Effects of Legalization of Marijuana
Drug abuse is a common problem in many countries through out the world. Drugs refer to substances that affect the functioning of the body for medicinal, recreational, intoxication or performance enhancement purposes. Some drugs are legal for consumption while others are still prohibited and illegal to sell and consume in many countries (Gerber 21). Marijuana is one of the illegal drugs traded in many countries. Marijuana is a psychoactive drug made from the floral parts and dried out leaves of the cannabis plant. Although, the drug is illegal in the United States of America, it is the third most consumed drug after alcohol and caffeine. The legalization of marijuana is still being debated globally. In America, use of marijuana has been legitimized in Washington and Colorado.
Marijuana consumption leads to several negative health problems affecting the human body. The immediate reaction is a high or hyperactive and energetic mood to the consumer. However, the long-term consequences on the body functions are negative. It may cause loss of memory, heart attacks, kidney failure, cancer, and addiction when consumed for a long period of time (Clement, Kenneth and Xueyan 33). In the United States, there are debates on whether legalization of marijuana would increase or decrease the consumption of alcohol and other drugs. According to the Office of drug control policy in Washington, Marijuana legalization will increase the rate of consumption of marijuana and other drugs among the youth. This is because alcohol and marijuana are said to be complimentary drugs and no single drug can be consumed alone. A drug abuser tends to abuse more than one drug simultaneously. Thus, legalization of marijuana will lower the cost of trade of drugs despite the high taxes imposed on drugs. Thus, despite the United States running the campaigns of a drug free world, marijuana legalization would increase drug consumption and this may result to increase in deviant behavior and crime rate.
Although it has been proven that alcohol has more adverse side effects than marijuana, alcohol consumption remains legal while marijuana consumption is illegal. The common reason cited for this is if marijuana becomes legal, anyone can grow it and its consumption will be wide spread throughout the world. In addition, major religious beliefs prohibit consumption of drugs. Another school of thought argues that: alcohol consumption is legal because it fetches a lot of tax income for the government. Thus, even though marijuana is a natural plant and alcohol is chemically processed, marijuana legalization will not fetch much tax for the government because it will be readily available to many people (Clement, Kenneth and Xueyan 56).
Many alcohol consumers ignore the fact that they are drug abusers because it is legal in many countries. However, it is proven that alcohol consumption is harmful to one’s health and it should be emphasized that consumption of drugs of all forms should be discouraged at all costs. This is because in addition to health related problems, drug abuse also leads to increase in crime rate as it promotes deviant behavior (Gerber 71). Drug abuse also leads to dysfunctional cognitive processes of the brain leading to road accidents, violence, and even death. Thus, is correct to say abusers of legal drugs are hypocritical to say they do not use drugs. In conclusion, reality proves that consumption of alcohol, nicotine and caffeine are also drug abuse. Whoever takes these drugs risks experiencing severe health complications in the long run.
Gerber, Rudolph J. Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2004. Print.
Clements, Kenneth W, and Xueyan Zhao. Economics and Marijuana: Consumption, Pricing and Legalizations. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Print
Literature on Finance
Finance is a multi faceted field that encompasses several different stages, development, and applications. It is concerned with the management of the flow of money through savings, investments, and use. Financial practitioners require a higher level of thinking since the financial decisions being made require advanced theoretical knowledge in finance, leadership, and ethics. There are different terminologies and knowledge that is used by researchers and knowledge practitioners in financial management and modeling to form decisions. This knowledge base required for certain financial decisions is dependent on one’s position within an organization, magnitude of the financial decision, and one’s knowledge level. Financial literacy is therefore, a key factor in financial decision-making and there is a pool of resources that is dedicated to this which will be partially highlighted within the research.
Literature on Finance
Description and Familiarity
The field of finance is broad based and is anchored on numerous institutions, resources, knowledge, economics, and technologies, among others. In nonprofessional terms, finance is concerned with the handling of money for personal, public, or corporate institutions with the aim of spending, investing, saving or managing the money. There are numerous applications for finance in the business world, as well as other well established institutions since today’s world is marred with the notion that money is the key to achieving success in a majority of agendas, ideologies, and projects. Consequently, finance seems to play a vital role in the execution of different activities affecting our daily lives due to its penetration into major daily chores, tasks, responsibilities, and duties (Martin, 2007).
Knowledge in Finance
Finance is concerned with the allocation of assets and liabilities under environments of assurance and ambiguity. The major sections of finance that researchers and practitioners use to understand finance; public finance, corporate finance, insurance, credit management, stocks and bonds, real estate, investment and securities, taxation, valuation, actuary, equities, banking, financial mathematics, and personal finance. These major sections guide researchers and practitioners when analyzing and understanding the field of finance. The intricate terms that these people utilize in analyzing and understanding finance are; interest rates, inflation, monetary policies, capital investment, trade, forex, among others.
The SPL Model
Finance can be analyzed using several levels by considering its influence on people and institutions, as well as its development, understanding, learning, and use. The context in which finance is used is also important in analyzing and understanding its use and applications. Three levels of analysis of finance will be used, which are; education stage, practice stage, and the leadership or management stage. Each of these stages has different contexts through which finance can be used and analyzed depending on its applicable forms. It is also vital to show the financial literacy that each stage uses since it shows the level of penetration and applicability of finance on a particular situation. These stages are mainly based on the Scholar, practitioner, leadership (SPL) model that acts as a means for forming intricate and elaborate structures that can then be solely used to show one’s scope of knowledge on the field of finance.
The scholar stage of the analysis is involved with the integration and disbursement of knowledge to potential students or people willing to perform some financial activities. The latter is involved with personal banking where an individual has to learn the basics of financing so as to manage, invest, save, and use his/her money to achieve a certain predefined objective. For instance, for the acquisition of a mortgage, an individual has to learn how to manage their accounts, make savings and investments to raise funds for loan repayment and servicing, and learn the basics of having a loan portfolio (Mandell and Klein, 2009). This is mainly involved with personal banking or financing that seeks to instill an individual with knowledge necessary in their formulation of a financial model for their accounts.
Aside from personal financing, a second branch of the scholar stage is the acquisition of knowledge by the students who will learn and broaden their financial education. This stage is important since it serves as the pivot used to bridge the gap between basic financial knowledge and articulate financial knowledge. It also represents the stage where a student learns to manipulate financial decisions to suit their predefined objective while adhering to well-defined codes of ethics and standards that guide financial freedom and management. This knowledge acquisition can be at the diploma, certificate, bachelors, masters, or PHD levels. Each of these represents a certain heightened level or degree of financial prowess since it defines one’s knowledge database that relates to different financial modeling. For instance, a Certified Financial Analyst (CFA) is knowledgeable in some financial manipulations, with the exception that this knowledge is limited and requires additional certifications or higher-level education. This higher-level education such as a bachelor’s degree in business administration, or a master in business administration (MBA) could be useful and more marketable in the financial sector (Schuchardt, Hanna, Hira, Lyons, Palmer, and Xiao, 2009). Additionally, the education would take longer and have more content that is relevant to the financial field.
The scholar is considered as the beginner and not only acquires knowledge in financial modeling, but also theoretical knowledge on ethical principles that would govern their professionalism within the financial field. Such ethics are useful in ensuring that an individual acts in a manner that is responsible and is representative of their higher order level of thinking that forms an absolutionist view (Kuhn, 2012). This form of thought process is well informed and develops over time from merely a theoretical perspective to a generalist perspective where thoughts are seamlessly converted into action that are streamlined to the ethical standards and principles learned in school. This scholar stage is not limited to knowledge acquisition at schools or colleges, but could also involve learning within the work place environment, such as skill acquisition and experience.
According to the SPL model, the practitioner stage is the most important since it acts as an avenue for the individual to apply his knowledge and skills to form sound financial implications and manipulations. Depending on one’s knowledge and training, the individual is able to participate in the decision making process of an institution regarding various financial decisions. For instance, these educational qualifications can be classified according to one’s abilities to perform accounting, business, or quantitative finance decisions. These are some of the sectors that are constituted within the finance field, and represent a smaller and general portion of a much larger field.
Application of the SPL Model
Financial investment is one of the basic fields that are vital for enhancement of concrete financial decisions that affect an organization or individual. It is a field that requires an intricate understanding of the money or equities markets, which involves manipulation of stocks, treasury bills, bonds, capital markets, and forex exchange. This field requires the investment financial analyst to understand such parameters as interest rates, monetary policies, currency exchange rates, stock market portfolios, among many other parameters (Martin, 2007). Consequently, the complicated nature of this field requires individuals with a higher-level of education, employing a higher level of thinking to achieve the desired results (Johnson & Duberley, 2000). The clientele for such a field is enormous and could include organizations, individuals, governments, corporate companies, among others.
Gap in the Literature
An analysis of such a field shows that financial modeling is a crucial method that is widely used in the execution of various financial decisions within a business or organization. Additionally, contrary to popular belief, it is clear that financial decision-making does not only include the creation of mathematical models that assesses the flow and management of money (International Federation of Accountants, 2011). These mathematical models represent the larger portion that constitutes financial modeling since the final decision needs to have considered how the money will manage to suit the needs of the various parties.
For instance, mortgages require the financial analyst to consider such factors as interest rates, client’s credit worthiness, the bank’s loan portfolio, and mechanisms for management of funds, among others. Therefore, from this analogy, the financial analyst has to make a mathematical model of the loan portfolio, followed by an understanding of other pertinent factors that determine one’s need for credit disbursement, and the bank’s financial capabilities (Simson, Sharma and Aziz, 2011, Shiavo-Campo, and Garrity, 2004). This means that the decisions making capability of the financial analyst have to be based on their mathematical prowess, as well as their ability to understand ethical standards, management, and leadership skills.
The ethical standards that need to be applied have to be considerate of the needs of the bank or financial institutions, and the needs of the customer or individual. This is because in some instances, the individual or customer may require financial assistance in form of loans or mortgages, but he/she cannot be able to pay the services. In this instance, the financial analyst has to balance their moral conviction to assist the individual or customer, with those of their employer whose main aim is make a profit from their financial dealings. Therefore, this could result in one having to completely ignore their ethical principles and instead replace them with their professional and work place ethics (Bernstein, 1983).
The employment of one’s professional and work place ethics is a crucial factor in the determination of a financial analyst leadership and management capabilities. This is because it is their duty to cater primarily to the needs of the employer and professionalism, before these of their customers. In this instance, it could seem selfish and inconsiderate for one to consider their interests, rather than those of their customers (Lowe, 2012). However, one core rule that has guided the financial field is that money has no emotions, and is only a tool used to increase the value of a person or individual’s net worth. A contravention of this analogy means that the finance would become obsolete and lack meaning. It would result in anarchy in the world since finance is deeply ingrained into the fabric of management of the world’s resources, citizens, organizations, activities, culture, and economics.
Therefore, one of the primary responsibilities of a financial analyst is to adhere to professional and work place ethics. Management of these principles requires one to forego their moral and cultural convictions and instead focus on developing strategies to combat having to make difficult decisions that affect people and organizations both positively and negatively. Additionally, these decisions have to be structured in a manner that conforms to their educational and professional experience in the finance, management, and leadership skills. Addressing these pertinent is a crucial factor in the development of effective and competent financial analysts.
It is vital that management and leadership skills be applied in the execution of financial decisions. This is because finance is primarily concerned with management of large portfolios of money that belong to outside individuals and corporations. In a business environment, the finance officer has to balance the disbursement of money to various departments in a manner that ensures fairness and effective utilization of resources. This requires a heightened level of financial literacy, as well as concrete knowledge in the management of decisions within the company.
Balancing the needs of the organization to ensure effective disbursement of funds to all the useful and operational departments serves as one of the primary techniques used by financial analysts to enhance professionalism in their work. However, the misconception by most people is that the ability to control financial capabilities for companies, governments, or individuals brings with it immense power is wrong. This is because there are rules and regulations that guide people on how the financial decisions should be structured to enhance the quality of the expected outcome (Collins, 2001).
Contravention of these rules and regulations is considered as a form of incompetence and could result in the financial officer being fired from their jobs, or depending on the severity of their impropriety, it could result in criminal charges being leveled against the individual or institution. For instance, cases of financial mismanagement have marred our financial histories in different parts of the world. In the US, such cases as ENRON are attributed to financial mismanagement and have resulted in the companies having to pay large sums of money to cater to the victims, and the financial management team of the company being held accountable for the financial impropriety. This has resulted in criminal charges and convictions of these financial managers, and their assets being frozen and confiscated as a means to catering to the hefty fines and victim compensation as per the court rulings.
According to Bernstein, it is impractical for a research, especially in the social sciences to have a concrete and objective result (1983). Therefore, he believes that research in social science should have checks and balances that can be criticized and analyzed more intricately. Consequently, this research on financial knowledge and management is not absolute and requires more data and analysis to improve its quality, credibility, and viability for professional and academic qualifications. Therefore, for the achievement of this outcome, critical analysis of different information is insufficient and instead more knowledge should be derived by analyzing gaps in the existing literature and formulating concrete solutions. Bernstein considers this process as vital since research in the social science encompasses a wide scope of knowledge and understanding, unlike in science where the results are finite and concrete. Subjectivity should be avoided improving on current literature.
For instance, critics of leadership and ethics believe that is not plausible for people to have control of vast resources of finance. This is because it leads powerful decisions been made that affect a large of people both positively and negatively. Primarily, investment and banking institutions hold vast financial resources that belong to individuals and corporations that depend on the funds to generate growth and sustain their daily operations and tasks. Therefore, these critics believe that there are insufficient laws that guide how these financial institutions should conduct their activities (Prawitz, Garman, Sorhaindo, O’Neill, Kim and Drentea, 2006). This would ensure that there are ways of monitoring their activities, as well as checks and balances to determine their ability to securely manage and safeguard the financial resources. This is an objective, rather than subjective view of finance and draws upon existing knowledge to identify gaps in the literature and ways of improving on them (Bernstein, 1983).
This analogy is echoed by the numerous cases of financial institutions becoming bankrupt resulting in people and organizations loosing vast amounts of money due to the financial ineptness of the financial institutions. The laws currently being utilized to control and monitor these financial institutions are considered insufficient to the adequate utilization of resources and management practices for enhancing the quality of services offered (Falahati and Laily, 2011). For instance, banking and other financial institutions are responsible for the provision of capital and funds to cater to the development agenda of individuals and organizations. The interest rates being charged by these financial institutions are considered as being hefty and unaffordable to the loan applicants, while the savings interest rates are minimal. Therefore, this means that these financial institutions are unfairly treating their customers and operating with the primary aim of making profits at their customer’s expense.
Majority of the literature on financial literacy and financial knowledge management is very intricate and well articulated. They address all the pertinent fields of finance, their operational frameworks, and how they positively or negatively the quality of life and service delivery of the financial institutions to their dependants. However, there is very little research on the link between finance and leadership and ethics in the financial field. The limited amount of research material in this field means that the quality of data that is accessible is detailed, but could have a larger and more accurate meaning if more research is conducted. The body of literature covering the understanding of finance is overwhelming and thus caution has to be used when analyzing information to avoid one generating a large volume of data that is related to one primary outcome. Therefore, the field of finance is an interesting research whose wide scope should be adequately researched to get a better understanding of its intrigues.
Bernstein, R. (1983). Beyond objectivism and relativism: Science, hermeneutics, and praxis. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Collins, J. (2001). Good to great: Why some companies make the leap…and others don’t. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.
Falahati, L. and Laily, H. P. (2011). Toward a framework of determinants of financial management and financial problems among university students. Journal of Business Management 5 (22): 9600-9606
International Federation of Accountants. (2011). 2011 Handbook of International Public Sector Accounting Pronouncements. New York: International Federation of Accountants.
Johnson, P., & Duberley, J. (2000). Understanding management research: An introduction to epistemology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Kuhn, T. S. (2012). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Lowe, J. (2012). Developing a new evaluation tool for measuring financial capability in terms of behavioral traits. London, United Kingdom: The Open University.
Mandell, L. & Klein, L. S. (2009). The Impact of Financial Literacy Education on Subsequent Financial Behavior. Journal of Financial Counseling and Planning, 20(1), 15-23.Retrieved from http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCcQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.afcpe.org%2Fassets%2Fpdf%2Flewis_mandell_linda_schmid_klein.pdf&ei=oE0qU_7_BamO0AXNi4DwCg&usg=AFQjCNG9MXUNIWj3lpsWJQfinJuSMuJz_w&sig2=CK9YoSwoQvIQU0jyP5vvmw&cad=rjt
Martin, M. (2007). A literature review on the effectiveness of financial education. Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond. Working paper no. 07-03.
Prawitz, A. D., Garman, T. E., Sorhaindo, B., O’Neill, B., Kim, J. & Drentea, P. (2006). The In charge Financial Distress/Financial Well-Being Scale: Development, Administration and Score Interpretation. Journal of Financial Counseling and Planning, 17(1), 17.
Schuchardt, J., Hanna, S. D., Hira, T. K., Lyons, A. C., Palmer, L.& Xiao, J. J. (2009). Financial Literacy and Education Research Priorities. Journal of Financial Counseling and Planning 20 (1), 84-95.
Simson, R., Sharma, N. and Aziz, I. (2011). A guide to public financial management literature: for practitioners in developing countries. Overseas development institute. London, UK.
Mobile Phones on Airplanes
Mobile phones and related wireless technology has become an integral part of day-to-day human lives. This is because of their effectiveness of exchanging information and they enable the users to remain connected with their families, friends and work associates in spite of the different geographical locations. The widespread use of mobile phones and other electronic devices to transfer data and information has made human beings use them continuously. However, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) provides regulations for mobile phones in airplanes citing their probability of interfering with the aircraft electronic system (FAA circular, 2006). In light of this, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) prohibits passengers from using their cell phones while on board to minimize the chance of any peril. As a result, the issue has raised a lot of debates, even in the senate, on whether passengers should be allowed to use electronic devices while on board since communication is very essential and communication barriers causes numerous adverse effects. The hypothesis of this paper is that the use of mobile phones while travelling by air is prone to safety issues and may interfere with the aircraft’s electronic system. Therefore, this paper explores this issue reviewing some of the case studies regarding the use of mobile phones on airplanes.
Case study review
Walen, Chitwood and Shaver (2012) conducted a study on the use of cell phones on passenger aircraft and the resultant effects. According to the FAA, some aircrafts are equipped with an on-board cellular telephone base station, which allows the passengers to interact with their phones (FAA circular, 2006). However, this base station has to be licensed by national telecommunications authority and it is regulated to national boundaries. Therefore, Walen et al. (2012) conducted their research on an aircraft with a cellular base station and one without. Surprisingly, after reviewing the comments sheet only few passengers who approved the use of mobile phones saying that they had businesses that required a constant flow of information. Those who are against the idea said that they needed to relax away from their busy schedule while on board; hence, mobile phones were unnecessary. In addition, they argued that passengers who made calls on board usually made a lot of noise interfering with other people comfort. On safety matters, the study found out that no country had confirmed reports about cell phone negative impacts on flight safety. Interestingly, the French airplane association found out that only ten percent turn off their phones, even when the cellular base station was malfunctioned and nothing occurred. On the contrary, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) warns passengers against ignoring the warnings that require them to switch off their phones as it could cause a plane crash. According to Walen et al, the United States of America has not licensed flight operators to install on-board cellular base station to avoid such risks.
The aggressive argument arises on whether it is advisable to allow the use of electronic devices on passenger aircraft has presented difficult approaches. Many people argue that safety restrictions should be upheld while others differ citing that the safety risk has not been confirmed. The world is at a stage that everything is running on technology and any alteration causes people to incur losses. For instance, Wharton (2009) states that a business owner who is on a long cross country flight can miss an important deal because he or she cannot access any information. Similarly, an emergency can occur back at home and he is in a possibility to offer a solution but he cannot due to communication barriers. Another example of the usefulness of using mobile phones on an airplane is the mysterious loss of Malaysian plane MH370. According to the airline industry professionals, if the passengers used their phones while on-board some important information could have been retrieved. In support of allowing mobile phone usage in aircrafts, Senator Markey Edward requested the FCC to consider allowing passengers to access their messages and emails while on board (“Markey urges caution”, 2013). With the new technology in place, the commission can invent ways of allowing airplane passengers to interact with their electronic devices. However, the FCC position remains unmoved as it does not consider compromising the security of passengers on an issue that can be avoided. Human safety is a priority that should not be taken for granted and measures taken to protect an individual’s life should be observed with utmost respect (Bates, 2011). Consequently, cabin crews expressed concerns about health related issues associated with phone calls in the airplane (Walen et al., 2012). Based on the study by Walen, cabin crews were not happy with the behavior of passengers using mobile phones while on board citing that they usually interfered with their work.
The following are possible solutions that can be implemented to tackle the issue of operating mobile phones while on airplanes.
- The authorities can ban completely the use of mobile phones by passengers while on-board
- Inventing new technology that allows users to only receive texts and emails to avoid distracting the cabin crew
- Secluding one point in the plane that should be installed with cellular telephone base station. Since human beings have become independent on using mobile devices, using them in an airplane is inevitable.
Therefore, the best solution for flight connectivity is to focus on devising a system that will allow communication with mobile gadgets without interfering with the plane’s electronic system and without distracting others. This way, the system will allow continuous information reliance without posing a risk to the passenger. In conclusion, there are a few incidences that IATA has linked plane crash with the use of mobile phone; hence it is important to protect both the passenger’s safety and their right to information.
Bates, D. (10, June 2011). How just one mobile phone can make a plane crash. Daily mail.
FAA Advisory Circular 91.21-1B. (2006). Use of Portable Electronic Devices. Aboard Aircraft.
Markey urges caution, consultation on phone calls on airplanes. (2013). Lanham: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1461716700?accountid=1611
Walen, D., Chitwood, R. & Shaver, D. (2012). Study on the use of cell phones on passenger aircraft. Retrieved from: http://files.ctia.org/pdf/AIR_CellPhoneStudy__2_.pdf
Wharton, T. (2009, Dec 21). Should cell phones be allowed on airplanes?The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/280605415?accountid=1611
Deductive and Inductive
Deductive argument is a way of reasoning in which the conclusion is in accordance with the principles of logic, perhaps as a person or in mind from the given statements to support the argument also known as a premise. The deductive argument can be sound/valid or invalid/ unsound. A deductive argument is belived to be sound if the statements brought in an argument are true. However, if the statements being used to support an argument are false, the argument is unsound. It is still possible that a deductive argument has true premises or statements, but the argument is invalid (deLaplante, 2013. An example of a valid and sound argument is ‘human beings will die at some point, Seth is a human being, meaning at some point in life he will die. This is a sound argument, since the arguer understands clearly that human beings are all subjected to death at a point in life, with this fact, the argument is sound. An example of a valid deductive argument, but unsound could be, ‘all men are subject to death, dogs are men, therefore dogs are subject to death. In this statement, the statement dogs are men is not true, making the case unsound. Deductive argument and inductive argument are usually used as a property of the intensions of the person arguing, the validity of the argument, whether valid or invalid is a property of the argument itself.
An inductive argument, is the reasoning in which the statement seeks to give strong facts for a truthful conclusion. The conclusion usually depends strongly on the quality of the individual statements used to support it regardless of the number of premises. An example of an inductive argument is, ‘John and Jack, who are guitarists feel pain in their fingers every time they play the guitar for 2 hours. Jill is a guitarist who also feels pain in her fingers when she plays the guitar for the same time frame. The guitarists, therefore feel pain in their fingers every time they play the guitar for 2 hours straight. This is a strong argument since it shows that guitarists tend to feel pain in their fingers the more they play the guitar. This is a true effect, meaning that the less time a guitarist plays a guitar, the less chances of having to feel pain in their finger. In the example of an inductive argument, all the premises support the conclusion in one way or another (deLaplante, 2013.
Compared to a deductive reasoning, the final result in the inductive argument does not necessarily come along with the statements. The conclusion of this kind of argument is determined in terms of probability of happening or otherwise. In a deductive reasoning, the arguer is supposed to give an assurance of the fact of the conclusion by ensuring that the statement provided are true. Meaning that if the premises used to support a deductive argument are true, the chances of the conclusion to be false are less. The Inductive argument usually requires the arguer to increase the chances of its conclusion. The statements are meant to be strong, and if they are true, the conclusion is therefore unlikely to be false (deLaplante, 2013). The difference linking the deductive arguments and the inductive arguments is from the relationship the arguer takes to relate the judgement from the premises provided. The reliability of the conclusion is usually decided by truth of the premises (deLaplante, 2013).
deLaplante, K. (Jan 29, 2013). What is a Deductive Argument? Deduction and Valid Arguments. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oGNnzfsfUAs
deLaplante, K. (Feb 1, 2013). What is an Inductive Argument? Induction and Strong Arguments. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=affFHkV4kNo
Gossip in the Workplace
Gossip is normally an informal way of communication experienced in every situation in the workplace. According to Hallett, Brent, and Donna (27), gossip is often groundless and sensational talk about others. In addition, this language causes harm and confusion to others. It pains others when used in their absence. Mostly, it is all about other people. Subconscious or conscious, passive or active, everybody at some point finds himself or herself gossiping. Indeed, people read gossip in magazines and newspapers; engage in gossip during their professional as well as their private lives, and watch news that has gossip. Nevertheless, gossiping affects the way work is done in the society. Indeed, in the work environment, gossip can be an influential facet. The current paper will focus on gossip in the work environment.
Apparently, all organizations have heightened sensitivity on gossip and have a different view of the phenomenon. Indeed, organizational managements have realized that gossip when manifested to its worst can be tantamount to workplace violence. In fact, in a bid to react to the latter, some organizations go an extra mile to create formal policies that hinder gossip in the workplace. However, the drawback is getting at the grassroots of the issue. The issue that arises is why people in the workplace gossip or why they are involved in idle talk about people.
According to Hallett, Brent, and Donna (34), gossip is power. They argue that if someone shared negative information of another person to another individual, there is a high likelihood that they will spread negative talk about the other person to others. Therefore, the gossiper’s coercive power is increased by the latter belief. Conversely, if an individual shares positive information about an individual to another person, then the same person can share positive information about that particular person to others. The latter belief increases the reward power of the gossiper. Similarly, if someone appears to have particular knowledge concerning others in the work place or the organization, the latter raises their expert power. Nevertheless, there is what is referred to as referent power. In a case whereby the co-workers perceive themselves as part of inner part of the organization simply because information has been shared to them, the gossiper is most likely to gain reputation and power.
According to Hallett, Brent, and Donna (38), gossiping has a boomerang effect. They argue that at times referent power backfires. Indeed, they contend that gossip that is mean-spirited, harmful and spiteful has a boomerang effect. The latter type of gossip leads to negative reputation in the organization. Nonetheless, the gossip is more serious and may make other workers refute an employee who has the behaviour of gossiping about others. It makes them cautious and may even limit one’s career as well.
The question that may arise is if gossip is about power, then why do gossipers seek the power? Hallett, Brent, and Donna (37) assert that underneath the gossip, desire to fit in or self-actualize and low self-esteem are mostly the main reason why workers resort to idle gossips. They argue that people who gossip do so simply because they cannot be authentic or original in life. Indeed, they use gossiping as a defence mechanism and put the focus on other people rather than themselves to evade disclosing their own emotions and feelings or being vulnerable. In other words, they fear revealing their own self. To them putting on a mask that focuses on other individuals is better rather than revealing themselves, which would be threatening and frightening.
Nevertheless, gossip in the workplace is a habit that can be done away with. According to Daher, Michael, and Vincent (47), the best way of eliminating the habit of gossiping in an individual is coaching one how to avoid destructive, negative, or harmful gossiping. If one has genuine commitment of ending the gossip habit, he or she can be assisted by self-coaching. Despite one having self-esteem issues, it is possible for one to emerge from the behaviour of gossiping. Daher, Michael and Vincent (47) came up with various reflective questions that support and shift both behaviour and mind-set. They argued that one should ask themselves why they are supporting or engaging other people who gossip, what they get out of the gossip and if they would want themselves to be quoted in the TV, company newsletters or in the papers. They should query themselves whether gossiping aligns with their organizational values of honouring and respecting people. In addition, would they repeat the same words directly to the person being talked about or are they expressing their integrity, sincerity, or authenticity when they gossip?
Therefore, it should be accepted that gossip is a potential harm and a real hazard in the workplace. The best thing to do is to always choose words wisely and be intentional. The latter does not imply that employees should go around with their lips sealed completely for them to be on the safe end. They only need to make sure that the intended talk is not harmful, but it is helpful and not at the expense of anyone.
Daher, Ali, Michael G. Rabbat, and Vincent K. Lau. “Local silencing rules for randomized gossip.” (2011): Print.
Hallett, Tim, Brent Harger, and Donna Eder. “Gossip at Work: Unsanctioned Evaluative Talk in Formal School Meetings.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography (2009): n.p. Print.
1) Explain and evaluate the notions of Karma, samsara, and Nirvana.
Karma is the law that deals with cause and effects that occurs in a person’s life. It occurs as a result of a person’s action. Before a person can reach nirvana, he/she must undergo a process of birth and rebirth. The aspect of reincarnation is brought about by the notion which states that a person is what he/she was in the previous reincarnation. Samsara holds that all things are in a cycle of birth and rebirth and that a person’s existence or ego is as a result of illusion. Nirvana on the other hand is a state of eternal being, when (rebirth cycle) comes to an end. In short it can be said to be the end of suffering where there are no desires or human consciousness.
2) Explain and evaluate the Hindu ideas of Brahman, atman and reality.
Braham means the eternal soul of the universe which leads to the ultimate divine reality. It is said to be the source of life that is and that which has been exist eternally. Braham is not a person but a primary ground that harbors the reality and existence of all beings. Atman means the individual soul of every living thing. Atman is not the body but it is immortal as well as eternal.
3) Explain the Buddha’s four noble truths. Is he correct in his view?
The four noble truths according to Buddha are the dukkha, the samudaya, that arises as a result of the dukkha, the nirodha, which is the end of the dukkha and the magga, which gives the direction to end dukkha. Dukkha is the first noble truth that means suffering thus the notion of unsatisfactoriness. Dukkha can be a conditioned state, ordinary suffering or as a result of change. Despite this view, he agrees that there is happiness. The samudaya occurs as a result of dukkha and is triggered by ones desire for thirst for pleasure, existence and non existence. Nirodha is the end of dukkha, which is the liberation from suffering. The way that lead to liberation from dukkha is magga and holds the eight noble truths.
4) Explain and evaluate the “Eight Fold Path”. Is this a reasonable philosophy for life?
The eight folds path are right understanding, the right thought, the right speech, right action, right livelihood, effort, right mindfulness and the right concentration. All these folds help in promoting ethical conduct, mental discipline and wisdom amongst people. This is a reasonable way of life but it is not achievable in this mortal body since human beings are immortal, sinful and full of flaws. In actual sense, life has no path but a series of realities.
5) Explain the connection or relationship between Tao, Yin, and Yang.
Tao in its nature deals with the flow of the universe. That is, the forces that are behind the natural order that keeps the universe the way it is. It is therefore a source of existence and nonexistence of nature. The yin and yang are all concepts of duality that exists in the opposite of each other. They therefore explain the evil and good in the universe. The relationship between the three terms is that Tao can depict what yin and yang are in the universe and nothing can disturb it.
6) Explain and evaluate Lao Tzu’s notion of effortless non-striving.
Lao Tzu’s idea was that nature does not hurry and everything is in its place. In this the actions of people should not entail struggle. It also indicates that one should be like water which is naturally effortless in its action. We should not therefore disturb the natural flow of things but should let nature take its course. In this way nature creates an effective way of managing. Forcing things would only lead to less progress and therefore one should act passionately and when things are difficult, one should change course. beings should not control what they cannot control and therefore, they should be in the moment seeing the possibility.
7) Explain and evaluate Confucius’s principle of Mean
According to Confucius, the aim of mean is to maintain balance as well as harmony. In this, the person outside the mean is always cautious. In his doctrine, Confucius argued that one ought not to go to the extremes since at the extremes, one is likely to suffer. An individual must always strive to be in the middle so that the mind can be stable and calm. Therefore, if one requires food, one ought to find it or grow it. One should not get angry if there is no food but should make minimal effort to get it. This doctrine also means moderation whereby excess would lead to recklessness and deficiencies.
8) Explain and evaluate the views of Murasaki Shikibu and the role and status of women.
Murasaki is used to show how families live apart after marriage. The role of women in politics included continuing rule of a family. In this they were responsible for producing the male offspring. They are also used as objects of sex
9) Explain and evaluate the argument of St. Anselm for God’s existence.
A perfect being must exist in nature. Anselm argued that God is a being that nothing greater can be conceived. He argued that something can exist in the mind and in the reality. A being that no greater can be achieved, cannot exist in the mind alone but in the mind and reality. Therefore God must exist in the imaginary and in the reality.
10) Explain and evaluate Guanilo’s objection to the ontological argument.
Ontological argument bases its argument on the nature of things. Anselm argued that if there are two identical things, but one does not exist, then the one that exist is more perfect than the other. Therefore God exist because no grater can be conceived. Gaunilo objected by indicating that existence does not render something more perfect and therefore changes one word making the conclusion absurd. He argued that if God did exist, then a perfect island also did exist and the presence of a perfect island could be proved through logic. And therefore a perfect island could be proved through imagination thereby creating an absurdity.
11) Summarize and evaluate St. Thomas Aquinas’s Five Ways.
Thomas Aquinas five ways to prove the existence of God are the argument of motion, efficient cause, possibility and necessity, the gradation of being, and the design. In his first argument, Aquinas indicated that some things are in motion and for that to happen, somebody or something must have put these objects in motion. The first unmoved mover in this case must be God. He also argues that everything has an efficient cause and that a priori cause must be there to make the ultimate cause. Therefore the first efficient cause must be God to cause subsequent cause. The same case applies to the existence of things that there must have been the first object or person to exist in order to make other people or object appear. In design, everything can be seen as in a certain design, for the design to exist, there must be a master designer who in this case must be God.
12) Leibniz claims that this is the “best of all possible worlds”. A) Why does he say this? B) Do you agree with his assertion?
By referring to the best of all possible worlds Leibniz meant that the Supreme being had the idea of many universes but among the many, only one existed that God saw as the best. In this he was trying to indicate that God is good because he chose there to exist a universe that is best among the many which could possibly be universes.
I do not agree with Leibniz because, in the reality, there is no such a world as the best world. This world has its odd, flaws and limitations and therefore it could not be the best. He (God) could have made a better world that had no suffering and poor people, and which had no partiality.
13) Explain and evaluate Friedrich Nietzsche’s claim that “God is dead!”
The claim of God as dead is an indication of how the minds of men were in relation to Gods power. He was criticizing the generation that veered from the truth and sought science for explanations on the existence of being. He was trying to refer to the decaying values and morals that gave rise to atheism. In the past, human depended on the rule of God but in his time, people saw no need for a higher authority thus, according to him killing him (God). This notion also ended the long held believes of the existence of a deity.
14) Explain and evaluate the various types of laws discussed by St. Thomas Aquinas.
In his summa theologica Thomas Aquinas identified four types of laws which include the eternal law, natural law, the human law and the divine law. The eternal law is a rule and a measure of acts whereby one is induced to act or restrained from doing something. Eternal law is the divine governance over all things. It is what is known as the intellect and it is not subject to time but eternity. Natural law is the moral law or the eternal laws that pertains to human choices. It is therefore the participation of man in the eternal law. This type of law can be identified by man’s natural reasoning. Human law is also known as the civil laws and is manmade rules helps human being in applying the natural law. Divine law on the other hand is the biblical law is that law that directs man towards his supernatural being.
15) Explain how it is possible that your religious views are right and yet everyone else’s (expect those who believe as you) are wrong.
My religion views are right because it believes differently from others. What proves others religions as wrong is the fact there exists differences between my religion and others. My religion bases it beliefs on faith and a hope that exists supernaturally. This contradicts some other religion whose views are otherwise.
Epistemological beliefs are an area of research that has been used to ascertain the level of thought for individuals in analyzing various factors, situations, issues, and activities. According to the existing research, there is minimal reference and research of epistemological beliefs on how individuals conduct their day-to-day lives. One of the primary fields of thought on epistemological beliefs has been the research by Perry in the 1960s, in which he examined the relation between epistemology and students’ ability to comprehend knowledge related to their academic courses (Schommer-aikins 6). According to his research, he discovered that student’s epistemological beliefs are most notable among college level and higher degrees of education. During this period, the students develop a higher order level of thinking that shifts from an absolutist approach to a commitment position, where knowledge is considered as a product of their empirical investigation and reason.
This shift in thought process serves as the basis for investigation and research into epistemological beliefs in an adult population that is affected by real life situations. Therefore, the focus of this research was the comprehension of the process and factors determining one’s ability for higher order thinking and its effects on their decision making process. This research was based on the findings of Kuhn and Schommer who offered different schools of thoughts that had similar findings, but dissimilar research methodologies.
Philosophical Assumptions for Research and Methodology
The research by Kuhn was based on inherent theories and comprehension, which could be used to determine a person’s argumentative reasoning and his inherent capacity for higher order thinking. The study was conducted using social issues affecting people, and their argumentative reasoning used to determine their level of higher order thinking (Schommer-aikins 7). Additionally, the participant’s protocols were not considered in the choice of the sample group. The study revealed that half of the participants were absolutists with a limited argumentative reasoning. However, this research made several assumptions that could have affected the quality of the research data’s accuracy. It was inconsiderate of such important factors as demographics that are vital in determining one’s social beliefs, thoughts, and attributes.
Demographics such as income levels, age, gender, race, employment status, among others are crucial parameters in the correlation of research into epistemological beliefs using social attributes. Therefore, the generated results are inconsiderate of such pertinent factors and can thus be deemed as been prone to errors, though its magnitude cannot be adequately ascertained. Another assumption made by Kuhn was the belief that primarily using social issues that affect the society would relate to most respondents and generate results (Kuhn 206). However, for an effective research, Kuhn should have widened the scope of his questionnaire to include not only social issues, but also others like economics, technology, culture, or educational. A blend of such issues would have painted a more precise picture of the participant’s argumentative reasoning (Kuhn 168).
Schommer on the other hand believed that epistemological beliefs were considered as a system of independent belief (Schommer-aikins 8). Her study was based on four core beliefs; structure and stability of knowledge, and the control and speed of learning. The research focused on six thinking dispositions; taking multiple perspectives; acknowledging the complexity of issues; engaging in flexible thinking; acknowledging the evolving nature of knowledge; questioning omniscient authority; and making decisions in a thoughtful and reflective manner (Schommer-aikins 9). Of the six thinking dispositions, there was no correlation between Epistemological beliefs and questioning omniscient authority and time consuming reflective thinking. However, all the other dispositions generated results that showed varying degrees of thought that were representative of Epistemological beliefs.
One of the main assumptions for this research was that the Epistemological questionnaire was structured to cater to the individual distinctiveness or default beliefs. This analogy was effective since it ensures that one reasoning was measured using a form of scale that did not prejudice their thoughts, but rather assessed them. Therefore, this was instrumental in ensuring that the data generated was accurate and credible and encompassed a wide ranging school of thought that was not merely determined by one’s education, but rather by their ability to think and comprehend information (Irving, William, and Gloria 412).
The research also included 120 women and 54 men, which can be thought to have tipped the gender balance. However, in the results outcome, the research assumed that gender was not a big determiner of the results and its findings. However, this analogy can be contested since the Epistemological questionnaire contained one of the social issues as abortion. Women are generally perceived to hold the most thoughtful and articulate on abortion since it directly affects their lives. Therefore, the answers issued by this gender regarding abortion can be thought to have been biased since undue socio-cultural influence may have been at play. This assumption is considered as inconsequential since in spite of the gender imbalance in the participants, the comparison of the data generated by the two social since showed similar findings.
The researches by Kuhn and Schomer seem to suggest that knowledge is best determined by determining one’s capacity to reflect on their thoughts and ideas. This assumption is true since it dwells on the fact that knowledge is certain, though flexible. It is considered as being dynamic based on one’s capacity to understand its meaning and draw substantive thoughts and ideas for the application of this knowledge. This application of knowledge requires one to have a heightened ability to reflect on different pieces and bits of knowledge and raw correlations between them, rather than viewing them as isolated pieces of data. This form is considered by schommer and Kuhn as perspective thinking.
The assumption that one’s ability to perform these tasks can be measured and scales given to ascertain one’s school of thought and its certainty or tentativeness was the basis for both researches. This analogy is certain since it shows one’s abilities to comprehend information I different manners, and their ability to employ different thoughts adequately. According to schommer, this analogy is explained using the control of learning and the speed of learning. The speed of learning determines one’s capacity to analyze data and information quickly and form conclusive ideas and thoughts that can be useful in expanding their scope of knowledge. This speed of analysis of data and information differs in different people depending on various other factors such as IQ and environment.
This analogy then develops to the second aspect of Epistemological beliefs, which is control of learning. This involves one’s capacity to analyze data and determine which is pertinent to their schools of thought and which lacks merit. This ability is vital for comprehension of different social, cultural, technological, and economical issues that affect the society (Irving, William, and Gloria 358). The research assumption by schommer was that the control of learning would act as a means to ensure that participant’s protocols are neglected to enhance their speed of comprehension of the questionnaire. The control of learning was also assumed as being one of the factors that would determine the quality of data generated.
In the research methodologies, the researchers were successful in ensuring that the data on the questionnaire was representative of the participant’s daily lives. This assumption ensured complete participation of the participant. However, one key aspect of the research by Schommer was that the questionnaire was structured in a manner that ensured the contentious issues were listed in the order of least controversial at the beginning of the questionnaire. The most controversial issues were then listed at the tail end of the questionnaire. This ensured that the participants were able to participate in the questions completely and hence answer most of it.
Schommer’s Epistemological dimension of structure was also represented within the research. According to this dimension, it was assumed that asking specific questions that had specific answers would elicit a designed and articulated response that could be used to analyze the respondents answer. Additionally, to understand their argumentative reasoning, the questions required one to give an explanation to their answer, which analyzed their thinking perspective, flexibility, and reflection. This is important in the determination of the respondents degree of high order thinking since the explanation would show the researchers if the respondents based their answer on certain knowledge or on reflective and empirical thinking. Therefore, the two researchers were able to formulate a concrete methodology and study of epistemological beliefs, and how they can be used to reflect our thought process and knowledge structures.
Irving, B. Weiner, William, M. Reynolds, and Gloria, E. Miller. Handbook of Psychology, Educational Psychology. John Wiley & Sons, 2012. Print.
Kuhn, T. S. (2012). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Schommer-aikins, Marlene and Rosetta, Hutter. Epistemological Beliefs and Thinking About Everyday Controversial Issues. The Journal of Psychology, 2002, 136(1), 5–20.
Friedman and Pogge’ Accounts of Ethical Obligations of a Company
Milton Friedman argued that since business executives are agents of the business owners, their key ethical responsibility is to boost the business profits. According to Thomas Pogge, such a view involves a kind of ethical incoherence and that people should not agree to the effectiveness of social arrangement such as the owner-agent relation in altering the moral obligations. Both views do no give a clear account of the distribution of the ethical obligations in a business context. It is important to understand the difference between minimal ethical obligation,; including fairness and human rights and maximal ethical obligations; all other forms of ethical consideration including support for the needy, beneficence, and virtues. Minimal obligations apply to every individual, while maximal obligations are normally effected by the social setup such as the business executive-business owner relationship. This describes Friedman and Pogge’s accounts of ethical obligation in a business and the gives a comparison of the two.
Friedman’s Accounts of Ethical Obligations of a Company
Friedman believes that business executives have social responsibilities. According to Friedman, in any kind of a business set up the business executive is an employee of the business owner, and he has direct obligations to his/her boss. His/her obligation is to manage the business, based on the desires of the business owner, which in most cases is to generate as much profits as possible while meeting the requirements of the basic rules of the society; the rules included in the laws by the state and in ethical customs (Friedman 173). Sometimes, the employers may have dissimilar aims, for example, a group of people may decide to set up a corporation for a charitable reason such as a hospital. The director of this kind of corporation will not have an objective of boosting the profits, but instead he/she will focus on offering particular services. This then implies that the director is the agent of the proprietors of the corporation and his/her main obligations is to the proprietors. The business owners are the legislators, the executives and the jurists. They have capability of deciding whom to impose tax on by what amount and for what reasons, they can spend the profits as they desire; they can choose to engage in programs that aim at improving the environment and fight poverty among others (Friedman 174). For instance, the main obligation of the Tobacco industry was to boost its profits and to advise the society about the health risks that cigarettes may cause them. The industry is not answerable for any individual who suffers from cancer after excessive use of cigarettes. Rose Cipollone knew about the health dangers of cigarettes. She had read the warning labels on the cigarettes and a number of articles cut out yet she could not harness her habit (Mukherjee 286-288).
Friedman believes that this understanding maximizes the economic liberty and that economic freedom is a required condition for political liberty. According to Friedman, it is the duty of the business owners whether to take part in a charitable contribution to eradicate poverty and not the obligations of the business executives. The business executives are mainly concerned with productions of products, selling the products or financing the products. They cannot make decisions concerning the public well being. The aspect of “social liability” policy is preferred when the policy is implied in justifying wage control by trade corporations. The conflict of interest is normally very clear in cases when the union representatives are required to subordinate the concern of their associates to some more general purpose. The union leaders, especially in America have objected to the regime’s interference with the market than the business owners. The complexity of exercising social responsibility clearly outlines the great virtue of private competitive projects. It makes individuals to be accountable for their own deeds and prevents them from exploiting others for their own good (Friedman 177).
One could argue that the government’s obligation of imposing taxes and determining the spendings of social purposes is good. However, for the issues that require immediate response, the exercise of the social responsibility by the businessmen is faster in a certain way of solving the current critical issues. If an individual proprietor decides to minimize the returns of his business for the purpose of exercising his social responsibility, he/she is using his own money, in the process he/she may inflict costs on his/her employees and customers. Since he is likely not capable of having the monopolistic control, he/she may not be affected much. The use of the facts about social responsibility can interfere with the establishment of a free society. Many impressive business owners are careful with matters they consider internal to their businesses (Friedman 174).
Pogge’ Accounts of Ethical Obligations of a Company
Freedom from severe poverty is among the significant human concerns. Human beings have the right to clean drinking water, adequate food, clothing, protection and above all, basic health care to be able to enjoy life. Individuals who live a very poor life, are denied the right to sufficient quality of the basic needs. According to Thomas Pogge about one third of the premature deaths are from poverty related causes. Most of these deaths could be avoided through global institutional reforms that would assist eradicate severe poverty. Many could also be avoided through global health program reforms that could make medical information freely accessible as a global public good (183). For instance the global agreement proposed by the tobacco company (the master settlement agreement) which includes restrictions on cigarette advertisements and allows for free access to internal research documents. It also recommends national forums for the purpose of educating the public about the health dangers of Tobacco (Mukherjee 290). Regardless of the undoubted great significance of the essential human needs, there is no accord of whether individuals have a right to the requirements of life. To tackle this disagreement, it is important to distinguish between the legal and moral issue. According to Pogge, there are ethical individual rights, and their soundness is dependent of the three main governmental bodies. These governmental bodies have authority only if they value the ethical human rights; the ability to establish ethical obligations to abide by, and the ethical power to impose their laws. The suprastate, state and the substate systems of law establish numerous human rights. The contents of such rights as well as the any equivalent legal obligations depend on the three main governmental bodies that maintain and interpret the laws in question. Businesses are normally regulated by an extensive body of laws that establish obligations, which may or may not have the ethical basis. These laws are created and imposed by the Governments (Pogge 184).
Pogge believes that, the main crucial barrier to a dramatic reduction in the global disease saddle can be eliminated by giving the medical investors steady and dependable financial incentives to address the medical issues of the poor. This can only be achieved through the reformation of the existing state and international laws for incentivizing the search for effective drugs. However, the decision about the reformation of such laws rests with the government and the international organizations, including the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), and not an obligation of the pharmaceutical business executives (Pogge 184). The present day laws for funding pharmaceutical research are ethically very problematic. This fact is widely identified in the wake of the AIDS disaster, especially in African countries where the important needs of the poor patients are pitted against the requirements of the pharmaceutical companies to regain their research and development investments (Pogge 184).
From an economic point of view, health care is considered a commodity just like any other commodity in the service sector. This implies that the establishment of a new effective medical treatment is an intellectual achievement just like nay other. From an ethical point of view, there is a big difference between the needy lacking access to some services and avoidably lacking access to essential medical issues. It is the government’s obligation to establish and defend an ethical standard that can ground the evaluation of the existing government grant against the numerous ideas of reforming it, and can govern the formulation of a particular reform plan. The government is responsible for imposing laws that treat drug as a public good. This way, new drugs could be accessed freely by various drug firms. This would help reduce the drug prices, and at the same time bring back the no-incentive issue. The reformation plan as suggested by Poggie would allow the drug Companies to take out new kinds of government grant. To be helpful as a policy option for the decision makers, the community, and as a comprehensible focal point for advocacy, the reform should be detailed with the appropriate facts and insights from science, statistics, medicine, law, economics and both moral and political philosophy (Pogge 191).
It is normally very expensive for the drug companies to bring new, safe and effective life saving drugs to the market since the investor firms must offer payments for the research and the development process, for conducting tests for the invented drug and for successive approval processes. In some cases, the newly invented medical treatments may turn out to be dangerous or ineffective. The drugs may also have negative side effects, or may fail to be approved by the government for specific reasons which may result in the loss of the complete investment. Due to these reasons, there are very few inventive pharmaceutical research carried out in a free market scheme. The investors always have to bear the full cost of the failures, and at the same time the investor would not be able to enjoy the success because the competitors would always copy the new invention. It is therefore the duty of the government to impose patent rule that grants the investors a temporary monopoly for the invention a specific time period prohibiting the competitors from copying and selling any newly invested drug during the specified time (Pogge 193).
According to Pogge, when social laws violate human rights without clearly mandating the ways that violate human rights, those responsible for upholding these laws may not be violators of human rights. Contribution to the imposition of the social laws constitutes a human rights violation, when such laws avoidably deny individuals of safe access to the items of their human rights. All through the world, about 18 million people die each year from poverty related causes, and mainly from communicable illnesses that could be easily prevented. These people die, because they are underprivileged of some objects of their human rights. For instance the right to a condition of livelihood that is adequate for the physical condition and the wellbeing of a family. There are a number of factors, both national and global that contribute greatly to the deprivation of human rights. These factors include the way in which pharmaceutical research into new effective drugs is incentivized under the present day laws of the TRIPS agreement as complemented by a number of bilateral agreements that are pursued by the U.S.A. With these reasons, Pogge believes that it is essential for the citizens of countries with high wages to support a reform of the global health system that can benefit everyone at their expense (Pogge 197).
From Friedman and Pogge’s accounts of ethical obligations of a company, one may ask, is it the responsibility of the pharmaceutical industries to supply the life saving drugs to the needy in the society? Arguments about the obligations of the pharmaceutical firms may not be too extreme as compared to the topics of offering life saving drugs to the needy. Friedman recognizes no such obligations. According to him, the social responsibility of any business is to boost its profits and no special efforts should be demanded from the pharmaceutical businesses. Pogge, on the other hand, emphasizes on the respect for moral human rights. These moral human rights include access to basic medical care (Friedman 173). He believes that, the main crucial barrier to a dramatic reduction in the global disease saddle can be eliminated by giving the pharmaceutical industries steady and dependable financial incentives to address the medical issues of the poor, which he believes can only be achieved through the reformation of the current national and global laws for incentivizing the search for effective drugs. Pogge believes it is important for the pharmaceutical firms to put access to drugs of of the key factors in the process of decision making and that these firms should develop and offer the essential drugs at affordable prices. According to Pogge, the pharmaceutical companies should fulfill these requirements consistently and through this, take part in the wider responsibility of improving the health status among the poor. The pharmaceutical firms have an ethical obligation to offer considerable resources to save human lives. These obligations mainly apply to the global pharmaceutical firms in the context of the deadly diseases such as cancer and AIDS (Pogge 196).
Friedman emphasizes on maximization of profits as the obligations of the business executives. He considers the business executives as the employees of the business owners. He believes that the obligations of the business executives are to carry out the business based on the wishes of the business owners and not according to their social liability. Conversely, the business owners, are regarded as the legislators, the executives and the jurists. They have the ability to decide whom to impose tax on and the amount of tax to be imposed. Pogge on the other hand, emphasizes of the respect for human rights, and that is important for firms to act in a way that supports and respects human rights. These human rights include access to essential requirements. According to Pogge the validity of moral human rights is greatly dependent on the three main government bodies who have authority only if they value the ethical human rights.
Friedman, Milton. The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 2007.
Mukherjee, Siddhartha. The emperor of all maladies: a biography of cancer. Simon and Schuster, 2011.
Pogge, Thomas W. “Human rights and global health: a research Program.”Metaphilosophy 36.1‐2 (2005): 182-209.
Shame and Guilt Culture Differences
Shame and guilty are two words that are mostly used together and at times go hand in hand. Shame reflects what we feel about ourselves and guilty reflects an action, which might have been injurious to another party, and we hold that feeling in ourselves. Nevertheless, guilt and shame can be explained from both cultural and psychological perspective.
According to Rohan, Newman and Alaoui (2014), guilt and shame have ethical, religious, and anthropological meanings. For instance, the biblical story of creation and Sodom and Gomorrah actions shows that in Christianity, guilt and shame resulted from the act of Sodom and Gomorrah being guilty and shameful towards Gods. This led to the first transgression.
More so, the traditional believes of guilt and shame was caused by the relationships between human beings opposing the relationship with God that creates guilt and shame. Accordingly, linguistics associate guilt with interpersonal relation. For example, in Chinese it is related with the fear of meeting people and comes with reflection that people create when they harm others. Thus, shame is not the same thing as guilt (Ho, Fu & Ng, 2004).
Confucian and western perspectives of guilt, shame, and embarrassment are concealed from other emotions. More so, it is worth noting that when guilt is allied to modality, it becomes an imaginary auditory experience. The latter is derived from people’s conscience. Embarrassment and shame occur in social contexts but also happen when someone is alone just like how guilt and shame occur when someone is alone and thinking. Guilt and shame usually settle in people’s minds for long, but one can be cured to remove the negative thinking allied to guiltiness and shamefulness (Ho, Fu & Ng, 2004).
From the discussions above it can be noted that stress and guilty are based on psychology, religious, and linguistic perspectives. In addition, confusion linguistic links stress and guilt with facial expression or the interpersonal level. From the test, it can be concluded that Confucians view shame as pervasive and does not reflect genuine concern.
Research has been done to explore the nature and experience of shame in California and Bengkulu (Indonesia). Based on the research, shame is more prevalent in collective cultures as compared to the individualistic cultures. Shame in California is associated with sub-ordinance events while in Bengkulu it is associated with guilt-like accounts when using research method of telling shame verbatim. When using mapping techniques, it revealed that guilt is prominent in California and sub-ordinance in Bengkulu.
Research on methodological relationship between shame, embarrassment, and research from Confucius cultures revealed that the emotions are qualitatively and have distinct attributes (Ho et al., 2004). It showed that involvement of others regarding extensity of these emotions are expressed by the individuals who are facing this problem. This analysis which is closed associated with emotional characteristics exposes various features of an individual that show the duality of self
Most significantly, a study conducted by Rohan et al. (2014) established the exapmples and meaning of shame and guilt in the cultural and religious’ perspective. The research found out that guilt and shame are normally psychological products inherent in the society. Therefore, the guiltiness and shame are evoked by the regression allied to moral codes of the society. Principally, the correlation of various generations is an important facet of moral code. This is because the older generation is supposed to transfer culture legacy to younger generations.
The study done by Rohan et al. (2014) and the current findings have some similarity. In both studies, stress and guilt have a psychological origination problem. More so, in both the emotions are founded of religious and moral perspectives. The difference between the two findings is that, shame and guilt are triggered by a person code of conduct whether alone or in social context from our current study. Rohan et al. (2014) study reveals that shame and guilt are brought by transgressions of traditional morals. Another variance is that intergenerational interactions tend to be very critical facets when it comes to moral codes. Accordingly, based on the present study, the moral codes emanate from the individual interpersonal alliance.
Ho, D. Y.-F., Fu, W., & Ng, S. M. (2004), Guilt, Shame and Embarrassment: Revelations of Face and Self. Culture & Psychology, 10, 1, 64-84.
Rohan, J., Newman, S., & Alaoui, J. E. (2014). Cultural Reflections on Shame and Guilt: An Intergenerational Dialogue. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 12, 448-453. Retrieved from http: //www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/15350770.2014.959422.
Divine Command Theory
Morality cognates to ethics, in that, the two terms are often used interchangeably to determine whether an action is right or wrong in a given context. Nonetheless, there is apparent dissonance between the two terms. Morality embodies a set of facts or concepts that enumerate right or wrong conduct while ethics studies morality from a philosophical perspective (Barcalow 7). Several theories have been popularized by philosophers to determine the propriety or impropriety of a behavior. They include the Natural Law, Divine Command, and Cultural relativism theories. Of these, the divine command theory has accrued the most controversy due to its advocacy for decorum based on submission to a superior supernatural being, universally referred to as God. The Divine Command Theory (DCT) is a meta-ethical theory that popularizes the idea that an action is moral if it corresponds with the command of God (Allan 56). Essentially, the theory presupposes that the status of an action, behavior, or choice is equivalent to its submission to the will of God. Moreover, according to DCT, morally obligatory acts are willed by God (Austin 21). However, the constant allusion to God’s commands raises the question whether good acts are willed by God because they are good or actions are good because they are willed by God.
DCT points out a necessary connection between religion and morality. According to Divine Command theorists, the presence of religion or lack of it \, determines morality. Philosophers assert that the existence of God or gods plays an integral part in motivating or guiding people to behave in the right or wrong way. Theists agree that right or wrong actions are not arbitrary, rather they are endorsed by God just as they are stated in religious writings to guide humans in their relations (Oderbrg 111). Additionally, religious texts sanction behaviors that facilitate true happiness for all people by discouraging decadency. However, the theory does not rest on a cogent argument given that it only applies to a section of people that believe in the existence of God. Being primordial, religion has garnered an unparalleled following despite the rise in atheism in various parts of the globe. For instance, the Euthyphro dilemma, coined by Plato, promotes a different opinion from that held by religious activists (Barcalow 199). The philosopher’s view is that morally good or bad actions are independent of God’s will. Therefore, if theists think that morally good actions are willed by God because they are good, then they must be ethical prior to their representation (Barcalow 207). On the other hand, if they believe that morally good actions are willed by God, then it follows that they are arbitrary and, thus, abhorrent commands. Similarly, Socrates asserts that God loves good because it is acceptable. Therefore, good existed before God and is independent on God .
DCT rests on a cogent argument that satisfies the criteria for the objectives outlined by ethical frameworks. Religion and reason are compatible, therefore, they cannot contradict one another (McKay and Harvey 447). They are identical in content especially when they are applied simultaneously with moderation. Undoubtedly, religion abets reasoning on various instances. For instance, the Solomonic wisdom described in the bibles comes in handy when handling intricate situations in and outside courts. Additionally, religion and ethics agree that corruption is wrong and supports the castigation of state officials involved in evil deeds. Besides, DCT accepts both atheist and agonistic reasoning (Shafer-Landau 333). Religious principles are absolute and reasonable when applied as explained in the bible. However, the interpretation by different people in favor of the status quo tarnishes its divinity. In some instances, morality overrides ethics, which creates room for crises. For instance, the belief that all transgressions are punishable by the book rather than the law creates loopholes to overstep individual rights. It is for this reason that the strict adherence to Sharia Law is perceived as an abuse of human rights by secularized nations (l-Attar 27). Kant also shares the opinion that morality is guided by reasoning and even God himself must follow the dictates of reason.
Plausibility of Divine Command Theory
DCT maintains that God is the foundation of morality and that if he ceases to exist and so does morality. The theory promotes the notion that moral obligations are absolute and thus no reasoning is required to justify ethics (Oderberg 211). It then follows that if DCT is accepted as truly divine, the moral laws on which it is anchored will be absolutely reliable, trustworthy, and unassailable. Humanity will feel obliged to follow the rules that are divinely established and synchronized by the ultimate authority. DCT preserves God’s sovereignty because it portrays Him as the only being with moral authority (Oderberg 209). Additionally, it saves humanity the trouble of seeking descriptions of morality since the clear limbo between good and bad is stated in religious books. For instance, Jacques Maritain asserts that humanity would eventually discover the Ten Commandments through concerted efforts, experiences, and human reasoning. However, it would take them inordinate time to unearth singular laws. Therefore, the ascription of the Ten Commandments in the early chapters of the Bible granted humanity a moral leap forward without them putting undue effort to discover these inherent rules.
The moral laws laid down by the divinity offers believers the motivation to do well. DCT is clear and objective. It is also easy to understand and grants promises of eternal life to those that emulate mercy, humility, and forgiveness. Furthermore, the divine command theory underscores love as the greatest commandment. As a result, individuals that are affiliated to certain religions feel obliged to observe these rules. DCT has been used by nations to promote peace, tolerance, and coherence (Austin 79). For instance, Catholicism in Brazil and numerous South American nations has been deployed by governments as a unifying factor in times of crisis. The bottom-line is that everyone who knows God and identifies with Him learns the distinction between good and evil and understands the commands, obligations, and conformity.
The divine command theory remains controversial both in the past and in the present. The philosophers cannot agree on the moral grounding of theory which approbates behavior to God’s wish. As a result, atheists strongly dissent to the idea that God’s supposed good qualities prescribe acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. The theory suffers major drawbacks arising from the argument that there lacks a third-party benchmark to ascertain the plausibility of the hypothesis (Johnston 56). Foremost, using God as the moral grounding for behaviors makes his commands arbitrary assumptions because they lack rationalizations. Besides, the theory overlooks the concept of causality . They presume that a character is good because God is thought to possess those attributes and they reflect the goodness of God. Nonetheless, these qualities do not make God good.
Another weakness emanates from the questions raised by atheists concerning God’s authority in determining the good and the bad. The answers offered by theists to affirm God’s position in morality seems ambiguous. It is indistinct how the fact that God says something is right makes it right. Theists argue that God’s commands are arbitrary because there was no right or wrong prior to their formulation. Additionally, people believe that certain things are right or wrong because God vilified or lauded them to different extents. Therefore, there is no coherent reasoning to vindicate God’s commands. Furthermore, the presupposition is consequentialist hence defies everyday moral reckoning and intuition. For instance, all people understand that rape is wrong and punishable because their intuition pinpoints the harm it causes to the victim. However, religious fanatics believe that rape is uncouth because God said so. Also, Jews do not work on the Sabbath but Protestants do. The former group strictly abides by God’s command while the latter also follow the same command to worship Him. Hence that does not make Protestants second-class Christians.
DCT threatens harmonious coexistence. The modern world is in crisis due to religious intolerance that threatens human existence. A lot of evils are being perpetrated in the name of religion (Al-Attar 200). Also, there is constant finger-pointing when it comes to the practices abetted by individuals from certain religions. Hatred is pervasive courtesy of religion and religious-backed massacres are publicized frequently (Al-Attar 231). In the Middle East, for instance, religious conflicts are ubiquitous as residents and visitors are expected to ascribe to the Islamic religion which is the dominant culture. Everyone, including foreigners, is mandated to abide by the Muslim dress code as well as religious values. Western secularization has further increased the rift between religions. The result of religious differences is antagonism that has irked terrorism, radicalization, and extremism. Furthermore, the counterterrorist attacks aimed at stopping Islamic extremists from attacking the West has furthered abhorrence from different factions.
Morality and ethics are often used interchangeably to determine whether an action is right or wrong in different contexts. The Divine Command Theory (DCT) is a meta-ethical theory that asserts that an action is moral if it is in line with the commands of God. Hence, DCT points out a necessary connection between religion and morality. According to Divine Command theorists, the presence of religion or lack of it thereof, determines morality. DCT maintains that God is the foundation of morality and that if he ceases to exist and so does morality.
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Evil and soul making
John Hick was a philosopher of religion; he was a British philosopher who supported the anglo-analytic tradition of theology. Before becoming a philosopher, John Hick was a law student who underwent different religious experiences (Cramer, n.d). John Hick changed his career from law to philosophy and theology. Before his sudden change in career, John Hick was a law student. John Hick wrote the evil and soul-making soul making article to argue that God allows evil in the world because human beings should learn to follow His will. The main goal of life for people is to transcend into the likeness of God. Hick (1978) asserts that God created human beings in his image but not in his likeness. Therefore, it is the responsibility of human beings to want to transform into the likeness of God. Furthermore, Hicks (1778) argues that human beings should adopt desirable qualities in regards to moral character. The acquisition of moral qualities will enable human beings to have a personal relationship with the creator. Also, Hicks argues that the world which makes it easy for human beings to experience maximum pleasures of life and minimum pain will not be the ideal environment for a human being to transcend into a perfect human being. Hicks (1978) argues that for human beings to transcend into perfect living creatures, they need to face constant pain and rejection. An environment that produces the finest individuals is one which the inhabitants have to face different obstacles, perform tasks and attain goals. Furthermore, human beings need to face many dangerous experiences, solve problems and endure setbacks.
A soul-making environment should have elements of evil where there are significant risks for an individual to face (Cramer, n.d). The world is an evil place, but inhabitants learn about different methods to prevent risks and overcome the effects of evil. People will have the opportunity to grow in character and virtue. However, Hicks argues that for an individual to pass the test of evil, the individual needs to be further from God. An individual has the power of self-will; the individual should decide to follow the path of God and not the world. Hicks (1978) argues that if God created human beings directly in his presence, it is likely that they would not worship him out of a personal will. However, if an individual experiences evil without the presence of God, God will help the individual to build a personal relationship with him. God gave human beings the ability to make self-choices. Human beings have the power of free will unlike other creatures in the world. Capacity to reason and make decisions regarding the worship of God is fundamental to the growth of a personal relationship.
Hicks reviewed the Irenaean theodicy of soul making and the Augustine theodicy and made a conclusion that both texts agree that God plays a role in the existence of evil. However, Hicks prefers the Irenaean theodicy more appealing compared to the Augustine theodicy. According to Hicks (1978), the Augustine theodicy is not a good source for the reflection of religion because it describes the destiny of human beings to be divided between heaven and hell. However, Hicks (1978) supports the Irenaean theodicy because it stipulates that one day God will succeed to win the hearts of human beings through love and faith.
Pros and cons of evil
The major advantage of evil is that it makes an individual want to be closer to God. An individual who has faced evil is better inclined to seek the divine intervention of God compared to people who have not faced any hardships in life. The world is like a soul-making universe where people have the choice to follow good or evil. Hick (1978) argues that it is through tribulations that a human being will lessen the epistemic distance between him and God. God allows evil to exist in the world so that human beings can choose to be moral beings. God gave humans the will to choose and build their moral character. Choosing to be a moral character is equivalent to being in the likeness of God (Hicks, 1978). In his theodicy, Hick defends the decision of God to allow evil to exist in the world. Human beings are born with a moral deficiency and therefore face a significant challenge in the world as they build their moral character. Furthermore, the world is a soul-making world where human beings are free creatures with the will to decide what is best for them in regards to morality.
Human beings would not have the will to choose against God or deny the existence of God if they were brought into an immediate presence of God. Rather, since there is an epistemic distance from God, human beings have the free will of choosing to walk with God through good intervention or follow evil. According to Hick (1978), the world is ambiguous in regards to religion. There are many religion in the world that proclaim to be the true religion. However, the world is a purely natural phenomenon that allows human beings to choose to follow God.
Evil is necessary in the world because it enables people to develop moral virtues (Cramer, n.d). Virtues that are developed through a free will are stronger than those that are present from the beginning of life. God allowed evil in the world to exist because he understood that it would give human beings the ability to develop moral virtues (Cramer, n.d). Also, it would allow human beings to understand and appreciate the importance of moral virtues. For example, there is a difference between a person who was born with courage and one who has developed courage because of life’s struggles. Intrinsically, the individual who developed courage because of hardships is stronger than the one who was born with courage. The individual who developed courage because of hardships values and appreciates the virtue of courage compared to the individual who was born with courage.
According to Hick (1978), human beings develop their personality because of the hardships that they face in the world. The human personality is composed of intellectual, spiritual and moral aspects which develop over time as an individual gains experience in living in a world full of evil. Other philosophers like Hume believe that the very existence of pain the world is proof that God does not exist (Pojman, Solomon & Michael, 2013). However, Hick (1978) opposes Hume’s arguments by asserting that the world that does not understand suffering and pain is the world where people do not have the ability to make moral choices. Therefore, a painless world is the world where people do not have the advantage of moral growth and development.
Evil in the world enables people to differentiate between good and wrong (Pojman, Solomon & Michael, 2013). The world is a place where people suffer immense trouble and suffering through disease and war. However, the presence of war in the world makes an individual understand the disadvantages of war. Likewise, the world makes people understand that good health is a blessing to people. In a world where people did not face injury or be liable to inflict pain and suffering in the world, there would be no distinction between what is right and what is wrong.
Hick (1978) believes that human beings were not created in an idealistic environment as perfect human beings. Rather, human beings were created as imperfect beings whose life’s mission is to grow into the likeness of God. The environmental conditions and the existence of evil in the world are essential because it makes human beings to want to grow into the likeness of God. According to Hick (1978), in his article Evil and the God of Love, Hick argues that it is impossible to view human beings as animal pets. Animals do not have the ability to think about what is wrong or right. Their life is shaped since birth, and they do not possess the ability to make choices and differentiate wrong from right. However, human beings are born as children who have to develop into adulthood as perfect beings who are capable of understanding what good and evil. Also, they should be able to grow into the likeness of God through spiritual growth. People will realize from their spiritual awakening that worldly pleasures are not the fundamental basis of enjoying a fulfilling life. Rather, human beings will realize that spiritual awakening and closeness to God are the fundamental requirements of living a successful and promising life.
According to Pojman, Solomon and Michael (2013), for ‘good’ to exist, then ‘evil’ must exist. There can be no good without evil. God did not create evil, but he allows it to exist so that human beings can differentiate between good and evil and make a decision about which path to follow. Many people believe that because evil exists in the world, there can be no God. However, that is a false premise because God is the one who allows evil to exist in the world. There is a moral law that governs how people behave. Human beings were born with a deep conviction of differentiating right and wrong. Therefore, there exists a moral absolute that human beings must follow if they want to be close to God (Pojman, Solomon & Michael, 2013). The presence of evil in the world should be a fundamental basis in the quest to know God. In the current world, God gets all the blame when bad things happen in people’s lives. People will not understand why God allows suffering and pain. Also, God does not get the credit when good things happen in people’s lives. People chose to blame rather than thank God for his blessings.
The presence of evil in the world is necessary because God makes good out of evil (Cramer, n.d). When human beings face countless occasions of evil, they need to seek the divine intervention of God, and in turn, God will destroy the evil and allow good to thrive. In the world, evil deeds such as wars between countries is a necessity because peace comes after war. The human race needs to understand war to understand and appreciate peace. Furthermore, wars and destructions bring people together to accomplish a common goal. Furthermore, after the end of war, people can see the destructive nature of war and resort to never allowing war to recur. Wars cause the destruction of property, loss of life, permanent body injuries and psychological torments. However, peace brings happiness, love and room for personal growth. Therefore, people need to understand the two concepts of peace and war to choose the best concept.
According to Cramer (n.d), people need to value good health. A disease is a form of evil that exists in the world in many forms, such as cancer, diabetes and arthritis. God allowed diseases to inflict human beings when they decided to disobey his will. However, the presence of diseases makes it necessary for people to practice healthy loving habits to decrease the chances of disease infliction. Also, people will value the presence of good health in their lives. There are always two sides, and human beings are forced to choose a side. The Bible says that a person cannot serve two masters the same time (Pojman, Solomon & Michael, 2013). Therefore, human beings must pick a side. The best side is the side where good exists, where there is no evil, disease or destruction. Rather the presence of God brings good fortune, health and growth.
The main disadvantage of evil is that causes pain and suffering. Many people across the world suffer because of evil in the society (Cramer, n.d). It is common for people in society to be driven by selfish needs without the consideration of other people. Therefore, many people lose their souls and life because of permitting evil to exist in the community. People have the power to chase evil in their lives. However, few people know about the existence of such power. An individual has a moral conviction that needs to be embraced if the quest against evil should be won (Cramer, n.d). The presence of evil in the hearts of men makes God pull away from them. God cannot exist in a place where it is evil.
In conclusion, evil is necessary because it is an opportunity for people to understand the nature of God. God does not condone evil in the hearts of men but allows it to occur so that men can decide to destroy evil. All human beings are different from other creatures because they have the ability to make decisions. They have the power of reasoning and free will. God wants human beings to decide to seek and dwell in him. Good is greater than evil; God is good. An individual who seeks divine intervention from God is likely to live a life full of blessings and God’s grace. God will always protect his people from evil if they decide that they only want God’s council. It is a decision that human beings need to make- to be closer to God. Therefore, with the suffering, pain and destruction that comes along with evil, God will destroy the evil and bless his people if only they decide that they want to be free from evil.
Cramer, D. (2017). John Hick (1922-2012). Retrieved fromhttp://www.iep.utm.edu/hick/#SH3a\
Hick, J. (1978). Evil and Soul-making. Retrieved from http://static1.1.sqspcdn.com
Pojman, L., Solomon, R. & Michael, R. (2013). Encountering the Real Faith and Philosophical Enquiry. Cengage Learning.