Where to Find a Reflection Paper Example
When asked to write a reflection paper for the first time, the first question that you might ask is most likely about where to find a reflection paper example. A reflection paper can be defined as a paper that gives you a chance to illustrate your comprehension of a given material and its effects on your ideas as well as possible future practice. While writing a reflection paper, you are allowed an opportunity to reinforce what you have learned through lecturers, personal experience and coursework. A reflection paper may focus on your personal experiences and feelings. However, it requires you to use concrete examples and multiple sources. Reflection papers are invaluable to students who engage in capstones or experiential classes which include internships because they enable them to synthesize theoretical knowledge via applied experience.
Importance of knowing where to find a reflection paper example
If you do not have a clue about how to write a reflection paper, a good reflection paper example will give you vital ideas on where to start the process of writing this paper. Even when you have ideas on how to write a reflection paper, a good reflection paper sample will give you fresh ideas. This makes approaching your reflection paper writing assignment easier. Generally, there are two major reasons why you need a sample reflection paper.
- To fine-tune ideas
While writing a reflection paper, you do not want to confine your writing to only what you know. A good reflection paper sample will enable you to fine-tune your current ideas so that you can present them in the most appropriate way and even get hints on new ways of presenting your ideas.
- Know how to format your reflection paper
Your instructor will give you different instructions on how to write your reflection paper. However, the instructor might or might not specify the style to adapt in your paper. The instructor can ask you to write the paper in APA, MLA, Harvard or Chicago style. A good sample written in a specified style will give you vital ideas on how to format your reflection paper.
When you know where you can find a good reflection paper sample, you do not have to worry or panic when asked to write this paper because you can always reach for a sample to act as your writing guide any time. You can also read the sample in advance especially if you are certain that your instructor will ask you to write one at some point.
Why use a reflection paper example?
Although writing a reflection paper may sound easy, it is not. While writing a reflection paper, you should stop, think and reflect about yourself. This paper gives you an opportunity to collect your thoughts before you write them and view things in an entirely new perspective. What you include in a reflection paper should come from your thoughts. The final reflection paper that you present should be based on your feelings and thoughts whose basis is your past life experiences, desires and beliefs.
When you know where to find a reflection paper example, you can reach for it while writing your paper for hints on the ideas, thoughts and information to include in your paper. Reading a good sample of a reflection paper will also enable you to generate ideas and organize them properly in your paper to ensure proper presentation. This is very important because the ability to write a good reflection paper depends on your ability to express your ideas, thoughts, experiences and desires in a way that opens your mind to an entirely new level.
Tips on where to find a reflection paper example
A good reflection paper sample should be based on the reflection of a particular event, a place or a person that has impacted on the life of the writer profoundly. Writing a reflection paper is more of writing a typical story and it usually leads to the establishment of important creative writing skills. However, when asked to write this paper for the first time you will find yourself struggling because you will not know which elements to put where. In that case, you should turn to the right places to look for a reflection paper example.
- Ask your teacher or professor to give you a reflection paper sample
If you do not know how to approach a reflection paper writing assignment or where to get a sample of a reflection paper, it is a good idea to ask your teacher or professor to give you a sample. You can visit the professor or teacher after the class or when you are sure that he/she is in the office to find out whether they can give you a reflection paper sample that you can review before you start writing your paper. There is a high chance that your teacher or professor has reflection paper samples written by former students. Once the professor or teacher gives you a sample, study it carefully to get insights on what the professor or teacher expects you to include in the paper. Pay close attention to the comments that the professor or teacher has included in the reflection paper sample.
- Ask a friend to give you a sample
You most probably know a friend whose papers are always excellent. You can seek assistance from such a friend. You might as well know a friend who is no longer at school but they scored high grades in academic papers. Ask them because they might have a sample that they keep at home. Such a friend can even tutor you on how to write a reflection paper as they give you the sample.
- Buy a reflection paper example online
There are companies that offer academic writing services online. If you are wondering about where to find a reflection paper example because your friends, teachers or professors do not have one, enlist the services of such companies. A reflection paper sample from a professional writing company is one of the best sample papers to use because it is written and edited by professionals. Therefore, order a reflection paper sample in advance so that you can use it as a guide for writing your reflection paper.
- Check the websites of professional writing companies
Several professional writing companies have websites where they post free academic paper samples. You can visit the blogs of such companies to find out whether they have a free sample reflection paper that you can use as your guide. You can find such a reflection paper example here.
- Check the websites of different colleges and universities
Some colleges and universities have websites where they post the best papers and essays written by their students. These are aimed at serving as samples to guide students when writing papers and essays in different disciplines. Visit the website of your college or university to find out if there is a reflection paper that you can use as your writing sample. If you cannot find a sample at the website of your college or university, check the websites of other learning institutions. Such a sample reflection paper can be found here.
How to use a reflection paper example
Now that you know where to find a reflection paper sample, it is important that you know how to use a sample reflection paper. Remember that you should use a reflection paper example just as the name suggests; as an example. You should not plagiarize the sample paper or part of it because that amounts to a serious offence for which you can be punished. As such, make sure that you only review the reflection paper example to get ideas for writing and formatting your paper then keep it away before you start writing your reflection paper. If you use ideas from the sample paper, make sure that your reflection paper has citations and footnotes that are properly referenced at the end of the paper.
It is also important that you use credible sources while writing your reflection paper. There are many books, academic journals and online sources where you can get information to guide you in writing your reflection paper. Make sure that you use and reference credible sources only. For your reflective paper to be credible, it should indicate that you consulted different sources including the internet, magazines and encyclopedias among others. After writing your paper, edit it properly, review the reflection paper sample and then reread your reflection paper to determine whether you have written it as the sample that you were using.
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You should use a unique reflection paper example from a credible source to come up with a great reflection paper. If you are having difficulties in identifying a place where to find a reflection paper example, get in touch with us right away. You can also visit our website’s home page for additional information about our academic writing services. Alternatively, continue reading for more guidelines on how to write a reflection paper as well as sample papers on our blog.
Tumor Suppressor Gene
Tumor suppressor gene is also called antioncogene. It refers to a gene that offers protection to a cell from a single step on cancer’s path. If tumor suppressor gene mutates casing a reduction or loss in its role or function, this can cause the cell to progress into cancer. Usually, this occurs in combination with various genetic changes.
Losing these genes can even be important that oncogene or proto-oncogene activation for formation of different types of cancer cells in humans. Tumor suppressor genes may be grouped in different categories including gatekeeper genes, landscaper genes and caretaker genes. This classification changes as the fields of learning such as genetics, epigenetic, molecular biology and medicine advances.
Compared to oncogenes, the tumor suppressor gene generally follow two-hit hypothesis. This means that the alleles coding for particular protein has to be affected prior the manifestation of an effect. This is due to the fact that if one allele of the gene sustains some damage, the second allele will still produce correct protein. Thus, alleles that suppress mutant tumor are recessive while alleles for mutant oncogene are dominant.
A.G Knudson proposed the two-hit hypothesis for the first time for retinoblastoma cases. Knudson observed the age of the onset of the retinoblastoma and this was followed by the second order kinetics. This implied that it was important to have two genetic events that were independent.
Knudson recognized that two hit hypothesis was consistent with the recessive mutation that involved single gene. However, it required biallelic mutation. In contrast, oncogene mutations generally involve single allele since they are considered as gain-of-function mutations.
When it comes to two-hit rule, tumor suppressor gene has exceptions such as specific mutations in p53 gene product. The p53 mutations are capable of functioning as dominant negative. This implies that mutated p53 protein is capable of preventing function of a normal protein from un-mutated allele. Other tumor suppressors that are considered as exceptions to two hit rule include those exhibiting haploinsufficiency such as NF in neurofibroma and PTCH in the medulloblastoma.
More precisely, tumor suppressor genes code for proteins that either have repressive or dampening effect on regulation of cell cycle or even they promote apoptosis in some cases or they can do both. Functions of the proteins of tumor suppressor genes are usually classified into various categories. These include genes repression, coupling, and initiating apoptosis when damage is irreparable, cell adhesion which prevents dispersing of tumor cells, and DNA repair.
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Effects of Income Inequality in Brazil
Despite the fact that Brazil has been recording an impressive economic growth, the country is still dealing with income inequality. In 2010, the country had a gross domestic product of 7.5% and in the last couple of decades income inequality has risen in the country.
The GINI coefficient in the country has decreased slowly from 0.596 in 2001 to 0.543 in 2009 and though this is the case, there is still a major problem in regard to income disparity. The richest people in the country who make up 1% of the population enjoy the highest income level which makes up 13% of the entire household income.
The percentage is the same as that of the poorest 50% which is roughly about eighty million Brazilians. Because of this inequality, the poverty levels in the county are inconsistent with the country’s economy. People who have an income of USD 6.1 per day in Brazil are classified as middle class earners and many of them are likely to fall into poverty once more if the issue of income inequality is not effectively addressed.
What is more, most of the Brazilians that fall in the middle class category are also known to have high debt service costs which in turn make them vulnerable financially. Of 200 million people in Brazil (as of 2013) 40 billion and roughly 100 million are reported to live in poor standards according to a report released by the World Bank. This is despite the fact that the country has kept the inflation down for close to two decades and there has been steady economic growth as well as stabilization of the currency.
The public service has failed to keep up with its income provision and public services in the country are provided by municipalities and states. The health sector has especially been impacted by income inequality despite the fact it was identified in 1998 as a fundamental right. The health system in the country suffers from underfunding while health spending remains low.
There is also a shortage of medical stuff which in turn results to insufficient access to the most basic health services. Education is another sector affected by income inequality when measured by international standards. There is limit to social mobility and the inequality is attributed to pre-determined circumstances of the people such as gender, family, background and race.
Until income inequality is effectively addressed in Brazil, the people will continue to suffer and the numbers of those living below the poverty line will continue to rise as well.
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Examples of Gender Inequality in the Workplace
Gender inequality is an issue that affects women in almost every aspect of life. The workplace is not an exception. It is for this reason that the government has been working hard to ensure women lead a fulfilling professional life. A number of policies and state legislations have been put in place to protect women against gender inequality.
Some of the examples of gender inequality in the workplace include
Stereotype in form of interview questions
In the workplace, women are prejudiced. There are jobs that are specifically set aside for men and women. Even though an employer may not directly discriminate you as a woman from certain jobs, he may ask questions that put you off on jobs set aside for men. An employer may ask you questions such as are you married or are you planning to have kids. Such questions suggest that the employer is not interested in hiring a mother because of responsibilities that come with motherhood.
Discrimination and gender inequality in the workplace also comes in the form of low pay. Many women are paid less than what they should really earn. Even if you enforce policies such as performance review with an aim of earning more, your employer will not pay attention. Women are often reprimanded and criticized when they request for a high pay or a similar amount that male employees earn.
Responsibilities being diminished
Women often complain of fewer responsibilities at place of work. This is based on the fact that there is an outdated notion that women are only best suited for negotiation related duties as opposed to managerial duties. At the end of the day, women are given tasks that may not even equal their academic credentials.
Last minute and impossible deadlines are also examples of gender inequality in the workplace. Bosses can give you as a woman impossible deadline just to prove that you cannot deliver on time. Such deadlines or tasks are a way of discriminating women and in most cases; a boss will use child care issues to prevent you from achieving your goals.
In addition, women do not get rightful promotions because of gender inequality. A woman may be passed over a promotion just because she is married and has kids. Such occurrences in the place of work demean women and waste their skills.
Male colleagues and bosses can also use abusive language or blurt demeaning comments in the office against women. Such comments are aimed at preventing women from communicating efficiently with their bosses and with their colleagues.
Similarly, bosses and superiors cut off women as they talk out their points on regular basis and do not do the same to male employees. By doing so, women feel embarrassed and undervalued in the workplace.
The workplace is full of gender issues. However, it is imperative to note that women and men have different conversation styles. Women are collaborative and men are more informative and do not often ask questions.
Therefore, there is need to implement policies that prevent gender inequality and stop employers acting on bias.
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Ancient and Modern Importance of Euphrates River
About the Euphrates River
Found between Turkey, Iraq and Syria, the Euphrates River is part of the Mesopotamia River. It joins up with the Tigris River to form the Mesopotamia River. This river is 2,800 square kilometers long and it originates from Turkey, flowing through Syria before joining the Tigris River in Iraq. This river flows into the Persian Gulf where it ends.
Being the longest river in western Asia, it is regarded as an important part of the ecosystem. The importance of the Euphrates River dates back to the ancient times. Even though the river and its surrounding environment have changed, it continues to play a major role in the countries through which it flows.
Roles of the Euphrates River
The roles of the Euphrates River can be divided according to ancient and modern times. In both instances, the river has been the source of water for its environs and played a huge role in their livelihoods. The following are reasons why the Euphrates River is considered very important:
- Source of water. From time immemorial, the people of turkey, Syria and Iraq have been depending on this river for all their water needs. Indeed, the river has provided a means for irrigating their lands which are arid and thus cannot sustain plants on their own. To date, water from this river has also been piped and is used in homes for day to day needs. There are also dams that have been constructed to harvest water from the river and divert it into manmade reservoirs.
- Source of food. The Euphrates River is one of the sources of foods in the Mesopotamia region. Fish and other small water animals are obtained from this river. Most of the people still depend on the river for fish despite the fact that the numbers of the fish have reduced.
- Archaeological site. Some of the remains of the early man have been excavated from the Euphrates River. This makes it an important archaeological and historical site. Many archaeologists still visit this river in search of other important historical artifacts.
- Transport mode. The Euphrates River has been used as a transport route from the ancient time. In fact, together with the Tigris River, the Euphrates is regarded as one of the major transport routes that led to civilization during the ancient times. At the time, the river was used as a transport channel for merchants from Babylon, Assyria, Persia and other areas within the Middle East. In the modern era, there are many people and traders that still use the river as a transport channel.
- Source of energy. One of the modern day reasons why the Euphrates River is so important is because of its role in the supply of electricity within the region. The river is used in production of hydroelectric power in Turkey, Syria and Iraq. This makes it very important as the people around the area benefit from electrical supply.
- In the ancient days, the Euphrates River was used as a boundary between Syria and Turkey. Even though this is no longer the case, this waterway remains an important landmark in the region.
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Supportive Employment Policies
Mental illnesses incidences are increasing rapidly at the workplace. Problems related with mental health are major disability contributors globally. They are ranked among top 10 leading disability causes. Countries are affected equally by mental illnesses whether they are poor or rich. The effects are felt across all ethnic groups, genders, ages and races. Additionally, researchers indicate further mental health problems are expected in the near future (Shaw et al., 2003).
The risks and burdens that accompany mental health at work places should not be overlooked. It is established 15 to 30 percent of employees will likely experience mental health complications in the course of work (UN, 2000). This issue has attracted plenty of public policy legislations and political attention. As such, the purpose of this paper is to discuss political issues and state, local policies and federal on employment of persons who are mentally ill.
Political Issues and Policies on Supportive Employment of Mentally Ill Persons
In majority of countries, there exists legislation that a state of disability should not keep one from enjoying a meaningful life. For example, the American Disability Act makes provision that employers are supposed to make noteworthy considerations where employment of persons who are mentally ill is concerned. It is necessary not only to provide support to such individuals but for the employer as well in order to enhance good working environment and relationship (Atkins & Weiss, 2002).
Mental illness is linked to various problems such as unemployment, lack of education and poverty as well as other problems. Depression prevalence is also high among individuals who are unemployed than among those employed. Unemployment as well has significant effects on the health and well-being of the people. On top of this insecure jobs also leads to health complications. For example, temporary workers face more difficulties in working environment than permanent workers (SAMHSA, 2003).
Therefore, government policies are extremely crucial in reducing and promoting unemployment as they have positive effects on the peoples’ mental well-being. A health mental policy for workplaces should be developed as a policy that is separate or part of health and safety policy. This ensures all aspects of mental health are also put into consideration (American Psychiatric Association, 2004). Examples of mental health policies at workplaces include retention arguments and good health. Few employers act on adage that good health equates to good business and even fewer of them recognize mental health importance’. There is however an inclusive approach towards well-being and mental health of employees. These approaches included reduction of absenteeism, acquiring necessary skills, creation of good work relationships, encouragement of productivity, employment of best managers, supporting and ensuring acceptance of all individuals as well as making ones place of work safe as well as efficient.
Many businesses on the other hand address problems of mental health at their places of work through development of policies. A mental health policy, usually aids in defining the vision as well as aim of improving mental condition of the work forces as well as establishing a model of action. After formulation, the policy not only identifies the agreement between the employee and employer but facilitates relationship between the various stakeholders at the workplace. A policy on mental health on employment of personals who are mentally ill can be developed as part of safety and health policy. Putting such a policy in place will involve the analysis of mental illness issues, development of actual policy, establishment of strategies to implement it as well as implementation of the policy. High levels of dedication and commitment are needed on the part of employer towards ensuring policy development (America Psychiatric Association, 2004).
The workplace policy on persons who are mentally ill is normally based on an understanding of the issues that are associated with the illness which is obtained after thorough assessment of the predicament (Shaw et al., 2003). This information might include data records from the department of human resources, occupational health record, health records and financial reports. New information collection is just as important as well. Research and surveys should be carried out on the incidence and occurrence of mental illness at places of work so as to identify occupational health risks and safety matters within the workplace. Interviews are supposed to be conducted with employees, managers, medical officers and families so as to get new information (America Psychiatric Association, 2004).
At national level, the government has the responsibility of promoting mental wellness, ensuring proper mental illness treatment and preventing mental issues as well. The government also targets workplaces in its strategies of prevention and promotion. On top of this, the government is itself, the employer. However, the administrative structures differ greatly in overseeing employment of persons who are mentally ill. The Ministry of Health also aids the government in formulation of mental health policy, suggests frameworks for promotion of employees’ mental health and implements mental health policies. As a matter of fact, mental health policy should define relationship between the health and work of the employees (World Health Organization, 2005).
The ministry of Labor, on the other hand has the mandate of ensuring health and safety at workplaces. This does not just include supervision and regulation of safety and health but protection of incomes for persons who are mentally ill. Improvement of management of mental health issues among the employees leads to changes in legislation of policies which is accompanied by relevant policy implementation.
The government as well has a crucial role to play towards ensuring the policies get implemented and they provide framework that promotes implementation of mental health policy and ensures the employees suffering from mental health complications get proper and adequate treatment. These policies cover issues of discrimination, safe environment, income and other mental health issues noted among employees (America Psychiatric Association, 2004).
The UN has committed to ensure persons with disabilities get the same opportunities as those without and they are allowed to take part in any economic activity which also includes employment. The law on antidiscrimination was introduced in many countries and it has proven to be the most vital and effective legislation so far as improvement and employment of mental health within the workplace is concerned. The United Nations adopted standard rules on equal opportunities for personals with disabilities in 1993 (UN, 2000). The rules further identified a couple of issues that needed quick action and which were lacking for purposes of attaining equal opportunities for all people which includes the disabled. Some of these issues included creation of awareness, health care, support services, rehabilitation services, and protection of income, employment and security among others.
The International Labor Organization in 1998, declared fundamental principles and workplace rights which ensured the commitment of government, workers and employers. On top of this, employer’s organizations upheld standards and principles in 3 main areas of employing people with disability which included elimination, discrimination and promotion at workplace SAMHSA, 2003). Antidiscrimination legislation also prohibits the discrimination of people suffering from mental illness. The effectiveness of these laws depends on model of disability and the inclusive nature of mental health problems, equality aspect for instance, in promotion of access to training and education, appearance of legislation in civil, labor and criminal laws. The laws of antidiscrimination as well include people with mental illness. The US for instance, passed the 1990 Disability Act which prohibits employers from carrying out acts of discrimination against people with mental illness in any aspect as job applicants or employees deserve to enjoy equal treatment (UN, 2000).
The laws of antidiscrimination make it unlawful for employers to discriminate against people with mental illness and requires employers to be responsible in creating environments that are conducive to ensure all people, including those with disabilities, work well in these companies (NIMH, n.d). The national government, on the other hand has numerous strategies that ensure persons with mental illness or disabilities are employed. These include the use of quota schemes requiring certain businesses to employ specific number of people with disabilities; nondiscrimination laws, content that it is unlawful for employers to discriminate against persons with mental illness or disability and job retention requires that employers should retain employees who are disabled while working for them (America Psychiatric Association, 2004).
Employees, in addition need protection against cost of disability and illness. This should include both treatment cost and salaries loss as a result of inability to work. Financial protection is based on three principles (Atkins & Weiss, 2002). First, employees ought to enjoy protection from severe financial expenses through reduction of their cost on mental health care. Secondly, healthy people are supposed to support the sick through subsidizing their health care through strategies such as prepayment services of mental illness. Thirdly, the rich are supposed to offer support to the poor.
Majority of the small business enterprises on the other hand address problems of mental health at their workplace through development of policies. A mental health policy usually assists in definition of the aim and vision of improving mental state of work forces through establishment of a model of action. Once the policy is formulated, it not only identifies the agreement between the employee and employer but it facilitates relationship between the different stakeholders at the workplace. Unfortunately, majority of the employees in small businesses or enterprises, self-employed or on part-time employment do not have access to income protection as a result of mental illnesses (UN, 2000). Such people are at great risk of financial hardship and crisis in case of mental complications which impair their ability to work. As such, the employers and government needs to join hands and devise ways of ensuring all employees are protected adequately against financial crisis cause by mental illness.
Other policies and provisions on mental illness focus on duties of the employer in provision of safe work environment (America Psychiatric Association, 2004). They commit employers to development of safety workplaces. For example, the International Labor Organization develops programs which ensure and promote safety at work places. The main objective of the organization is increasing global awareness on impacts and aspects of mental illness, diseases, injuries and enhancing the capacity of industries and states to implement and develop effective policies and programmes as well as protecting all the employees.
Most of the national laws have addressed employees’ safety. For instance, the 1994 Safety Act and Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulation of 1999 ensures that employers provide safe environments for employers, accesses and controls risks that are associated with mental health (Shaw et al., 2003). The laws as well make employers responsible for ensuring the safety of employees at workplaces and support as well as assisting persons with disabilities. For such policies to be put into place, it demands the analysis of the issue on mental illness, development of actual policy, establishment of strategies to implement it as well as policy implementation. High level of dedication and commitment is needed from the employer in order to ensure development of the policy (WHO, 2005).
Majority of employees are affected by mental issues depending on the health care services that are offered by private sectors, the government and NGOs for their medication. It is crucial that these services should be accessible and of the top most quality. Additionally, a mental health policy on the treatment of persons who are mentally ill should be developed as part of the safety and health policy. High dedication and commitment levels from employers are needed in order to ensure the policy is well developed (Atkins & Weiss, 2002)/
However, there are a couple of challenges that face introduction and implementation of mental health policies in the workplace though they do not come without solutions. First, employers firmly believe profits are higher when employees work for long hours while responding to mental issues can be very expensive to them. Majority of the employees do not understand the link between employees’ mental health and productivity. Second employers who run small businesses and with few employees might only understand the need of addressing mental health issues in large organizations but not small ventures such as theirs. These business owners therefore rely on the government and the existing services of mental health care (Shaw et al., 2003).
Thirdly, stakeholders might resist development and implementation of mental health policy as well as accompanying strategies. This is because they might not be aware of the influence mental health has on productivity and performance at work places. It is important to conduct consultation and assessment with stakeholders during implementation and development of the policies. For instance, demonstration of projects and discussion n meetings can help people get better understanding (NIMH, n.d).
At national level, the Ministry of Health aids the government in formulating mental health policy, suggests frameworks for promoting mental health of employees and implements mental health policies. As a matter of fact, mental health policy is supposed to define relationship between health of employees and work (WHO, 2005). The government has the mandate for promoting mental wellness, preventing mental issues and ensuring mental illness is properly treated. The government also targets workplaces in prevention and promotion strategies. On top of this, the government is an employer itself. However, the administrative structures differ greatly in how they oversee the employment of persons with mental illness.
Mental illness contributes to disability and is linked to numerous problems such as unemployment, poverty, lack of education and other issues. Depression prevalence is high among people who are unemployed than those employed. Unemployment as well has significant effects on the health and well-being of the people (NIMH, n.d.). On top of this, insecure jobs can also lead to health problems. For example, temporary workers indicate more difficulties in working compared to permanent workers. As such, various policies need to be developed and implemented by organizations and government to support persons who are mentally ill. The policies should address issues such as employment, income protection, retention as well as safety for persons who are mentally ill (SAMHSA, 2003). Other policies and provisions of mental illness should focus on the employer’s duties in provision of a working environment that is safe. They should commit employers to guarantee safety at workplaces.
American Psychiatric Association (2004). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Atkins, A. & Weiss, H. (2002). Program evaluation: the bottom line in organizational health. In: Quick JC, Tetrick LC, eds., Handbook of occupational health psychology, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
National Institute for Mental Health (undated) Mindout for mental health. Retrieved on 9 November 2013 from <http://www.nimhe.org.uk/downloads/LineMngrPack-FINAL.pdf>
Shaw WS et al. (2003). Employee perspectives on the role of supervisors to prevent workplace disability after injuries. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, Vol. 13(3): 129-142.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2003). National household survey on drug abuse: main findings, 1991. Rockville, MD (DHHS Publication No. SMA 93-1980).
United Nations (2000). The Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for People with Disabilities. UN General Assembly Resolution 48/96
Problem of Free Will
Before moving on to define what the problem of free will is all about, it is important to begin by defining what free will is. Free will is defined as a philosophical term of art for a particular sort of capacity of rational agents to choose a course of action from a variety of alternatives. Different people have varied definitions of free will that only leads to further confusion to the underlying problem of free will.
Since the beginning of the Problem of Free Will, it has been intimately connected to the question of moral obligation or responsibility. Most of the ancient thinkers on the problem were trying to point out that we humans have control over the decisions that we make, that our actions are dependent on us, and that they are not determined in prior by fate, arbitrary gods, logical necessity, or even natural causal.
The Problem of Free Will has often been described as a question of reconciling, ‘free will’ with one or more of the various kinds of determinism. As a result of this, the problem is based on two things, the exact definition of free will and which among the various determinisms is being reconciled. The standard argument against free will is that it cannot possibly be reconciled with either determinism or randomness, and that these two exhaust the logical possibilities.
The ideal Problem of Free Will is to reconcile an element of freedom with the apparent determinism in a world of causes and effects, a world where events occur following a great causal chain. Determinists are against such freedom while compatibilists redefine freedom. Even though our will is determined by prior events in the causal chain, it is in turn causing and determining how we act. According to compatibilists, determinism by our will allows us to take moral responsibility for every action that we commit.
Libertarians think that the will is free when a choice can be made that is not determined or necessitated by events that took place in prior. The will is free when alternative choice could have been made with similar pre-existing conditions. Freedom of the will allows a person to say, ‘’I could have chosen (and done) otherwise.’’
The most recent debate on the Problem of Free Will uses a taxonomy of positions that has caused a great deal of confusion, mostly linguistic and partly logical. Instead of directly tackling the models of free will, the debate is carried out indirectly. According to most philosophers, determinism is viewed as the greatest threat to free will. For example, in Joe Campbell’s book titled, ‘Free Will’, he describes the problem of free will as the free will dilemma. According to him, the central problem can be summed up as:
- If determinism is true, then no one has free will
- If indeterminism is true, then no one has free will.
- Thus, no one has free will.
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Free Will and Determinism
The Problem of free will is one that has been debated for centuries. According to some people, their belief is that humans have the capacity for free will; the ability to choose their actions without being coerced to follow a particular channel by either the influence of others or by natural laws. For most theists, free will is regarded as a special gift from God. The notion of human free will is also an important premise for a lot of what happens in human society- especially when it comes to our legal apparatus.
Other people on the other hand, argue that if the universe itself is deterministic in nature, then human actions must also be deterministic. Hence, modern determinism tends to be an extension of modern science. If human actions simply follow the course of natural law, then it is difficult to hold that those actions can be chosen freely. The advocates for determinism run into some sort of contradiction, however, when they try to argue their point with those who propose free will. If it’s true that nothing is chosen freely, then those who believe in the existence of free will do not do so by choice. As a result of this, it would make no difference trying to convince anyone of anything if all events are determined.
When debating between the problem of free will and determinism, it is important to note that both terms tend to be defined in such a way as to explicitly exclude the other. The philosophical position of compatibility argues that these concepts do not need to be defined in such a mutually exclusive manner. In fact, both free will and determinism can be compatible.
For the theist, the problem of free will and determinism is slightly different. Instead of wondering if natural laws mean that human actions are all determined, the theist must also ask whether o not their god has in advance, determined all events in the universe, including their own. If so, that will mean that their ultimate fate will be determined. This position was adopted most completely and explicitly by John Calvin, a Reform theologian. He argued that some people are pre-destined to be saved and some are predestined to be damned, and there is absolutely nothing that any person can possibly do about it.
On conclusion, it should be noted that if determinism is true, then our acts are the consequences of the laws of nature and events in the remote past. However, it is not up to us what took place before we were born, neither is it up to us what the laws of nature are. Besides, if no one is morally responsible for any state of affairs, then there is no such thing as moral responsibility. It should be noted that pure determinism and free will approach does not seem appropriate when studying human behavior. Even though people do have a choice, their behavior is always subject to some sort of biological or environmental pressure.
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