Pop culture is usually the entirety of images, perspectives, memes, ideas, attitudes, and several other phenomena within a given culture (Tisdell & Thompson, 2007). The pop culture is normally influenced by the mass media. In addition, pop culture makes different ideas permeate individual’s everyday life in different societies. The culture is also viewed as trivial in a bid to look for a consensual acceptance in a certain mainstream of the culture. Nonetheless, this paper will review a magazine article ‘Emotion Regulation in Older Age’ by James J. Gross and Heather L. Urry that portrays old age in an overly negative light. In addition, the paper will show how old age is related to the concept of ageism and how this may affect our aging processes in our culture.
Gross and Urry (2010) argued that people tend to associate old age with losses in social, physical, and cognate domains. They expound by explaining how old people feel when they wake up in the morning and find themselves unable to hear, see, or even taste things the way they used to do in their youth. Amazingly, if they look around their beds, the only available things are several medication bottles with names attached on them. When they try to reach the medicine, to examine what is inside, their joints creak with pain as excruciating pain demeans them.
When the old people lastly get to their feet, they are unsteady and weak than ever before. Interestingly, as they walk, people speak to them more loudly than ever. The old people find themselves loosing various things, which are imperative in their lives. They cannot imagine having to spend the rest of their lives in such a scenario. They feel nasty and awful. Gross & Urry (2010) also show how life is devastating for the old people due to inability to manage their daily activities because of multiple or deliberating health condition. In addition, old people get trouble while monitoring their performance as they start suffering from memory declines. In fact, for many, that is normally the onset of dementia.
The article is related to the concept of old ageist because the behavior of old people is described in a manner that is ageist. For instance, when old people forget, it is not taken as something normal. In most cases, when old people forget, they are said to be senile while when young people forget, they are described to have a faulty memory. When old people complain about an incident or life, they are termed as difficult, while a young person may appear as being only critical. An old man is said to be getting old when he or she has a problem in hearing but not having a problem with hearing. Some people hold ageism towards the old people and equate them with being unhappy, sick, dying or unfulfilled. In the job market, the old may be depicted as more expensive and rigid, and less adaptable and productive as compared to the young people.
Ageism affects our aging process in our culture because vitality, youth, and beauty are highly valued. The aging process is therefore counter to the aforementioned attributes. Good health is also an attribute anticipated by many and no one wants to age. There is also fear of dying. Everyone would want to distance him or herself from the fear of dying. Thus, everyone in the culture do everything possible to maintain his or her youth.
Tisdell, E. J., & Thompson, P. M. (2007). ‘Seeing from a different angle’: the role of pop culture in teaching for diversity and critical media literacy in adult education. International Journal of Lifelong Education. doi:10.1080/02601370701711349
Urry, H. L., & Gross, J. J. (2010). Emotion Regulation in Older Age. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 352-357. Retrieved from;
Provision of medical assistance to people dissatisfied with their homosexual state has impact on the satisfied gays and lesbians. The treatment tries to change the sexual feelings of individuals from homosexual to heterosexual. In the United States, ethical experts have declined the activity of conversion therapy. According to the satisfied homosexuals, the act of conversion therapy is unethical and violates their rights granted by international signings.
According to Douglas Haldeman, conversion therapy has no genuine effectiveness. He recommends that, even though the act decreases homosexual feelings, it does not increase the heterosexual feelings. People subjected to this therapy, become fearful and ashamed of their homosexual feelings. These arguments prove that conversion therapy is not the appropriate method to change gays and lesbians.
It is very challenging to escape one’s values. Even after many attempts to alter sexual orientation through conversion therapy, many homosexuals end up retaining their original values. The attempts end up being unsuccessful and cause severe problems for the individuals subjected to it. Moreover, no individual values should be viewed better than others should. This is because every individual has the freedom to express his or her feelings without intimidation.
Different policies in support of homosexuality have been formulated in the United States. These policies have created debates on the efficiency of conversion therapy. The U.S. government has condemned the act as being harmful to health and risky to self-esteem development. This has raised concern in the mental health society as it is viewed to cause trauma among the affected individuals leading even to suicidal cases.
Many of the religious groups in the world prohibit homosexuality. It is easier for homosexuals to change their sexual feelings depending on the strength of their original religious faith. Many of them opt to join religions that allow people to have different sexual orientations.
Behavioral Aspect of Personality
Behavior is a co-factor in human life relating to issues to do with different people’s personality. Behavior is used in many cases to determine personalities of different people in a society. In students’ scenario test conducted, it is clearly observed that certain people, places and time all play a vital role in determining personal behavior. This behavior changes determine peoples’ personality. While students relate with smoking ones, the unknowingly find themselves joining their fellow students. According to studies by many psychologists, a person’s behavior is a wide perception relating to environment and society they are living in. Personal traits are constant over certain durations and change with time or after a given period. For instance, common traits that are identified to culture are prone to change after a specific duration of time. In addition, some behavior can be identified to be collective to a certain group of people (Friedman and Schustack 135). For a study of smoking students conducted in school with smoking students revealed that, how they started to smoke, is connected to their colleagues’ attitude towards cigarettes. After a specific period, traits may change due to lapse of time or becoming out dated. Smoking behavior observed from students changes with time when they realize the dangers related to cigarettes. Influence from other people might also affect how individuals conduct themselves. Peer influence may change a person’s trait hence his or her personalities (Friedman and Schustack 157). For instance, if a large group of students smokes, it would affect even the nonsmoking and they might find themselves using cigarettes.
Some behaviors can be reinforced while others are punished; psychologists found out that the establishment and extinction of responses can be determined by the way reinforces, or rewards, are being awarded. This is observed in training of the mentally retarded individuals and in case of obsessive behaviors, and drugs abuses like smoking. Some behaviors like stealing, indiscipline could be shaped through punishing the responsible individuals (Friedman and Schustack 180).
Friedman, Howard S., and Miriam W. Schustack. Personality: Classic theories and modern research. Allyn and Bacon, 1999.
National Origins Quota System
The national origin quota system was meant to control the quantity and quality of the United States (US) immigrants in order to prevent further erosion of the US society’s ethnic composition. The goal was to be accomplished using three mechanisms, where the first one involved capping the overall number of immigrants allowed in the US in a given year. Secondly, it also favored immigrants from some countries, as it completely excluded others, for instance, those of Asian origin. Finally, the visa screening process screened out some qualified immigrants that were considered unsuitable for the US. Although the quota system reduced the number of immigrants entering the US, it strained the country’s relations with the Asian countries, especially Japan. The immigration restrictions caused shortages in specific areas of the US labor markets that were previously dominated by immigrants, for instance, cheap unskilled labor in the agricultural sector. Few years after the adoption of the national origins quota system, the US suffered from the Great Depression that discouraged movement of immigrants into the nation. In fact, some immigrants that had been allowed into the US relocated back to their native countries where life was much better. The economic collapse was more effective in reducing immigrants’ population as compared with the national origins quota system. It is evident that the migration system did not benefit the American society very much in terms of preserving their ethnic identities. The reason for this is that the Americanization campaigns undertaken by the country eroded its ethnic identities more than the increase in immigrant populations.
The 1924 Immigration Act was justifiable to some extent, especially as it relate to the American working class population and the country’s natural resources. The negative impacts of the immigrants were evident in the labor market. As compared to the natives Americans, the immigrants provided cheap labor as they readily accepted low wages. They were highly preferred by land and factory owners because their cheap labor reduced their cost of production, thereby increasing profitability of the enterprises. The preference of immigrants in the labor market negatively affected the lives of the American working population, as it increased their unemployment and underemployment levels (Brian and Watts 245-246). While the lives of immigrants continued to improve, the living standards of the unskilled and semi-skilled Americans continued to decline. The American way of life could have been protected mainly through the enactment of strict immigration restrictions that would reduce the availability of cheap labor. The immigrants’ birth rate was higher compared with that of the white Americans. This high rate would have definitely eroded the ethnic identities of the American over the years, as the immigrants would have developed a dominant culture. An article by Madison Grant, who was a lawyer and author, titled “Restriction of Immigration: Racial Aspects” provides an insight into the ethnic frictions that existed between the immigrant groups and the natives. In the article, Grant warned that the “wretched outcasts” entering the US from Europe threatened the conservation of the country’s natural resources (qtd. in Spiro 207). Grant warned that, “if all valleys of the Sierras are to be drowned to irrigate deserts, … if all our rivers and streams must be stripped of their fish and turned into sewers to carry off waste materials for factories, if the land must be gridlocked with rail-roads and highways” (207).
Greenberg, Brian, and Linda S. Watts. Social History of the United States. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2009. Print.
Spiro, Jonathan P. Defending the Master Race: Conservation, Eugenics, and the Legacy of Madison Grant. Burlington, Vt: University of Vermont Press, 2009. Print.
Although all the models contribute to how one understands of sexuality, I agree with Kinsey’s model B the most. Criticisms of Model A show that human beings cannot be categorized into simply bisexual, homosexual, and heterosexual orientations. Model A fails to consider the differences in severity among individuals concerning sexual orientation. It limits human beings to three categories and this does not give room for the asexual individuals. Kinsey’s research addresses these issues in model B. The model gives room for a wide range of options regarding sexual orientation through a fixed continuum. I agree that exclusively heterosexual individuals have little or no appreciation for homosexuality, and vice versa. This is evident through the emergence of activist groups in the debate on gay rights. Exclusive heterosexuals believe that homosexuality should never be allowed because they express the least homosexual tendencies. Model C is just a deeper analysis of Model B since I feel it does not offer any new explanation.
The American culture is more eretophilic than eretophobic. America as a culture celebrates romance and allows individuals to exercise free will regarding their sexuality. America reports the youngest age where teenagers can have their first romantic relationships than most parts of the world. This supportive nature implies that the American culture is erotophilic. The American culture also encourages active sexual lives as is evident through popular culture. Musicians and artists celebrate this through their works, which celebrate sexuality explicitly. The culture is also permissive regarding sex, since couples are able to touch, caress, and even kiss in public. Thus, sex is regarded as a relational and recreational activity in the US culture, making America more erotophilic than erotophobic.
Addiction Treatment and Aids
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a disease that is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which destroys the body’s natural protection from illness. It is primarily transmitted through transfusion of contaminated blood from one individual to another and it causes adverse effects on the victim. On the other hand, addiction is a condition that yields when an individual engages in an activity continuously which becomes compulsive and interferes with ordinary life responsibilities (Karen et al. 2000). Substance addiction refers to the biological state in which the body gets used to the presence of a drug and in case of an absentia of that drug, the body functioning is affected. Previously, substance abuse or drug addiction has been reported to catalyze the spread of AIDS in the society. This paper outlines the aspects of HIV/AIDS and its relation to substance abuse in the community. Additionally, this study intends to assess the relationship of HIV positive victims and drug and substance abuse in the society.
A person’s immune system is designed to protect an individual from any infectious disease that may attack the body. However, a person who has been infected with the HIV / AIDS virus may lack the capability of body protection against a disease. AIDS is caused by reduction in CD4+ T cells and it is believed to have been introduced to humans from monkeys (Karen et al, 2000). It is an extremely dangerous disease that can cause death if not treated in its initial stages. The first case of HIV/AIDS was reported in the united states at around 1983 (Karen et al, 2000) According to UNAIDS, there were 35.3 million people living with HIV globally and around 1.6 million deaths occurred in 2012 and since the start of the AIDS epidemic, at least 36 million deaths have been reported to culminate from AIDS-related diseases (UNAIDS, 2013). The disease progression involves four stages before it matures to AIDS and they include initial infection, latency period, early symptomatic infection and finally AIDS (Karen et al., 2000).
HIV is extremely fragile and cannot survive long outside body’s fluids or tissue; hence it cannot penetrate unbroken skin (Chowdhury, Huq, Roy, Talukder & Haque, 2014). Therefore, it is transmitted via the exchange of body fluid processes such as blood transfusion, sexual intercourse, breastfeeding, use of contaminated sharp objects, organ transplant, and mother-to-child transmission during pregnancies. Consequently, unprotected sexual intercourse is the major way of transmitting HIV/AIDS from an infected person to an uninfected person. It can be transmitted through anal, oral or vaginal sexual intercourse hence it puts people who are sexually active at a high risk of contracting the disease.
Drug abuse and addiction
Substance abuse is the consumption of a drug or substance in an outlined manner until the consumption rate is high enough to harm the consumer (Karen et al., 2000). Addiction is the brain disorder that causes compulsive substance quest despite the resultant effects. A human being can be addicted to various things such as food and not necessarily drugs (Lowinson, 2005). Mostly, people assume that addiction is brought about by lack of morality and the willpower to control an individual consumption, but in reality addiction can be a brain disorder. Nevertheless, substance abuse is the hazardous use of drugs, including alcohol and illicit drugs in a prolonged period leading to addiction (Lowinson, 2005). The risks of being addicted to anything are brought by a combination of factors which include individual biology, social environment, cultural beliefs, age and the stage of development (Karen et al., 2000). A social environment is the most significant reason that influences people get addicted. The environment may include family and friends, social status, level of education, and psychological status.
According to NIDA, approximate 23.9 million Americans who have attained the age of 12 years were consumed illicit drugs in 2012. The report indicated that there was a tremendous 8.1% increase from the year 2008 and marijuana was ranked the most consumed illicit drugs. Youths aged 18 to 25 years were the most affected, followed by teenagers aged 12 to 17 years (Chowdhury et al, 2014). It is quite evident that illicit drug consumption is a global menace, especially among the young adults. Therefore, drug addiction and abuse is a severe problem not only in the United States, but also in the entire globe.
Relationship between HIV/AIDS and substance abuse
According to Varela and colleagues (1997), drug addicts are at a high risk of HIV infection due to their behavioral risk factors and their rampant immune deficiencies. Chowdhury et al (2014) concurs with Varela because they state that the largest number of AIDS case in the developed countries is associated with drug abusers. Similarly, developing countries encounter the same menace because a study conducted in Bangladesh shown that among the drug addicts, especially sex commercial workers 62% were HIV positive and 85% of the participant had full HIV/AIDS awareness (Chowdhury et al, 2014). In this case, people are aware of the HIV dangers and the following are the paramount concepts about HIV/AIDS and substance abuse relationship.
- Substance abuse increases the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS.
One of the ways of contracting HIV is by the body coming into contact with contaminated sharp objects. Hard drugs such as heroin are associated with direct injection using a syringe that is shared among many people. In the process of exchanging that needle, an infected person’s body fluid remains on the needle and the next person to inject him or herself automatically acquires the disease. According to Gibson (1998), injecting drug users (IDU) amount to more than one third of AIDS cases in the United States. Consequently, if a man is an IDU victim then there are higher chances he will transmit it to the wife. 70% of women who were reported to suffer from HIV disease in 1990s were infected during sex with a male drug user (Gibson, 1998). Other drug users may share inhalers, which have blood content and if the person who uses that inhaler has wounds on the tongue, he or she risks contracting the disease (Ball et al., 1998). Also, drugs might impact the consumer with an impaired judgment while sharing sex toys, handling of body fluids and waste hence contracting the disease.
- Substance abusers are at risk for HIV infection through sexual behaviors.
Usually, intoxication is associated with reckless behavior and impaired judgment. In regard to this, when a person is high, he or she is vulnerable to indulging in risky sexual behavior without observing the protective measures. Trisha and others (2009) conducted a research on the reasons that lead to high teenage pregnancies among the youths. Among the findings, drugs and alcohol consumption were a major cause that led to sexual escapades. Most of the respondents argued that when they attended house parties they usually drunk alcohol and ended up having sex (Trisha et al., 2009). Surprisingly, some usually have sex and do not remember due to the level of intoxication until they are told by their friends (Monti, 2012). When Trisha and the others sought to know whether they use protective measures the answer was negative since the activity is usually rushed into (2009). Consequently, when they attend different parties they may end up having sex with a series of partners. Tefera and Mulatie (2014) found out that adolescents who consumed drugs in Ethiopia were at a higher risk of teenage pregnancies than those who do not take drugs. This is because most of the drug addicts among the teenagers had already experimented on how to have sex. Defer and Mulatie referred to this stage as a personal identification stage where adolescents want to experiment everything where consumption of drugs increases their self esteem in engaging in risky behaviors (2014). In their discussion, Tefera and Mulatie (2014) found out that these teenagers were likely to end up as commercial sex workers despite the risk involved.
In addition, drug addicts may use sex as a way of earning money to sustain their drug addiction. According to Chowdhury et al (2014), Bangladesh’s sex workers were always on duty to look for money to buy drugs. Unfortunately, there is an increased number of sex workers and low number of condom use in the brothels. Similarly, young girls exchange sex for material favors such as money. Basically, that money is used for fraudulent and fun activities which involve going out to drinking sprees. Continued engagement in such risky sexual behaviors increases the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS due to intoxication (Tefera & Mulatie, 2014).
- Biological effects of drugs abuse on HIV/AIDS scourge
A person who suffers from HIV/AIDS and he or she is a drug addict; there is a high probability of each problem becoming a hindrance to the treatment of the other to such an individual (Lowinson, 2005). Usually, a drug addict concentration is relatively low and when he or she is given medication to treat HIV/AIDS, the high chances are the patient will not follow the medication specification (Gibson, 1998). Drug addicts are less likely to adhere to their prescribed drug dose because they will be taking medication off schedule. On the either way, a person diagnosed with HIV will be relentless to stop substance consumption since they find it as a way of seeking solace and calming depression. As a result, the intoxication will fuel their zeal to engage in sexual behaviors and the disease will continue to spread. In simpler terms, substance abuse can negatively impinge on adherence to HIV/AIDS treatment regimens (Karen et al., 2000).
On the other hand, drug abuse and addiction can adversely affect a person’s health resulting in a chain distribution of AIDS due to the alteration of HIV propensity. According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), AIDS virus increases the vulnerability of the body’s immune system, and then drug abuse increases the chances of the body suffering from chronic diseases such as cancer (Gibson, 1998). For example, alcohol causes liver cirrhosis and early treatment aids the body to fight the disease and remain healthy. On the contrary, when the body has HIV virus, it will be impossible to fight the cancer and it will cause death to the patient. Additionally, researchers have indicated that HIV causes injuries to the brain cells affecting the cognitive impairment among drug addicts more than victims who do not use drugs (Karen et al., 2000). The laboratory test done on animals confirmed that methamphetamine, which is a hard drug, increases the amount of HIV in the brain cells which results in high damages.
- LGBIT drug addicts and their role in spreading HIV/AIDS
Some people argue that sexual behavior between two people of the same gender do not contract the HIV virus. However, Fernandez, Warren, Jacobs and Bowen (2009) conducted a study on Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) and 43% of the participants were drug addicts. According to Fernandez et al (2009), 45% had unprotected sex with at least 4 different partners with a span of 6 months. Apparently, the most common consumed drugs by the respondent were cocaine, poppers, ecstasy and Viagra. Viagra is a drug that arouses sexual feelings and the consumer is relieved only by engaging in a sexual activity. The study unearthed the intertwined risks of drug consumption, unprotected sex and gay attachment among the victims. As Fernandez and others found out, the gay attachment led to intense drug use, which resulted in sexual activities increasing the probability of HIV infection (2009). Unfortunately, most of the lesbians and gay people have unprotected sex since they think same gender sex does not transmit STIs. However, Karen et al (2000) differs with that belief, citing that HIV is transmitted when there is an exchange between body fluids in spite of partners’ gender.
- Efficiency of substance treatment on HIV
One of the most effective ways of preventing the spreading of HIV/AIDS is by countering the level of substance abuse. Chowdhury et al delineates that since the early 1980s, studies have concluded places that have low concentrations of drug addicts exhibit lower risk of HIV/AIDS scourge. Karen and colleagues (2000) states that treating a substance abuse patient with a continuum of care helps in reduction of continuous spread of HIV/AIDS. It helps them to concentrate on one thing and gives them comfiture emotionally. When they are in a secluded place, they can adhere to HIV medication and heal quickly. Similarly, they lack the time to go and engage in sexual behaviors since they are being catered for both psychologically and physically.
HIV prevention involves primary or secondary prevention measures. Primary prevention reduces the incidence of transmission, hence fewer people contract the disease while secondary prevention involves reduction of severity of the disease by arresting the problem in the early stages (Karen et al, 2000). According to Karen et al (2000), HIV/AIDS prevention is basically the reduction of risks involved with spreading the disease. This is because primary prevention revolves around sensitizing the community and creating awareness of the existence of the disease so that uninfected people do not acquire the disease. As a result, the World Health Organization formulated a program of creating global awareness about the disease which is known as voluntary counseling services (Chowdhury et al, 2014). Also, this service eradicates the myths and unscientific beliefs about HIV such as it can be spread through the shaking of hands or kissing. Secondary prevention on the other hand, aims at halting the consequences caused by HIV/AIDS (Karen et al, 2000). If a victim has been diagnosed with the disease, secondary prevention involves discovering the disease early and employing the relevant treatment measures to curb the severity associated with it. In addition, secondary prevention helps in influencing the victim to be of benefit to the family and the society since some of them loose hope in life the moment they learn they have HIV. Consequently, they deliberately start infecting others, hence comprehensive counseling is required on such a victim.
Secondary prevention also involves availing HIV/AIDS drugs to the public to allow treatment during the initial stages of the disease. The inception of ARV drugs has proved that infected people can live longer and lead a healthier life (Karen et al. 2000). Similarly, personal identification occurs as individual set personal interests and objectives; however, when they discover that they are ailing from a chronic disease their self esteem becomes low (Chowdhury et al, 2014). Therefore, patients or HIV/AIDS victims should be guided in personal identification to relieve their psychological pressure and concentrate on abolishing the spread of HIV/AIDS. Tefara and Mulatie (2014) also identified youth’s failure to conform to the cultural norms and values as one of the causes of HIV/AIDS. The Ethiopian collectivist culture bans adolescents from engaging into sexual escapades, but according to the study most of the respondents had experimented with having sex (Tefera & Mulatie, 2014). As a result, adolescent fear seeking advice from their parents about sex since religion and cultural beliefs prohibits such activities. Due to the lack of guidance they will indulge in sexual behaviors unaware of the risks and consequences. Conversely, sexual development is appreciated in the western world and parents will take time counseling their children and advice them to use protective measures rather than avoiding them (Monti, 2012). This happens to drug abuse and the adolescents’ ends up being outcasts because they are dimmed as an embarrassment to the society. In summary, Tefara and Mulatie (2014) suggest that parent participation is vital in preventing the HIV and AIDS scourge.
Drugs/substance abuse and addiction prevention
Drugs contain chemicals that induce into the brain communicating system and disrupt the usual way of conveying information by the nerve cells (Lowinson, 2005). In this case, the body functions are completely altered and it can be hazardous to the body system. Therefore, drug addiction is unfortunate occurrence which is a preventable disease. Drug abuse prevention entails the contribution of the whole society since this menace affects the entire community (Monti, 2012). Public awareness is the most preferred ways of curbing drug and substance extensive consumption. Families and relatives should be encouraged to educate their loved ones against consuming illicit drugs. The media still has a role to play in sensitizing people against drug abuse. Awareness also encompasses ensuring that proper education systems about drug abuse are in place. Other than awareness, the government has a responsibility of installing adequate rehabilitation and treatment centers to reduce substance abuse (Lowinson, 2005).
The wide spread drug usage is directly proportionate to the wide scope of HIV/AIDS coverage. Most of the scholars have included substance abuse among the reasons that influence the spreading hazardous and chronic STIs such as HIV/AIDS (Tefera & Mulatie, 2014). Drug use is common among populations with human immunodeficiency virus and poses a high risk of the disease infection. Despite the chronic consequences associated with drug use, HIV patients are still consuming these drugs. Most epidemiological data support the role of substance abuse in increasing sexual risk behaviors. Although the direct influence of substance abuse on HIV development has not been fully determined, the substance abuse can interact with the retroviral medications and hinder the exertion of the medication (Chowdhury et al, 2014). Drugs that are consumed in clubs and circuit parties, especially alcohol are referred to as “club drugs”. A combination of “club drugs “with ART may produce serious and even fatal interactions. According to Karen et al (2000), substance abusers report suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral drugs. Such intermittent treatment interruptions could pilot the development of drug resistant HIV and treatment failure. Due to the frequent use of “club drugs”, the population is at high risk of contracting the HIV virus because of the impaired judgment associated with intoxication. Unfortunately, youths below the age of 30 years are mostly affected due to their regular use of “club drugs” (Monti, 2012).
Injecting drug use (IDU) has resulted in major international public health problems and the increase in the consumption contributes to increasing transmission of blood borne diseases, particularly HIV (Ball et al., 1998). A report by the national institute on drug abuse (NIDA) in 2007 estimated the global number of people who inject drugs and are HIV positive to 6.8 million people (Tefera & Mulatie, 2014). Additionally, 21 million people were reported to be using injection drugs worldwide; therefore, there is a great probability of spreading the virus to the uninfected via the injection. Injecting drugs use occurs in most countries and HIV infection is very common among many populations presenting a global challenge. In the undeveloped countries IDU is associated with poverty and psychological imbalance among the victims. In the western world IDU victims are usually introduced into injecting drugs by the social environment, corrupted morality and psychological imbalance (Ball et al., 1998). Another problem that has been noted in this study is the rise of commercial sex workers in the entire world. Since illicit drugs are quite expensive, most of the users lack the capability of sustaining their addiction. As a result, they indulge in commercial sex as a way of looking for a fortune. Others, especially young girls, use sex in exchange of favors to sustain them. Minimal protection is used in these escapades hence the victims are at a very high risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS. On the other hand, LGBIT group as also contributed to spreading of HIV virus especially the gay people. Gays are reported to dispute the use of protection since they engage in anal sex increasing the risk of getting infected with HIV (Fernandez, 2009). Also, they are associated with the consumption of drugs which alters their brain system, putting them at a risk of indulging in sexual behaviors (Fernandez, 2009).
Human beings are surrounded by a lot of perils and risks which can harm their body functions both physically and emotionally. Some of these perils can be avoided if an individual has the will power to control his or her behavior. Consequently, others are unavoidable and when they occur a person has to face them and look for a relevant cure. In regard to this, the HIV virus is a peril which in most cases can be avoided by controlling an individual’s behavior. Similarly, addiction can be a brain disorder which is uncontrollable, but at the same time it can be influenced by the social environment (Gibson, 1998). As noted in this study, there is a correlation between drug abuse and addiction with infection of HIV/AIDS. Firstly, drug abuse corrupts people’s morality and they are vulnerable to unfortunate behaviors that are associated with adverse consequences. Secondly, drug abusers form a cocoon like family which believes that they share a lot in common; hence they end up sharing their substances. They share things like needles and inhalers increasing the chances of HIV progression (Fernandez, 2009).
Thirdly, due to the unending appetite of illicit drugs, illegal businesses such as prostitution and human trafficking crop up. Cases of sex assault and rape are usually associated with human trafficking hence there is increased development of AIDS among drug users (Fernandez, 2009). Finally, it is quite evident that drugs affect the curing process of HIV medication prescribed to the patient. The government must step up in creating a public awareness about the intertwined risks of HIV/AIDS. Parents still have a huge role to play in ensuring that all the adolescents and young adults have reduced substance abuse. In addition, they should be guided on sexual development to avoid misconceived decisions that end up ruining their lives (Tefera & Mulatie, 2014). Therefore, there is an evidential correlation between drug users and hindrance of HIV prevention in the society.
Ball, A., Rana, S. & Denhe, K. (1998). HIV prevention among injecting drug users: responses in developing and transitional countries. Public health reports. 113(1): 170-181
Chowdhury, T., et al. (2014). Opportunistic infections among human immune deficiency virus (HIV) positive injecting drug users. Journal of AIDS and HIV research. 6(3): 79-84.
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Lifespan Development Quiz
Q1 Mothers talk more to girls while parents talk to girls on emotional issues than boys. The boys are supposed to suppress crying and teachers are disapproving of girls who are active. Psychoanalytic and social learning theories explain how the phenomenon of modeling and rewarding influence differences in the behavior of sexes.
Q2 Counselors need to recognize that girls’ antisocial behavior in late childhood is likely to include non-confrontational aggressive behavior such as social ostracism and spreading rumors and has been linked to later anxiety and depression.
Q3Counselors use Bronfen brenner’s bioecological theory when they recognize the primary importance of genes in influencing behavior.
Q4helping professionals have not yet reached a consensus on how long a ‘normal’grieving period should last.
Q5 processes and applications of genetic counseling include constructing a pedigree that illustrates the patterns of genetic inheritance in the families, helping clients anticipate the consequences of possible medical disorders and secure appropriate care and disputing clients’ irrational ideas about genetic testing. It does not entail helping clients manage the emotional consequences of genetic testing.
Q6William Perry’s theory on cognitive and moral development of college students holds that the college experience fosters cognitive development because students are confronted with a diversity of beliefs and values which they must accommodate.
Q7 According to Charles Cooley’s view of self-development, Becky will incorporate her teacher’s negative evaluations into her construction of her own sense of competence.
Q8 considering Piaget’s theory on cognitive development in early childhood, I would advise Mrs. Harmon not worry, but to Consider information on developmental stages as useful guidelines but explain that there is a range of normal development within each stage.
Q9 According to Selman’s stages of friendship, stage 4 requires an individual’s increasing ability to balance conflict and harmony.
Q10 According to Baumrinds theory of parenting styles, authoritative parenting is the one most likely to foster positive psychosocial development and school achievement in adolescents.
Q11 The quality of children’s attachments has been found to affect what children expect social interactions to be like.
Q12 The best intervention to solve the special problems that girls face at adolescence would be to conduct group counseling sessions for all female students as a preventive intervention for eating disorders and depression.
Q13 the question that contemporary developmentalists focus on is, “How do we explain the mechanisms by which nature and nurture interact to affect development?”
Q14 theory and research by Holland’s and Super’s strongly suggest that how well personality characteristics match the demands of a job is an important ingredient in job satisfaction.
Q15 The counselor’s advice to Sabrina’s mother should be: At her age, any consequence for misbehavior should be immediate, because Sabrina will have difficulty understanding the relationship between cause and effect when consequences are so delayed.
Q16Individuals who are “off-time” with regard to the social clock have not met their social goals (getting married, getting promoted, and having children) at time consistent with their expectations.
Q17In a study of American Indian families who moved out of poverty (the “ex-poor”), what were the effects (if any) on children’s behavior? -There was a significant decline in conduct disorder and oppositional defiant behavior over four years.
Q18Personal fable is the kind of adolescence egocentrism that Elkind would use to describe Darren’s view of the world.
Q19 According to Bowlby’s attachment theory, the purpose(s) that attachment systems have evolved to serve for both the younger and older infants is the assurance of survival and security.
Q20the reason that Piaget might give for failure of Ms. Hernandez’s method is that Peter, at 4, still has difficulty understanding that monsters are not real because he sees monsters on TV.
Executive function (EF) is the cognitive process framework that directs an activity within the prefrontal cortex part of the brain. It has three components, which include inhibition, working memory (WM) and shifting that contribute to EF’s performance (Best & Miller 2010). These EF components are independent in their functions; however, they exhibit substantial interrelation with one another. For instance, inhibition is the foundational base of executive function and when a child inhibits a response, the brain requires a little WM to produce an alternative feedback. WM functions as a storage place for a behavior in the brain before it is manipulated into an activity (Best & Miller 2010). Similarly, shifting refers to the aptitude of changing from one activity to another and it requires inhibition and working memory to perform effectively. Therefore, although the components are regarded to be independent, but they still require each other for performance.
Executive function contains prominent models, such as working memory, self-regulatory and problem-solving models. The working memory model stores information in different systems in the brain with the aid of central executive part. It separates visual and audio information and stores them in the subsystems (Smith & Thelen, 2003). Self-regulatory model on the other hand, manages the emotional responses and changes human behavioral response in the brain. Problem-solving model presents a problem to the brain, identifies a solution and evaluates the results of the brain responses. When a chess game has pieces randomly arranged, chess experts are not better than non-chess players in recalling the moves. This suggests after inhibiting information, the working memory stores the information. Also, the A-not-B error which can be illustrated with a ten month infant who is presented with a simple object-hiding task. If a toy is hidden from the kid at point A for several times he eventually figures out the position of the toy showing the existence of problem solving model. Self-regulatory is simply noticed by change of behavior response; for instance, if the toy is removed from point A to B, the infant will try to reach out to point A at first but will realize the toy is not there anymore.
Best, J. & Miller, P. (2010). A developmental perspective on executive function. Child development. 81(6): 1641-1660
Smith, L. & Thelen, E. (2003). Development as a dynamic system. Trends in cognitive sciences. Elsevier. 7(8): 343-348
Gender equality refers to measures and approaches aimed at achieving equitable representations between men and women. Thus, gender equality does not assert if either males or females are greater than the other. More so, it neither asserts nor affirms if male and female are equal. Instead, gender equality aims at ensuring women and men are provided with equal opportunities, values, treatments, principles and guidelines to undertake similar responsibilities, tasks, and roles in the society.
Gender equality is also regarded as a principle, decision, and policy formulated and implemented to change views, perceptions, and beliefs in relation to women being inferior to their male counterparts. This is based on the multiple issues facing women in modern societies in comparison to the few challenges affecting men. Women have to strive in order to undertake actions aimed at either modifying or rectifying behaviors, attitudes, and relations favoring men.
In order to enhance gender equality and improve my personal beliefs as well as lives among global women, various interpersonal, individual, and societal aspects ought to be addressed. It is therefore crucial for women to change their behavioral relations and attitudes. For a long period of time, women have always felt inferior to their male counterparts. As a result, their individual and interpersonal skills have been reduced to measures aimed at promoting their male counterparts.
In order to make a difference, women ought to undertake the following measures. Foremost, it is important to improve the quality of lives women lead. This further translates to both reduction and elimination of poverty among global communities. Secondly, girls and women should not be discriminated against. Thus, violence, abuse, economic discrimination, harmful traditional beliefs, and practices as well as reproductive health inequalities should be eliminated. They play a key role towards the declination of gender equality among men and women. Thus, women need education, exposure, understanding, and equitable platforms to discuss various issues affecting their qualities of life. Consequently, they need an understanding that women leaders and followers will strive towards achieving gender equality.
Physical and Cognitive Development among Youths
The development of young adults both at the cognitive and physical level is a concept that continues to intrigue many psychologists. Parents often struggle to understand the needs of young men and women during this duration. Various theories attempt to explain this crucial period in human development. This paper will compare and contrast the main theories that explain physical and cognitive development in young adults and how they fit within general psychology (Bjorklund, 2012).
The first, Piaget’s cognitive theory, though initially formulated to explain the development in children can effectively explain development in young adults. The theory holds that the cognitive development occurs in stages or schemas. Piaget identifies sensor motor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational as the four stages. The later stage represents the adolescent and by extension the young adult. At this stage, the youth can reason in both abstract and logical ways. At this stage according to Piaget, the young adult can formulate a hypothesis on various issues and try to reach conclusions and solve problems (Bjorklund, 2012).
The second, Vygotsky’s theory originates from three assumptions. Foremost is that the cognitive skills must be analyzed as they develop. In addition, cognitive skills are analyzed through words and language and finally that cognitive skill traces their roots to social relationships and the environment. To understand how a young adult’s mind develops, one must analyze its early trends. This must then be placed in context with the current environment of the young adult. In summary, cognition among the youth is best understood through the analysis of their interactions with other humans in cooperative activities (Bjorklund, 2012).
Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories are similar in that they both view cognition as occurring developmentally. One cannot analyze the young adults’ mind without studying how it developed from early stages. The main contrasting point in the two theories is that Piaget’s focuses on cognitive development and how it affects learning whereas Vygotsky’s views cognitive development as being shaped with the social environment (Bjorklund, 2012).
The Maturational theory describes physical development as a process that emanates from biological growth. This theory, formulated by Arnold Gesell holds that the physical traits a person has is a manifestation of an unfolding genetic design. The physical development of the young adult is therefore determined, according to this theory, by their genetic makeup, which they inherit from parents (Henniger, 2011).
The above theories can be applied to general psychology because they explain the development of cognitive as well as physical aspects of humans. General psychology deals with the mind and how it affects behavior. These cognitive theories are applicable to psychology because cognition is a process that takes place in the mind, and general psychology deals with the mind (Henniger, 2011).
William Perry’s theory holds that people transition through four main stages in intellectual and moral development. He identifies these stages as dualism, multiplicity, relativism, and commitment. Dualism maintains that all problems are solvable, and it is the responsibility of people to find the right solutions. According to relativism, the solutions must be backed by reason and some solutions are better than others are. The transition from duality to relativity occurs when people realize that the sources or authorities from where they get solutions may not have them after all. They subsequently find solutions on their own rationally (Perry, 1998).
Findings from research reveal that, among young adults, the part of the brain responsible for emotional responses is active. The part responsible for controlling impulsive responses is however not fully developed. These dynamics explain the tendencies to act on impulse characteristic of the young adults. Studies further indicate that these brain changes are affected by genes, and the socio-cultural environment (NIH, 2011).
Schaie maintains that adults’ response to pressure accompanies a change in cognition. The existing skills are programmed to deal with the new challenge. The adult adapts to the situation and does not develop new skills to suit the new roles and responsibilities that arise (Birren & Schaie, 2005).
In summary, the theories discussed here share a common goal: to explain cognitive development among the youth. Each theory on its own cannot sufficiently explain the complex cognitive processes that occur. The theories must therefore be seen as complimentary and not competing entities in this quest. With the rapidly changing social environment today, more research is needed in order to understand the young adult’s mind in the modern and post-modern times (Bjorklund, 2012).
Birren, J. E., & Schaie, K. W. (2005). Handbook of the Psychology of Aging. Burlington: Elsevier.
Bjorklund, D. F. (2012). Child & adolescent development: An integrated approach. Belmont: Wadsworth.
Henniger, M. L. (2011, Mar 17). Arnold Gesell’s Perspective on Learning and Development:. Retrieved Feb 26, 2014, from Education:http://www.education.com/reference/article/arnold-gesell-child-learning- development- theory/
NIH. (2011, Feb 26). The Teen Brain: Still Under Construction.
Retrieved Feb 26, 2014, from National Institute of Mental Health: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/the-teen-brain-still-under- construction/index.shtml
Perry, W. G. (1998). Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development. New York: Jossey-Bass.
Overprotective Parenting Style
This paper discusses the various negative aspects associated with overprotective parents as well as the problems and failures such parents set their kids up for later in their lives. Similarly, the paper examines the various strategies that parents can use to bring up their children with love without being overprotective. The objective of this paper is to provide information to parents that they can apply in bringing up their children and avoid the dangers associated with overprotective patenting style.
Overprotective Parenting Style
Childhood is a very important stage in an individual’s life as it is the time when a person grows not only physically, but also socially and intellectually. Overprotective parents negatively affect a child`s growth and development. In addition, there are numerous problems associated with overprotective parenting style evident both during childhood years and in early adulthood (Clinton & Sibcy, 2006).Overprotective parents require total submission from their kids and prefer forceful and punitive measures of discipline. Section 2 of this paper analyzes the negative effects of overprotective parenting style that include social phobia and behavioral problems and the effects of overprotection on a child`s growth and development. Section 3 analyzes how parents can develop healthy and loving relationships with their children by applying the golden rule of parenting. Section 4 examines what children need from their parents; specifically we analyze how parents can love their children without being overprotective; their role in providing guidance and discipline, and the role of play in parent-child relationship. The final section deals with how parents can develop healthy boundaries with their children; a number of concepts are discussed in this section including respect, motivation, responsibility, and the sowing and reaping principle.
1.1 Definition of an Overprotective Parent
Overprotectiveparentsbelieve in keeping their children in their place by limiting their independence. They formulate a strict set of rules that must be adhered to at all times. They do not permit their children to express their opinions and needs because they see themselves as the people who understand what is good for the child. Overprotective parents implement rules without explaining them in a clear manner. These parents are easy in showing disapproval and anger whenever their children misbehave. With regard to discipline, they tend to be harsh and punitive, viewing their children as persons in need of order and control. They do not permit their children to make independent decisions because they firmly believe that the opinion of their children requires no consideration, and they do not permit their authority or rule to be questioned. Overprotective parents tend to have high levels of control and low levels of warmth (Spokas & Heimberg, 2009). According to Clinton & Sibcy (2006) parents overprotect when:
- They lie about real life instead of being truthful in age appropriate ways
- They rescue their kids from everything
- They take responsibility for things their kids should do themselves
- They fight their children`s battles or persuade them to avoid certain situations
2.0 Negative Effects of Overprotective Parenting Style on Children
2.1 Social Phobia and Behavioral Problems
Social anxiety or social phobia is the avoidance or fear of social circumstances coupled with excessive anxiety over the fear of being rejected, criticized or embarrassed. An overprotective child-parent relationship has been shown to be one of the contributing factors to social phobia. Overprotection is characterized by low levels of warmth and high levels of control. In a study by Spokas & Heimberg (2009), the authors found that a child`s recollections of his or her mother`s overprotection was directly linked to social anxiety during their first college semester. This study implies that those students who remember their maternal overprotection are at high risk of suffering increased anxiety when starting college, possibly because of an increased perception of threat or reduced sense of control (Spokas & Heimberg, 2009). In a separate study by Gere, Kendall, Torgersen, & Villabø (2012), the authors found that overprotective parenting style was positively correlated with child behavior problems. In particular, maternal overprotection was found to be significantly high among children with behavioral problems compared to children with anxiety disorders (Kiel & Maack, 2012). These two studies indicate overprotective parenting style does not only harm children socially, but also leads to the development of behavioral disorders. Other than social phobia and behavioral problems, it also leads togrowth and development problems in children as discussed below.
2.2 Effects On a Child`s Growth and Development
Clinton & Sibcy (2006) argue that overprotected children tend to lack discipline, are socially irresponsible, and are incapable of resolving conflicts or engaging in negotiations. These children often become underachievers, performing poorly than others in social, spiritual, and personal development. The fact that they lack security makes them dependent on others and they lack the necessary confidence needed to face life`s challenges. These children are also likely to end up in abusive and unhealthy relationships and may seek alternatives to numb pain, because of the difficulties they face in regulating their emotions. Kids of overprotective parents often tend to be impulsive, immature, and angry. They face difficulties not only in making informed financial decisions, but also in keeping their jobs, and maintaining loyalty (Clinton & Sibcy, 2006).
3.0 Developing Healthy and Loving Relationships with Children
3.1 The Golden Rule of Parenting
Mathew 7:12 tells us that in everything, we should do unto others what we would have them do unto us. According to Clinton & Sibcy (2006), this is the golden rule that parents should use in developing healthy and loving relationships with their kids. They argue that parents cannot expect their children to respect them if they do not offer them the same respect and love. This implies that a parent who disciplines a disrespectful child by yelling at him or her, calling them bad names, or treating them rudely is in fact training their child on how to give disrespect for disrespect. Children who are brought up using such a parenting style may not outwardly express disrespect, but inwardly, they can never develop respect for their parents. As a result, a parent who does this teaches his or her children to treat others they way they are treated, as opposed to treating people the way they would wish to be treated. This golden rule implies that regardless of how bad a child may be behaving, parents should respond with love and respect (Clinton & Sibcy, 2006). This however does not imply that parents should not discipline their kids; however, parents have to discipline, correct, and offer consequences to their children in a respectful manner.
4.0 What Children Need From Their Parents
Parents have the ability to build and maintain close and caring relationships with their children, offering effective discipline, and helping kids resolve behavior problems. The primary responsibility given to parents by God is to help children become more like God, and this can only be achieved if parents give their children a healthy and Godly love (Clinton and Sibcy, 2006).
4.1 Loving Without Overprotecting
According to Clinton & Sibcy (2006), “suffering is always uncomfortable,but it is not always bad.” (p. 23). It is important to work through justifiable pain in order to attain a higher purpose or a greater good. In the process of learning how to persevere amidst the trials of life, human beings develop character. The importance of parents providing protection to their children cannot be overemphasized.however, they must also help these children to learn how to protect and think for themselves. As a child grows and he or she is ready to leave home, parents have to work themselves out of the role of a disciplinarian and a guardian and into the role of a counselor and mentor. Love is important to everybody and particularly to children. If children cannot learn and feel love at home, then there is no other place they will receive it. One of the primary functions of parenting is that parents have to build a relationship with their children. Every child requires at least one parent who is crazy about him or her (Clinton & Sibcy, 2006). Relationships are very important to children. Relationships help in building trust and intimacy and permit the children to open up to their parents.
It is important for children to understand that they are children of God (John 1:12) and that they serve as the light and salt of the world (Matthew 5:13). It is for this reason that children should be taught that in the eyes of God they are highly valued and they are cherished by both God and their parents. Parents have responsibility to reflect the love of God in their parenting. Children have to be taught that the love of their parents just like the love of God is unwavering and unconditional. They need to have confidence that even if the whole earth turns against them, they will still have their parents by their side. Children also need guidance and discipline.
4.2 Guidance and Discipline
The book of proverbs 22:6 reminds us that parents should train their kids in a way that they should go so when they become adults and that they will follow it. Parents have to offer proper direction and guidance to their kids instead of using cruel and unexplained discipline. It is the responsibility of parents to guide their kids in a loving manner through a systematic procedure. According to Clinton & Sibcy (2006), children do not always follow what they are told by their parents, but in most cases, they often do what their parents do. Kids are keen observers; as a result, parents have to be careful so that they can model proper behavior and lifestyles. Clinton & Sibcy (2006) argue that before parents can apply more structured behavioral techniques in correcting a disobedient child, a good parent-child relationship must fisrt exist. When disciplining their children, parents should take into account Proverbs 13:24, which says that a parent who loves his son is careful in disciplining him. In performing their disciplinary action, parents have to be careful at all times because overdoing it is likely to destroy the child`s soul. In the absence of relationship, rules tend to promote rebellion, whereas with relationship, rules promote respect. Furthermore, discipline is not always about physical punishment (Clinton & Sibcy, 2006). In some cases, physical punishment is a misguided discipline tool because not all kids respond positively to this type of punishment. A stern look from a father or a mother may be enough in some cases. Parents should know that sometimes childhood irresponsibility is a normal occurrence, and as a result, they should not be too quick in disciplining their children. As a whole, parents ought to be careful when disciplining their children and maintain strong relationships with their children to avoid broken souls and spirits. Apart from guidance and discipline, children require time to have fun through play.
Parents have a responsibility of keeping a close watch on their children to ensure that they do not suffer from disorders such as anxiety, eating disorders, attention deficit disorders, and even depression. One way of keeping in touch with children is by spending some minutes with them. Clinton and Sibcy (2006) uses a bank account analogy to explain how parents relate to their children. They argue that children have “emotional bank accounts.” There are many ways that parents make deposits into their children`s emotional bank accounts, however, the best way is by spending some time with them. They argue that whenever there is a conflict or stress in the parent-child relationship it amounts to a withdrawal from the account (Clinton and Sibcy, 2006). In order to keep the child`s emotional bank account with a positive balance, parents should set aside at least 20 minutes three or four times per week to play with their kids. Parents need to schedule this playtime such that the children can anticipate it. In addition, the playtime should not be made contingent on anything like behavior because it should not be something that can be earned or lost. During playtime, parents should follow the lead provided by the children and not issue any commands or life lessons. At the same time, parents should point out any unique qualities they have observed in their children.
5.0 Developing Healthy Boundaries with Children
According to Cloud and Townsend (1998), children should be taught five things relating to respect-avoid hurting others,show respect to others even when they refuse our requests, respect boundaries, learning to become sad rather than mad when the boundaries or limits of other people prevent us from achieving what they want, and appreciate others` need to be left alone. Whenever a child is disrespectful, parents should identify with the feelings of the child and rectify the wrong; parents should offer consequences when their children choose not to apologize or correct themselves or repent (Cloud and Townsend, 1998). For example, a kid may yell at her mother or use improper language. The parent should communicate to the child after the child has cooled her temper and inform her that she understands that she was angry. However, after showing empathy, parents should instruct their children on the proper methods of expressing their anger. If a kid repents, apologizes, and corrects herself, there should be no consequence for disrespect. Kids should be aware that their parents understand their loss or pain. Another ingredient in developing healthy boundaries with children is motivation.
Colossians 3:23 states that in everything you do, do it with whole your heart, and do it to God and not to fellow humans. Although it is important for children to learn how to comply out of choice to avoid consequences, in later stages, they have to develop pure and right motives for being respectful and responsible. According to Cloud and Townsend (1998), it is the responsibility of parents to help their children develop the right motives. Teaching children on the fear of consequences is very important. They should be taught that they have to think about the likely costs before acting. Parents have to set limits and stay true to those limits. Most importantly, they have to empathize with their kids. This will permit the children to understand that every choice has a consequences. In addition, they will not be worried of losing their parent`s love or risk being abandoned. Cloud and Townsend (1998) argue that children should learn on how to fear losing freedoms or desired items. It is the responsibility of parents to encourage their children, particularly adolescents to openly ask whether a given game, word or movie is bad or not. According to Cloud and Townsend (1998), love is the best motivator. Children should learn to derive their motivation from compassion. To achieve this, parents should speak to their children about how the things they say or do make other people feel, in addition to providing them with numerous experiences for them to internalize and own for themselves. Similarly, children should be educated and trained on responsibility.
Galatians 6:5 reminds us that each one of us shall carry his or her own load. Cloud and Townsend (1998) note that individuals who are immature often experience life as victims and as a result, they continuously seek the help of others to help them solve their problems. How an individual responds to a particular situation or environment largely shapes their character. The individual response as opposed to the environment or the situation is the greatest influence. Children should understand that the attitudes they have toward their family members, friends, school, God and even themselves will not be similar to that of others (Cloud and Townsend, 1998). Parents have a responsibility to help their kids understand that particular attitudes bring rewards while others result in undesirable consequences. Children too have to be accountable for nurturing a positive and respective attitude toward others. They must be accountable for how they act both in private and public. As part of the parents` role in supporting their children to be responsible people, parents should allow their children to take natural or logical consequences and at the same time giving them room to express how they feel (Cloud and Townsend, 1998). Children can only be responsible if their parents structure their life around reality and responsibility. Parents should help their kids to develop the ability to differentiate between bailing out a friend and helping a friend because even their friends ought to learn how they can tackle their life challenges (Cloud and Townsend, 1998). The ability to learn and apply responsibility directly influences children`s view of themselves, which has a direct impact on their behavior and productivity at home, school, and play. The following section will discuss the concept of sowing and reaping and its role in creating healthy boundaries between parents and children.
5.4 Sowing and Reaping
The concept of sowing and reaping can help children appreciate that they will only harvest what they sow, however, parents have to undergo hatred, tears and difficulties in the process of helping their kids develop boundaries. The concept helps children to learn that any mistake they make costs them. When children become aware of this reality, they change their behavior. Cloud and Townsend (1998) argue that when children face consequences for their actions, the responsibility shifts away from the parents to their children. As a result, the problem become the kid`s problem as opposed to the parent`s problem. If parents permit their children`s problems to be theirs, then no consequences exist to serve as motivators to the children to do their own problem solving. Parents should avoid their innate desires to bail their children out by not permitting them to confront the normal consequences of their actions.
In conclusion, overprotective parenting style brings absolutely no benefits to kids. It only destroys the close parent-child relationship. In addition, it reduces their children`s chances of success because it denies them freedom, making them inexperienced in handling even the most basic of life`s challenges. Parents should learn to give love without overprotecting and to give freedom to their children within healthy boundaries. In addition, they should always be ready to give advice when they feel it necessary or when children seek it.
Clinton, T., & Sibcy, G. (2006). Loving your child too much: Staying close to your kids without overprotecting, overindulging, or overcontrolling. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
Cloud, H., & Townsend, J. (1998). Boundaries with kids. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
Gere, M., Kendall, P., Torgersen, S., Villabø, M. (2012). Overprotective parenting and child anxiety: The role of co-occurring child behavior problems. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26(6), 642–649
Kiel, E. J., & Maack, D. J. (2012). Maternal BIS sensitivity, overprotective parenting, and children’s internalizing behaviors. Personality and Individual Differences, 53(3), 257-262. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2012.03.026
Spokas, M., & Heimberg, R. G. (2009). Overprotective parenting, social anxiety, and external locus of control: Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 33(6), 543-551.
Psychology Assignment Paper on Compare the Suitability of HEXACO, Multiplicity, Dominance Factor and VIA in Measuring Personality
Compare the Suitability of HEXACO, Multiplicity, Dominance Factor and VIA in Measuring Personality
Personality experiences are monitored pre-scientifically from several fronts. These views have been used to draft theories, as well as to study personality phenomena empirically. In measuring personality, actions are observed, and these actions provide the data to be measured. Several approaches exist in measuring personality, and each approach incorporates various aspects of personality measurements. These approaches include HEXACO, multiplicity, dominance factor and VIA. These approaches have their own strengths, weaknesses, as well as limitations, and are vital in assisting individuals in gaining focus in life. This study will compare the suitability of measuring personality using the aforementioned approaches.
The HEXACO approach of measuring personality involves conceptualizing human personality by using six dimensions. Lee and Ashton (n.d) formulated this type of approach that necessitated the applying the six major dimensions of personalities, which are honesty-humility (H), emotionality (E), extraversion (X), agreeableness (A), conscientiousness(C) and openness to experience (O). On the domain-level scales, high level of honesty-humility indicates that individuals can evade controlling others for individual gains while a low level of honesty humility signifies that individuals can break rules for material gain. High level of emotionality makes a person experience anxiety when faced with life’s stress whereas low levels of emotionality means that a person may feel indifferent when carrying out a social activity.
On the face-level scales, honesty-humility measurement will exhibit unwillingness to control others on high levels while low level will indicate flattery or pretense in order to win favor from other individuals. On emotionality domain, low scorers will develop fear injuries while high scores would be strongly disposed to avoid physical injury. On extraversion sphere, high scorers usually consider themselves likable in the social self-esteem measurement while low scores feel unpopular amidst their social groups.
The HEXACO approach is usually based on classification of personality. The trait in this approach usually depends on factor analysis. However, no guarantee is given to show that factor analysis will give replicable results. The honesty-humility measurement does not offer consistent replicable results. Several studies of HEXACO approach support the use of honesty-humility, agreeableness and emotionality in measuring personality, but warned that the HEXACO approach does not always fit every situation.
Individuals tend to think that they are just single being, but in reality, they hold numerous groups of personalities, and every time they face a given situation, they exhibit a different personality. According to Carter (n.d), when different personalities begin recognizing each other’s strengths and weaknesses, they can chose among them which personality to be in control at any given time. Different personalities assist individuals in thinking, feeling, behaving and perceiving the world. These personalities come and go, following a sequence. For instance, when a person is angry, a personality for anger prevails, and when a person is happy, the personality for joy becomes active. When one personality is active, others are dormant, and vice versa. Therefore, multiplicity implies that individuals have multiple personalities, which are isolated from each other in the brain.
Human beings are quite adaptive to different situations. This is the reason why they survive in almost every situation. The society may necessitate individuals to demonstrate certain types of conducts that are rewarded. In many occasions, human beings will get the reward. However, to shape up the adaptableness into a theory that incorporates multiple and self-regulating personality types is quite a big challenge. This makes Carter’s approach seem like an illusion to human beings, although her explanation is true. The kind of measurements that put individuals in multiple personalities have been proved to be devious. Sometimes, individuals endeavor to do their best to control emotions and circumstances, but the inner person may possess different personality. Carter complicated her view when she claimed that individuals may require the help of others to learn how to chat with all the personalities. If individual are in control of their personalities, they do not require assistance from
Dominant Factor Approach
The link between the human brains and the way human sees, hears and touch is explained by the dominant factor approach. This approach asserts that individuals’ dominance profile account for the main factor in influencing the way they think and operate. According to Hannaford (n.d), individuals’ learning styles are influenced by their physical patterns of lateral dominance. Individual’s dominance profile offers the key to unlocking his/her potential. Individuals display numerous dominance profiles through their eyes, hands, and ears. The innate dominance is essential for children who are attending school. This dominance assists in understanding and overcoming challenges to learning and executing duties to his/her highest level. It also assists to detect individual’s strengths and weaknesses.
The suitability of this approach is that it helps both parents and teachers to learn, as well as measure the personalities of children, thus, assisting in correcting children’s’ behavior through dominance. An essential proposition of brain dominance can be observed when an individual tries to study something, or performs an action while under stress. Losing control in human beings is also dictated by the dominance pattern. Dominance patterns are usually demonstrated when adults are in stressful situations. To prevent such action to occur, individuals should emphasize on self development, social relations and education.
The VIA (Values in Action) approach was formulated by Dr. Martin Seligman, and involves 24 specific strengths that are grouped into six broad virtues. These virtues include wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, temperance and transcendence (Roffey, 2012, p. 170). Virtuous people possess these strengths, but they are subjected to change depending on environment. Seligman believed that all characters that an individual possesses should be measurable, but humility, courageousness and modesty are hard to assess.
Wisdom is a cognitive strength, which involves acquiring and using knowledge. Individuals become creative, judgmental and curious through wisdom. Courage in an emotional strength, which an individual exercises his/her will to achieve life goals, despite external or internal opposition. When an individual becomes brave, persevering and honest, he/she is exercising courage. Humanity is the interpersonal strength that assists individuals in interacting with other individuals. Demonstration of love, social intelligence and kindness are acts of humanity. Justice is demonstrated through leadership, teamwork and being fair while temperance is portrayed through forgiveness, self-control and prudence. Transcendence is the power to build connections and creating meaning. It is depicted through gratitude, humor and appreciation. The six virtues assist in measuring individuals’ profiles that incorporate character strengths. By learning the above virtues, individuals can gain character strengths to assist them in living a more fulfilling life both in their personal life and social life.
The suitability of using several approaches in measuring personality depends on their strengths, as well as their weaknesses. The HEXACO approach involves applying the six major dimensions of personalities, which are fundamental in making day-to-day life decisions. The multiplicity approach indicates that individuals possess several personalities that guide in handling life-changing situations. The dominant factor asserts that human being’s actions are controlled by various parts of their bodies, with the help of brain. Learning dominance helps individuals in releasing their potential. The VIA approach involves applying the six essential virtues in creating meaning to life. The above approaches are essential in determining the individual personalities, but there is no guarantee for reliability assessment in all of them since some dimensions are immeasurable.
Carter, R. (n.d). How Multiple Are You? Multiplicity. Retrieved on 1March 2014 from http://ritacarter.co.uk/page6.htm
Hannaford C. (n.d). The Dominant Factor: How Knowing Your Dominant Eye, Ear, Brain, Hand & Foot Can Improve Your Learning. Great River Books. Retrieved on 1March 2014 from http://www.greatriverbooks.com/DominanceFactorPage.html
Lee K. & Ashton M. C. (n.d).The HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised: A measure of the Six Major Dimensions of Personality. HEXACO-PI-R. Retrieved on 1March 2014 from Http://Hexaco.Org/Index.Html
Roffey, S. (2012). Positive relationships: Evidence based practice across the world. Dordrecht: Springer.
Role of Drugs as Parts of Youth Culture
Drugs are part of society norms that have invaded our culture with disastrous effects. Young people engage in drugs because of several reasons that characterize the cultural and social demands. However influence into drugs is more associated with youths as result of peer pressure. The influence can arise in school, environment and family .In addition, forms of drug engagement and effects are more complicated based on the type of substance abused or the addition level of an individual (Kelly et al, 2013). Back in retrospect, cultural influence on substance abuse has social implications. Depending on cultural settings, drugs play different roles on youth’s lives depending on the cultural policy and beliefs. However, youths engage due to curiosity, need to experiment, natural rebellion and as a defense mechanism. In this regard, the role of drugs in youth culture is viewed from systems approaches, clinical treatment and juvenile justice as part of correction mechanisms.
Juvenile justice system offers treatment for substance use offenders. Though no single treatment is prescribed on the substance use disorders several treatment options exist. The best practices models practiced to treatment of juveniles are more or less based on the group assessment and individual disorders. In that sense clinical and programmatic programs exist for such treatment.
Drug education is among the top programs employed by the juvenile justice system to treat adolescent drug offenders. This training centers on servicing the substance abuse victims with the facts and skills in relation to substance abuse. Though this is employed as an effective method by juvenile justice systems, it is basically established on the principles juvenile justice in relation to other approaches.
Besides, juvenile courts offers group counseling facilitates and linkages to substance abuse offenders. Professionals are essentially sort to undertake these endeavors in promoting correctional systems. The courts offer vocational training and recreation community services and drug and mental treatment as part of the linkages to the juvenile correction and treatment system.
In aid of this treatment several clinical and programmatic are undertaken. However, juvenile correction experiences several issues in execution of these programs. In that sense several rate of substance offenders poses a large need for treatment than the facility could handle. In addition, as Kelly et al (2013) notes screening methods in most of juvenile facilities needs improvement to facilitate faster uptakes of youths into community based programs.
Besides the issues outlined above several factors contribute to involvement and engagement of hard to reach adolescents. Counselors need to examine and connect the feelings of youths under the influence of substance abuse to wind out the victimization. In addition, use of evidence based approaches like family therapy and applying multisystem therapy is crucial in development of the involvement. Moreover, providing cognitive behavior restructuring is essential tool (Kelly et al 2013)
The drugs role in youth culture is multifaceted in several scenarios. This involves the activities of justice systems that offer linkages to adolescent treatments. In addition, counseling facilities and family programs are effective correction treatments as well. However, several issues arise to the juvenile clinical and Program activities, family therapy and evidence based approaches are essential factors in dealing with hard to get youths.
Kelly, B. C., Wells, B. E., LeClair, A., Tracy, D., Parsons, J. T., & Golub, S. A. (2013). Prescription drug misuse among young adults: Looking across youth cultures. Drug & Alcohol Review, 32(3), 288-294.
Adult Attachment and Vocational Development (2)
Vocational development is an important part of adult life as it determines an individual’s overall life earnings, marital stability and career growth. Many psychologists who have seen the adverse effects of vocational development that poor adult relationships can take have studied the relationship between adult attachment and vocational development. The case study selected is from chapter 12 page 413 and will look at the role of attachment, the different types of attachment people demand, and how poor adult attachment can hinder vocational development. Tayib is the son immigrant Indians and is trying to settle down with his girlfriend but commitments to work continue to impede his development of a healthy relationship at home and his wife complains about his lack of dedication to her. Tayib feels that he is under pressure to excel as he comes from an academically successful family and as shown below could be facing vocational development issues due to his own lack of proper adult attachment.
The Primary Issues
One of the critical issues is that Tayib must find a way to deal with is to develop his career and make it grow as he sees fit. There are many aspects to career growth with the financial rewards being only one of the important aspects. As an individual Tayib must ensure that the job he selects for himself is beneficial extrinsically, as it satisfies his desires for rewards such as a higher pay and rank in the office as well as intrinsic desires such as job independence, selection of assignments that he actually enjoys and the approval of his peers. The rewards of career development are an important part of the growth of an adult, and failure to realize them particularly in young adults leads to many developmental problems in the future (Duffy & Sedlacek, 2007).
The other issue Tayib faces is the development of a proper adult attachment relationship between him and his spouse as well as his adopted son. Adult attachment is still of important to a young adults as these relationships are supposed to assist individuals when they face any dangers, vulnerability or sickness, so Tayib must communicate with his girlfriend (Sarah, 2010). Older adult attachments also assist a young adult to cope in his/her new work environment by offering advice and providing assistance if called upon. another issue concerns Tayib having a proper adult attachment with his son, as the adult attachments formed during an individual’s development age affect vocational development when one becomes a young. The relationships formed at that age are used as measures of how successfully an individual has transitioned into an adult and it is therefore important for Tayib to ensure that his son has a proper adult attachment with him.
One of the main challenges is the development of his career because of the lack of acknowledgement for his contribution in the company. An appraisal is important in career development as it gives room for an individual to know exactly where he/she stands in the company, as it controls an individual from overestimating his/her own capabilities. It also enables one to make changes in practices according to the desires of the employer. The lack of an appraisal means that Tayib lacks an opportunity to defend his work at the company and therefore show how much his input actually is, which could be the reason he was overlooked for a promotion (Shubhangi, Shalini, Priyanka&Pratibha, 2012). As an individual from an academically successful family, there is a lot of expectation to achieve success in formal employment. Therefore, unlike other employees, when he does not receive recognition there is the risk of being viewed as a failure in his family.
The challenge of vocational development can lead to a lack of focus on adult attachment as the individual redirects all his/her focus into vocational development both as a coping mechanism for his inadequacies as a parent and to fulfill the high expectations of corporate success that have been placed on themselves. The challenge of maintaining a proper balance between work and personal life is sometimes unattainable by young adults who have yet to adjust to the demands of adult life. This would be especially true in the case of Tayib as he had not planned to be a father but instead inherited the responsibility of raising a child when he got into a relationship with Rachel.
Identification of Possible Theory- or Research-Based Alternatives for Why the Presenting Challenge Has Occurred
The challenges Tayib faces could have occurred due to several reasons including his lack of self – confidence to study for a law degree in campus instead opting for the safer option of first becoming a paralegal. His inability to believe that he could do it in spite of coming from an academically successful family does warrant further analysis as it severely impedes his vocational development and could point to a problem in his adult attachment more so during his developmental years. The lack of proper adult – attachment during developmental years can lead to materialism which he demonstrates in declining to meet his girlfriend’s parents and this could be the actual source of his unhappiness (Burroughs & Rindfleisch, 1997).
The relationship between poor adult attachment during an individual’s developmental years and their future vocational development has been shown more than once and it could be a likely source of problems in this case given that Tayib grew up without his extended family for support. The experience one has with their primary caregivers is crucial for the development of one’s own sense of beliefs and their views and expectations from the world. It is therefore possible that Tayib was raised to see his own role in a family as provider of material goods and not value establishment of strong relationships with extended family as much as others; hence, leading to others viewing him as uncaring or materialistic (Waters, Weinfield & Hamilton, 2000). There is also a relationship between highly stressed individuals and experiencing negative adult attachment life events, and it is possible that the stress Tayib feels is from another source even though he attributes it to the problems in his relationship.
A Description of the Intervention Process
For an intervention to be successfully held it is first important to make Tayib acknowledge there is a problem in his life and that he cannot work it out by himself or by consulting his girlfriend and to instead accept the presence of a third party. The intervention does not necessarily require the use of long counseling sessions as it has been demonstrated that even short sessions in a working environment can have some benefit to the patients (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010). Within the intervention it is important for the third party to be able to say the areas which he/she feels could change about themselves while a model of success is used as something that he aspires to become. The model is an ideal that the individual, Tayib, aspires to become like, which he can reflect on the areas he needs to change. Social persuasion from his wife and his parents would also improve his willingness to participate in the program. Attempts should be made to reduce the environmental factors that are adding to the stress (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010).
Adult attachment and vocational development are crucial for the healthy progress of an adult. The issues from the above case study include the inability of Tayib to develop his career as he desires and to have proper adult attachment with his son, leading to conflicts with his girlfriend and disagreements with his family who feel his is not progressing fast enough. The source of these problems cannot be strictly environmental as Tayib’s lack of self-confidence to get a law degree could point out to his own adult attachment problems that are now hindering his vocational growth. An intervention could be staged and with the help of his immediate family and as time progresses he could make the transition into a mature adult.
Broderick, P., &Blewitt, P., (2010). The life span: Human development for helping professionals. New Jersey: Pearson.
Burroughs, J.,& Rindfleisch, A.,(1997). Materialism as a coping mechanism: An inquiry into family disruption. Advances in consumer research, 24, 89 – 97.
Duffy, R., & Sedlacek, W., (2007).What is most important to students’ long-term career choices: Analyzing10-year trends and group differences. Journal of Career Development, 34 (2), 149-163.
Sarah, I. (2010). Adult Attachment Patterns and Individual Psychotherapy: A Review. Journal of American Psychiatry, 8 (1), 968-984.
Shubhangi, S., Shalini, S.,Priyanka, S.,&Pratibha, S., (2012).Performance appraisal and career development.International Journal of Business and Management Research, 2, (1) 8-16.
Waters, E.,Weinfield, N.,& Hamilton, C., (2000).The Stability of Attachment Security from Infancy to Adolescenceand Early Adulthood: General Discussion. Child development,71, (3) 703-706.
Bosnia American Refugees
Scholars estimate that about 1.4 million Bosnians live as refugees in various countries across the globe. According to Searight (2003), nearly 300,000 Bosnians were forced to immigrate into the United States in the 1990s alone as war refugees due to the Balkan war. These immigrations occurred under varying circumstances in the history of the country, but are mainly tied to issues of war. While there are various issues that scholars can occupy their minds with, the issues of Bosnian Diaspora have remained relevant, and it have over the years caught the attention of academicians from such diverse fields as economics, anthropology, psychology, and sociology (for example, Dimiova & Wolff, 2009; Valenta & Ramet, 2011; Coughlan & Owens-Manley, 2006). The focus of the present article is on the Bosnian Americans. In this case, the history of the migration of Bosnians and the reasons behind these migrations shall be examined. Counties and states where Bosnians immigrants and their descendants are predominant will also be examined. Attention shall also be given to their cultural values, the ratio of Bosnian men to Bosnian women, and how these immigrants compare to other races in the population. Finally, counseling technologies that need to be adopted when working with Bosnian American refugees shall be examined.
The first half of the nineteenth century witnessed the first group of Bosnia immigrants into the United States. These immigrants possessed low-skills and were mainly fishermen and sailors. They thus settled in New Orleans, San Francisco, and Texas (Kisslinger, 1990) where they found jobs. The Serbian/Croatian immigrants came into the United States in six waves, with the first wave of immigration having occurred between 1820 and 1880. Between 1880 and 1914, the largest wave of Serbian immigrants too place, in which nearly 100,000 Serbs came into the United States. Majority of these immigrants came as unskilled laborers and were mainly impoverished and young peasant men. They found low-paying jobs and often worked long hours in the industrial cities of the Midwest and East where they first settled (Malcolm, 1996). The third wave of Serbian immigrants into the United States took place between 1921 and 1930, at the height of World Wars I and II. These migrants were fleeing from their country that was under a dictatorial nationalist regime.
However, between 1931 and 1941 only about 5,835 Serbians migrated to the United States. The fourth wave of Serbian immigrants consisted of war refugees and displaced people, between 1945 and 1965, at a time when the country was under the rule of the Communist Party. The mid 1960s marked the fifth major wave of Serbian immigrants involving 20,381 immigrants at a time when Tito was in power. In the next decade, the surge increased to over 30,540 immigrants (Kisslinger, 1990). Between 1981 and 1990, the United States received some 19,200 Yugoslavian immigrants. These Serbian and Croatian immigrants were mainly artists, professionals and intellectuals and they easily adapted to life in the U.S. In 1992, following a wave of political instability after Bosnia sought to gain independence from Yugoslavia, more Serbian immigrants poured into the United States. Most of them were Muslims (Clark, 1996).
As earlier noted, a spate of wars and political instability forced Bosnians to migrate to the United States. They were therefore in search of not only refuge, but somewhere to start a new life as well. In a similar way to other refuges who had also immigrated into the United States, Bosnians also endeavored to embrace the American way of life; however, they made sure that their cultural values were not diluted (Val & Iain-Walker, 2003).
For most Bosnian parents who have migrated to the United States, upholding of their cultural values is very important (Inman, Howard, Beaumont &Walker, 2007). They have thus made sure that preceding generations are taught the importance of their cultural heritage. Bosnian Americans are characterized by sound informal communication networks. Religious activities such as baptisms, funerals, and weddings are often conducted at places of worship. For many years, Bosnians have enjoyed a strong attachment to the Islamic culture, although there has also been influence from Eastern Orthodox and Catholicism.
In the United States, the highest population of Bosnian Americans is to be found in the state of Iowa. These immigrants moved here from various states, notably New York and New Orleans. Their spoken language is Bosnian. While Islam is the most dominant religion, most Bosnian Americans are characterized by secular practices. Family values and ties are very important to the Bosnians. Grown up children ensure that their elderly parents are well taken care of. Parents also teach their children at a young age on the importance of respecting the elderly.
The literacy and education levels of most Bosnians are quite high, although some of them face language barriers upon migrating to the United States. This is because they cannot communicate in English. They thus opt to enroll in educational programs taught in their native language.
Bosnians immigrants place a lot of emphasis on their native religion and culture, including male-female relationships. However, given how Bosnian refugees are dispersed across the United States (Miller, 2012), majority of the first and second-generation Bosnians are likely to find it hard to interact with other Bosnians. As such, adult Bosnian children are likely to encounter hurdles in finding suitable partners with whom they can form a relationship with, from their own culture. They could also be under pressure form their parents to uphold their cultural identity, religious practices, traditions, and customs (Miller, 2012).
Bosnian immigrants have demonstrated a willingness to take even the low-status jobs and proceed to do them with a lot of diligence. They have also demonstrated an insatiable quest for additional education and language skills. Majority of them find such jobs as factory workers, bakers, and hotel housekeepers, among other forms of service workers in their communities. It has also been pointed earlier that some of the Bosnian immigrants came here already having qualified in various professionals, such as doctors, nurses, and teachers (Valenta & Ramet, 2011). They have proceeded to seek job vacancies in their respective areas of qualifications. However, majority of the Bosnian American refugees cannot pursue their former occupations here, as they are unable to communicate in English. In addition, Bosnian American lawyers, doctors, as well as other professionals have to make do with low rates per hour as they attend English lessons so that they can apply for licenses to practice in their professions.
Counseling techniques for Bosnian Americans
Most Bosnian Americans are normally categorized as refugees and as such quality for several special states and federal benefits in the business, human service and health sectors. Even as most of them are capable of accessing health care, including counseling services, only a limited number of health organizations in the United States that offer counseling services have among their staffs Bosnian translators who have received the necessary training on working with refugees (Center for Health Disparities, n.d.). Considering that they are categorized as war refugees, counselors attending to them should be wary of the fact that majority of the Bosnian have had to ensure a lot of difficulties before they arrived in the United States.
Many lost livelihoods, homes and loved ones who perished in war. Others were deeply traumatized by war injuries, group rape, ethnic cleansing, torture, and other forms of human rights abuses. Accordingly, majority of the Bosnian Americans are likely to present with such significant mental health challenges as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. For this reason, counselors should be prepared to deal with high rates of such conditions among Bosnian refugees, relative to the other immigrants (Center for Health Disparities, n.d.). However, considering that the Bosnian culture attach negative stigma to mental illnesses, majority of them are unwilling to discuss these issues with their counselors. Counselors and clinicians should thus desist from pushing such trauma victims to share their experiences and feelings, until the victim is ready. Instead, they should endeavor to offer ample, supportive, and gentle opportunities for the victims to do so.
In sum, the Bosnian Americans who have over the decades migrated to the United States as refugees did so to escape from wars and in search of a place to restart their lives. Most of the Bosnian refugees came here, as low-skilled workers but there have also been professionals like doctors, lawyers, nurses, and teachers. Bosnian Americans have demonstrated a strong attachment to their socio-cultural values. In dealing with Bosnia Americans, counselors should consider that they are likely to present with various forms of mental disorders triggered by war traumas and injuries. As such, counselors should provide a supportive and accommodative platform whose goal is to deal with the challenges facing these immigrants. More importantly, the platform should enable Bosnian Americans to express themselves devoid of any coercion.
Clark, A. (1996). L. Bosnia: What Every American Should Know. New York: Berkley Books.
Center for Health Disparities (n.d.). Bosnians and other refugees from the former Yugoslavia.
Coughlan, R., & Owens-Manley, J. (2006). Bosnian Refugees in America: New Communities,
New Cultures. New York: Springer.
Dimova, R., & Wolff, F.C. (2009). Remittances and Chain Migration: Longitudinal Evidence
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in Australia. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 13(5), 337-360.
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