of the complex sentence. Once the final document is ready, proofreading helps correct any grammatical, typographical, or structural mistake that might have crept into the dissertation writing.
A large number of students in high school, college and even university do not know what a custom essay entails. Those who have clue, they do not know how to craft one. Custom essays can simply be put as academic papers that are written from scratch. In addition, custom essays are crafted in a manner that they will meet the requirements of the student in need and the academic standards. Writing custom essays is not an easy to go about task especially if you have to choose the best research paper topics.
It is without doubt that custom essay writing is one of the demanding chores that students go through on a daily basis. There is always that time within a semester that you have to sit for an essay assignment. To succeed writing your essay paper, it requires a lot of ardor, use of lot of materials and time. With these foregoing requirements in mind, it will be much easy to even pick the best research paper topics of your papers.
Whenever you are about to write high quality essay papers, you have to invariably bear all the requirements of your tutors and demands of readers in mind. Ideally, you have to choose your research paper topics in accordance to provided instructions. If having difficulties crafting your custom essay, there are reliable writing services available in the market that you go for and do extra and worthy academic work.
Custom essay paper types vary extensively. Tutors assign students essay papers in accordance to topic of choice. Topics that you can base your essay papers on will vary immensely. For instance, you can be assigned an essay paper on sociology, nursing, law, business and accounting among many other topics. For this reason, it is a brilliant idea to take time and think meticulously on the research paper topics that you select.
Many times, students find it challenging to choose the best research paper topics. Many wonder which topics will be interesting enough to fit their custom essays perfectly.
When finding the best topics, always ensure you pick topics that will appeal to your readers and tutors. Boring topics will not guarantee those high grades that you intent to get as while as improve your custom essay writing reputation.
When you opt to go for custom essay writing services, take all the time that you have and pick the best providers. Incredible services should engage professionally trained and experienced writers. Indeed, your writers should not have any problems tackling your paper. Your writers of choice should confidently choose your research paper topics and tackle your paper in comfortably. Actually, they should be able to tackle wide assortment of academic paper assignments.
With the large number of custom writing service companies, it is easy to get instant help choosing research paper topics. Nevertheless, it is advisable to compare the pricing rates of each provider before ordering essay papers. The writers of choice should offer writing services at budget-effective prices. In the real sense, do not waste lot of time thinking of how to write custom essay papers. Simply, make an order or request and help will be a click away.
Contact us at essaysexperts.net for detailed information.
Custom Essay Writing
A research paper example is also termed as a sample research paper and is beneficial when determining the company to provide excellent writing services. Research paper examples should tell clearly whether custom essay writing company hires professionals. It should tell the estimated value of service to receive from a custom essay writing, namely, the level of quality of work.
At the end of the day, it helps you decide whether to hire a company or not based on the quality of the research paper example. It is necessary to note that there are so many custom essay writing services online. Some companies such as EssaysExperts.net do their best to provide genuine and high quality work, while others provide low quality papers and are out to deceive clients. The best way to avoiding shoddy service providers is by checking their research paper example.
Comparing various research paper examples from different custom essay writing companies might help you settle on the best company to do the assignment. The criterion for checking samples from all custom essay writing companies is the same: what is their quality? Different companies have different advantages compared with others: a good reason you might be interested in such a comparison for purposes of pricing.
Remember, the quality of research papers means a lot to you because it is associated with the grading. Even if you bought a cheap paper, it is regretful if you fail or the paper get rejected on quality basis. The criteria would be to reach out for help from custom essay writing companies that provide high quality in addition to cheap services. The same case applies to those providing fast custom essay writing services such as EssaysExperts.net.
The qualities of a good essay sample and research paper example should help you to identify a good company. If you are not aware of what entails a good custom essay and/or research paper, here is a guide. Make sure the sample topic is informative and raises issues as mentioned or desired in the description.
Make sure the topic is satisfactory
There is nothing as discouraging in essay or research paper writing as coming up with a wrong and irrelevant topic because a topic is the first thing the lecturer/tutor reads. The tutor/lecturer can disqualify the essay and research paper by reading the topic only. They can tell whether the work is relevant to what you were asked to produce. Remember, this might induce a revision on the work.
An informative topic is issue-based, unless the lecturer requires producing a creative and less informative topic such as may be necessary in creative essay writing. The sample research paper should also have a thesis statement included in the introduction section. It should be possible for a custom essay writing company such as EssaysExperts.net to provide a sample that is free of errors. Whether those errors are grammatical in nature, related to referencing and sentence structures, among others.
Research Paper Topics
Dissertation writing requires developing a topic if the lecturer has not given a ready topic. Such topic must be customized to the needs of the lecturer. A dissertation writer can help a lot if the lecturer requires you to come up with research paper topics before starting the whole process. In fact, some lecturers require you to first submit a topic. They will have to assess the suitability of this topic before allowing you to continue. A good dissertation writer can help you overcome a handle in dissertation writing: developing research paper topics that are easily accepted by the lecturer.
There are several ways in which free research paper topics can help in dissertation writing. Today, you can organize for free research paper topics from dissertation writing companies such as EssaysExperts.net. We should state that, some dissertation writing companies do not just offer free research paper topics, but actually require that you should order the dissertation first. These companies are also willing to write the dissertation paper for you according to the descriptions uploaded.
You might engage a dissertation writing company in completing the assignment if the lecturer requires one. The trick would be to first request for research paper topics before allowing them to continue with the rest of writing. You can assess a company based on the quality of the research paper topics written. If the research paper topics are well written, it is enough reason to commit the dissertation writing company to write the whole paper. The other terminology for these types of research paper topics is sample research paper topics.
The skill needed in this case is to know what comprises a good research topic. For instance, research paper topics for dissertation writing should be based on research. For instance, the writer should first do some basic research before coming up with research paper topics.
Such research helps in finding matters of contention among researchers in the said field. It is necessary to ensure that, research paper topics from dissertation writing companies are clear in meaning. They must be understandable and contain not as many issues as to be described too broad.
To get research paper topics from dissertation writing companies, you require offering some guidelines about the needed content. For instance, you might upload the instructions from the lecturer on the company’s website. A writer from EssaysExperts.net will take time to read and understand the instructions. Some companies also allow people to communicate with them through phone lines, chats and messaging to receive directions on writing research paper topics.
Search research paper topics online
It is possible to get free research paper topics from other sources, for instance, searching on databases listing possibilities. The internet contains a number of companies that can advise clients on how to come up with effective research paper topics.
An example group is those companies that allow clients to download sample papers from their websites. These clients should use these samples to confirm that the company can write good dissertation topics, but the clients can use them as guides to their own writing projects. By using the example topics, you can come up with clear topics, research-based and original topics.