Who Moved My Cheese
As humans, there are varieties of things that we seek in life in order to fulfill our desires, or the more common phrase, to make us happy. To different people, this has different meanings, for example, having money, a job, or the finding one’s soul mate. What every one of us values is the “cheese.” The fact that the cheese disappeared demonstrates the elusive nature of the “cheese” and this is usually the case for each one of us. The rats are in a maze, which symbolizes the environment we find ourselves in, for example, our workplace, which is constantly changing and unpredictable (Johnson, 22). The overall theme of the video is that we must be able to anticipate change and adapt to it when it eventually comes.
The mice, namely Sniff and Scurry, on realizing that there was no cheese, quickly went off in search of new cheese. They did not overanalyze the situation on detail but just moved on. In addition, they had expected it to happen and were always ready with their running shoes around their necks. The little people, Hem and Haw react to the missing cheese by complaining about the situation and staying hungry. They were of the opinion that they were entitled to the cheese and someone had taken away what belonged to them. The character that I relate to most is Haw, who after seeing no change to the situation, decided to move on to newer pastures. Although he was reluctant at first, he finally realized that staying at Cheese Station C was not helping and decided to face his fears, albeit alone, in search for new cheese. He is also appreciative of the little cheese he finds on the way and writes useful tips for both himself and others on the wall to act as a guide.
The video shows reluctance to change, but only from the little people. They believed they were entitled to the cheese and therefore were not willing to move on. This is despite waiting for many days without a change in their situation. They did not want to accept that the situation had changed and it was therefore time for them to change also. Cheese had an influence in the reluctance to change by the little people. They had become accustomed to the comfort it provided them and so they were unwilling to leave that comfort. However, Haw was eventually able to finally rid himself of the reluctance to change.
Running shoes are used in the video to depict the essential tools we use in the pursuit of cheese. In the video, they are shown to be the ones that enable the characters to reach the cheese since without them they cannot run towards the cheese (“Who moved my cheese? Full Movie.”). They are necessary for fast movement either towards or away from the cheese. This interpretation suggests that running shoes are the skills gained in the course of seeking a living and which have to be constantly sharpened. These include; constant networking and skills constantly learned in the workplace. They are necessary not only for getting to the cheese but also for the pursuit of new opportunities.
The writings on the wall signify lessons learnt along the way of seeking an alternative path. They are used by Haw as a reminder of what he has learnt and the mistakes he should not make again. They were used to act as a guide both to himself and to Hem, if he chose to leave Cheese Station C in pursuit of new cheese. They are the lessons that can only be learnt by letting go of the old and choosing to change.
supervisor, one of the action steps that Iwould take to manage change is
implementing attitude change (Harris, 81). The perception of change is all in
the mind and this would prepare the workers for dealing with change mentally.
This involves a dynamic way of solving problems that involves engaging
activities that encourage a non-conventional approach to problems. I would also
implement moving of workers between departments to ensure they are equipped
with various skill sets useful to them and to reduce the chances of
Harris, Philip Robert. Managing the Knowledge Culture: A Guide for Human Resource Professionals and Managers on the 21st Century Workplace. Human Resource Development, 2005. Print.
“Who moved my cheese? Full Movie.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 14 Sep. 2013. Web. 7 Apr 2014.
Johnson, Spencer. Who Moved My Cheese?: An Amazing Way To Deal With Change in Your Work and in Your Life. New York: Putnam, 1998. Print.
A career management is the process undertaken to build up a career or profession for future. This process starts when one is enrolled to school as a child and the learning process starts. As one grows, he develops different interests, which lead to settling for a certain profession. The backbone of any profession is guided by interests, talents, values and personality. To identify values, one can observe his achievements over the years. Talents are easily identified by taking note of what interests the person feels comfortable and they do not have to struggle to achieve it. There are different tests online to identify individual’s personality. Once aware of personality, one should conduct a self-assessment and write down a development plan. The plan will assist in identifying a vision, which will give guidelines on how to achieve it. The self-assessment will help in identifying the strengths, weaknesses and areas, which need to be developed. In this assessment, one can list down priorities and allocate timing to achieve set goals.
Before this study on self-assessment, I did not have set goals to guide me on my career path. During this learning session, I identified this weakness and decided to make necessary changes on my attitude and development of my career. My valued career perception is to get involved in business development and have my own business in future. I would like to research on businesses and successful ways of developing and maintaining it. Once I have achieved my goals, I would like to assist students to achieve their goals by encouraging them as a motivational speaker.
In this short self-assessment, I established my strengths and weaknesses. My strengths are in presentation of projects, passing information and managing people to attain a certain goal. The areas that need improvement are sticking to the master plan, allocating time to complete a certain event. Creating comfortable environment to nature new talents and encourage my colleagues.
In setting my career Priorities, I was able to focus on what I want in future. After the establishment, I made a list of steps to be taken which include the time I should be through with college, the type of organization I want to work for, I chose mentors and professionals I can look up to. I purchased a few books to guide me on what need to be done to achieve this desired outcome.
Evaluation of career variables is an important aspect to measure success after certain period. Time is important and unpredictable. Due to this nature, I learned that it is very essential to consider when anticipating changing careers. I was able to evaluate and change my goals using the knowledge on this chapter. It also pointed out some aspects that need restructuring and set new goal targets.
The assessment related to my personal priorities in the sense that I had was able to reflect on my needs. Using this exercise, I was able to set different career goals and allocate timing to fulfill them. It also gave a clear guideline on my career on where I am now and the steps to be accomplished to get to the where I want to be. This exercise assisted me to make specified plan on my career direction and the qualifications needed to be successful. In this exercise I noticed am passionate about business and I am planning to increase my knowledge on in this field, so that I can increase the level of responsibility and skill in management. This educating exercise assisted me to identify goals and settle in a certain career. It also challenged me to gain more knowledge so that I can be more competitive in the job market of the chosen career.
Organizations need sound leadership in order to achieve stated objectives. Leadership refers to the act of raising others to higher levels of success. It is involving as it requires skills and techniques to manage a diverse group of people. Diversity means leading a group of people with different cultures and spiritual differences. For instance, the workforce in the United States, for instance, consists of black, American Indian, Hispanic and whites who need to be handled in different ways. This brings about a challenge in leadership, for instance in the issue of discrimination whereby a group may feel superior to others.
On the other hand, perceived negative dynamics can be a challenge when leading certain groups such as disabled people and minorities. Leaders need to handle people tactfully because according to the Hudson Institute, different groups of people are likely to be represented at the workplace.
Despite the shortfalls, organizations exhibiting excellent leadership styles are likely to gain market share, increased production, savings on costs and experience quality management. Leaders, therefore, need to capitalize on a diverse workforce since this will increase innovation and motivation among women employees and other minority groups represented in the workforce. The Hudson institute calls on leaders to employ strategies, which include maintaining dynamism, integrating workers and improving their education and skills in order to have sound leadership. Leaders also ought to employ some golden rules and diversity training in order to achieve goals. This can be possible upon having an understanding of the global environment, cultures of different groups of workers represented at the workplace. Overly, communication in line with the mission and vision statements should be important to a successful leader.
- The Local Emergency Planning Committee in Arkansas is established by the Arkansas HAZMAT Emergency Management Act A.C.A. § 12-82-101 (2014)
- The Presidential Disaster Declaration is issued when a state is overwhelmed with a disaster. The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 5121-5206 is the legal framework upon which the president bases the disaster declaration. The declaration follows a laid down procedure to ensure accountability and the respect for state disaster mitigation measures. The Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act describes the process a state is to follow if it wishes to request and obtain a presidential disaster declaration. The law also defines the assistance the federal government will provide in terms of type and scope. The law stipulates the conditions under which the federal government offers assistance.
The Governor of the affected state must make a request to the federal government if a presidential disaster declaration is to be made. The Governor’s request is made through the regional Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) office. A Preliminary Damage Assessment (PDA) is done by Federal and State officials to estimate the disaster extent and impact on individuals and facilities. The Governor’s request is usually accompanied by the PDA. The Governor must show that the disaster’s magnitude is beyond state capabilities to handle, and give an estimate of local resources used in tackling the problem as well as an estimate of the resources required to mitigate the disaster.
- NIMS refers to the National Incident Management System. The system contains principles and concepts, which guide the management of emergencies from preparedness up to recovery, irrespective of the disaster’s location, cause, size or complexity. Implementation of NIMS gives a foundation that enhances integrated preparedness as well as response and planning. NIMS enhances cooperation between different agencies and organizations, enabling their effective participation in emergency management and response. NIMS brings together public and private sector stakeholders under the same roof to enhance efficiency and reduce duplication of roles. NIMS has different components, which require compliance. The chart below is a summary of the components of NIMS and the compliance objectives
|Adoption Adopt NIMS for all private and public sector stakeholders; Establish mechanism for measuring and reporting on progress of adoption; Appoint NIMS liaison officer to coordinate cooperation; Ensure NIMS compliance objectives are met by all audits associated with Federal Preparedness Awards.|
|Resource management Ensure response assistance conform to NIMS definitions, and that data resources are interoperable. Ensure all emergency response personnel have the proper accreditation and clearance to access sites of incidents.|
|Command and management Incident command system (ICS) – ensure there is a unified command to oversee the management of incidences. Multi-agency coordination system (MACS) – coordinate response between all the stakeholders to ensure efficiency Public information – provide the necessary information during emergencies as well as collect factual information about incidences|
- the NRF has been updated to the National Planning Framework consisting of the response framework, the prevention framework, the mitigation framework and the recovery framework
- Building contractors must meet the safety requirements for disabled persons. This is because the requirements are not only legally mandatory but also part of the social responsibility of contractors.
Coordination within legal and political contexts
Disaster management occurs within a legal as well as political context. It is paramount that the disaster managers be acquainted with the legal framework guiding disaster preparedness, management and mitigation. The prevention and management of disasters needs a multifaceted approach. This is because there are varied agencies involved in the disaster response efforts. Therefore, there should be proper coordination between the various stakeholders involved in the response effort. It is interesting to see that the crazy county officials have no idea about the legal framework guiding emergency response efforts. This implies that they cannot initiate the necessary legal process to seek for help should the need arise.
McEntire and Dawson (2007, 58) state that to understand disaster management in the US, one has to remember that the country has a federalist constitution which influences the way the federal and state governments respond to disasters. Because of differences in the local and federal government approaches to disaster management, this can cause the disaster management effort to be unfocused. The presence of varied disaster management organizations and agencies is due to the decentralized nature of the US government. The organizations and agencies have different mandates and operate using different legal frameworks. This can cause an overlap in the work done by the bodies. Sometimes, the federal requirements for offering assistance conflict with local requirements. Therefore, states may not ask for federal assistance even when it is necessary, especially if the federal requirements are politically unpopular.
Consequently, some programs may not be implemented due to the friction between local agencies and the better funded federal agencies. Sometimes, states fail to get federal funding because they do employ the right people or spend sufficient funds to pursue and manage grants (McEntire &Dawson 2007, 68). Federal grants have unique limitations and eligibility grants. This implies that the emergency managers require an intimate knowledge of the laws governing the disbursement of federal funds if the state is to benefit from federal assistance in case of overwhelming disaster. For effective coordination to occur, disaster response managers need to know how local legislation agrees with or differs with federal legal requirements. This can help in designing ways to ensure that the affected persons obtain the best possible help without legal hindrance.
After disasters happen, there is a state of chaos as response efforts arrive. This can cause role duplication and a disorderly response effort. Buck et al. (2006) recommend the use of an incident command system (ICS) as a disaster management tool. ICS uses rational bureaucratic principles to guide the disaster management efforts. The system provides a framework of rules and practices governing the actions of the many agencies and organizations responding to a disaster. The ICS tries to bring order to an otherwise chaotic post-disaster environment. The ICS also facilitates the division of labor and coordination between the various disaster mitigation efforts. Managers must have sufficient legal knowledge if they are to formulate the ICS. Prior planning can help in identifying the agencies that can fit within the state legal regime and the compatibility with national jurisdiction.
The political context has a telling effect on disaster preparedness response and mitigation. Disaster managers must be ready for the political reality that shapes leaders’ decisions. The political leaders deal with a wide range of risks and the decisions they make are dependent on the prevailing political realities. There is also a change in the public sector as government outsources most of its functions to the private sector (Waugh n.d.). The terrorist incidents have also changed government attitude to that of suspicion towards the public. Therefore, obtaining the necessary information that is necessary for implementing certain decisions can be difficult. Emergency managers also need to be aware that government officials, as well as the private sector, is likely to be hostile to any disaster preparedness, response or mitigation initiatives that they perceive are likely to hinder growth.
Disaster managers must strike a fine line if they are to coordinate effectively response efforts. The successful disaster manager must be able to navigate the legal and political hurdles to deliver the required help to those who require it.
Coordination within ethical and social contexts
The new disaster manager is facing several ethical issues. The predecessor has left files that show that grant monies were not spent for the intended purposes. This raises an ethical dilemma course of action the manager should take. There is no suggestion that the grant money was used corruptly. There is a possibility that the grant monies were used to do some commendable work. The question is whether the new manager should stop this because that was not the intended purpose or should the manager continue overseeing the inappropriate use of the funds. The other ethical dilemma revolves around the impending disaster. After the state failing to implement timely mitigation measures, a storm is coming that is likely to cause widespread damage to property and life.
Due to time constraints and the scarcity of resources, a temporary wall can protect only one area between the sparsely populated but valuable wealthy estate and the densely populated but poor estate. A manager needs to make decisions about these ethical situations. Disaster managers frequently face ethical problems, as well as social considerations in their work. Therefore, disaster manager must take into consideration the ethical as well as the social context when designing emergency preparation, response and mitigation measures.
Hoffman (2009) states that vulnerable communities are often overlooked during and after disasters. Vulnerable communities, which include the financially disadvantaged seem to suffer the worst during disasters. This is because they do not have the emotional, financial and social resources that can help to mitigate that disaster. Disaster managers should have a list of such disadvantaged persons so that they can receive the necessary support during a disaster. Most of the economically disadvantaged persons tend to be from ethnic minorities who are segregated from society. Therefore, even during disasters, they may not receive support from the ethnic majorities. These people can not manage on their own, hence the need for the disaster manager to give them special consideration.
If the utilitarian ethical perspective is applied to situations, then, that solution that gives the greatest good to the largest number of people is the best. When disasters happen, there are many competing interests for the meager resources. Disaster managers need to make decisions on the best utilization of the available resources. At this point, managers should choose a course of action that assures the protection of the life of the largest number of people. Therefore, the manager should build temporary walls on the poorer part of town. This is because the area is densely populated and has many people, most of whom may be economically disadvantaged. Therefore, they may be unable to rebuild if they lose their property.
The coordination of disaster response, management and mitigation efforts occurs within the social sphere. Effective disaster management is dependent on how information is generated in three crucial stages – the recognition stage, the assessment and allocation stage and the feedback and evaluation stage. (Sobel & Leeson 2007). The information needed to manage disasters can be found within the society. However, this information is disparate and is held by different persons. The task of the disaster manager is to ensure that accurate information is available for ensuring that disasters do not get out of hand. Effective disaster management is reliant on the information obtained in each of the three stages.
Information obtained at the recognition stage helps in identifying whether an incident is a disaster or not. At the assessment stage, information is necessary for determining the extent of resources required, as well as the areas where assistance is needed most. Accurate information helps in the making of appropriate mitigation plans. At the feedback and evaluation stage, information helps in judging whether the intervention measures are achieving the states objectives. This will help in guiding the distribution of the available resources. In coordination within the social context, the challenge is to generate accurate information that can be used in disaster management.
Buck, D., Trainor, J. & Aguirre, B. (2006). A critical evaluation of the incident command system and NIMS. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 3(3), pp. 1-27.
Hoffman, S. (2009). Preparing for disaster: protecting the most vulnerable in emergencies. University of California, Davis, 42(1491), pp. 1491-1547.
McEntire, E. & Dawson, G. (1991). The intergovernmntal context. In Emergency management: Principles and practice for local government Drabek, T & Hoetmer, G. (Eds). New York: ICMA Press.
Sobel, R. & Leeson, P. (2007). The use of knowledge in natural-disaster relief management. The Independent Review, 11(3), pp. 519-532.
William L. Waugh, W. (n.d.). Public administration, emergency management, and disaster policy. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact =8&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Ftraining.fema.gov%2FEMIWeb%2Fedu% 2Fdocs%2FEMT%2FDisciplines%2520Disasters%2520and%2520EM%2520Chapter%2 520Public%2520Admin%2520EM%2520Disaster%2520Policy.doc&ei=NH8sU4a_EorK sgbVuIGgCQ&usg=AFQjCNFn0LPx-ZIyccY9yiKfUzAgoyOdcg&sig2=1rR- A0kE71Iz2-tlvVXtiA&bvm=bv.62922401,d.Yms
Case 6: Porsche
Summary of Key Issues:
This paper gives a brief overview of the Porsche car company. Essentially, the Porsche brand has been in existence over years and has undergone various strategic changes that enabled the car brand cut a niche in the motor racing sector. Internal management changes, entry of Volkswagen group and design changes have led to tremendous transformation of the Porsche brand.
1-Using a SWOT analysis framework, evaluate the factors in Porsche’s internal and external environments. Be sure to specify strength, weakness, opportunities, or threats that are new to the company as a division of Volkswagen Group?
Porsche integration with Volkswagen Company led to a shift in the business model within the company. There are threats, strengths, opportunities that developed from this deal.
It led to brand visibility and advertising of the Porsche brand.
There was the creation of better engine designs with 500 horsepower.
There is increased chance of engineering capabilities.
There is increased competition for the Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) cars hence lowering Porsche market share.
The company is not diversified in its product line.
Despite linking with Volkswagen, the company is still small in size and obtains small revenue compared to other car manufacturers.
Collaboration with Volkswagen leads to increased products and services.
There is the chance of developing innovative new car features.
There is a better chance of increasing the market share.
Economic challenges and political issues have a direct impact on the business.
Competition from other car manufacturers threatens business growth.
Currency fluctuation and exchange rate figures have a direct impact on the business.
2– Review the mix of products offered under the Porsche brand. How do the models compare against competitor products in the marketplace?
The Porsche line of cars are meant for the wealthy individuals. Porsche has five car models; the 911, Cayenne, Boxter, Panamera and the Cayman. The main competitors for the Cayenne model are the BMW X6, Audi Q7 and Mercedes Benz ML63. Difference in features are found in aspects such as speed, interior design and cost. On the other hand, the Panamera is regarded as the fastest luxury cars among its competitors: the Audi S8 and Mercedes S65 (Hitt, Duane and Robert 323). Cayman and the Boxter compete against their rivals in terms of their reliability.
3-How will Porsche’s strategy change under Volkswagen ownership?
Volkswagen has great expertise in design and innovation of car brands. This partnership with Porsche will lead to innovation, and an increase in the number of cars produced. Additionally, the engineers are experts hence they create customized products. The market share will also rise, and the Porsche will be visible in many markets and countries.
4-What does this mean for the future of the company?
This implies that Porsche is placing itself at a competitive advantage over its competitors. The company is using the Volkswagen partnership to increase market share and revenue for its stakeholders. There is also the possibility of being the leading manufacturer in SUV vehicles.
- Porsche should maintain its business strategy and not change due to new deals with other companies.
- There should be widespread investments in research and design to maintain its competitive advantage.
Every business entity needs to understand its business model and its competitive advantage. Acquisitions and partnership ought to be made for the sake of enhancing such business models and not breaking them.
Hitt, Michael A, Duane. Ireland, and Robert E. Hoskisson. Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization. Cincinnati: South-Western College Pub, 2012. Print.
Management Essay on the Balanced Scorecard as a Management Tool for Assessing and Monitoring Strategy Implementation in Health Care Organizations
Strategic Management Final Exam Questions
Porter’s Five Forces model looks at different aspects of an industry that shape the competition within the given industry. In his argument, Porter states of the narrow perspective with which manager define competition given that it (competition) is not a factor for only direct competitors (Porter 2008). The basis of the model therefore is the fact that, “competition for profits goes beyond established industry rivals to include four other competitive forces as well: customers, suppliers, potential entrants, and substitute products” (Porter 2008). Thus, the intensity of the rivalry within an industry from all the five forces helps in the definition of the structure of an industry, molding the character of competitive interactions within the said industry.
Using Porter’s Five Forces model, its relevance is particularly visible in the analysis of the US automobile industry. The automobile industry in the US is among the most competitive with three main automobile manufacturers being the most dominant. These, also referred to as the “Big Three,” include Ford, Daimler Chrysler and GM (Pearlstein, 2005).
The threat posed by a new entrant in the auto industry is very low given the colossal amount of capital any new entrant will require to enter the market. Additionally, most established companies have established brand loyalty with customers. It would therefore take a lot marketing and advertising for any new company to establish fully in the US.
Rivalry in the automotive industry is high. The Big Three, while having dominated the US market in the past, now have competition from new market entrants such as Toyota, KIA and Honda. These have entered the market and offered consumers cheaper varieties, which has consequently increased the rivalry.
The threat of substitute in the US automotive industry is relatively low. This is because few options exist that offer the convenience, affordability and independence accorded by vehicles. Alternative options that include train, bus and planes are inconvenient in personal time, luggage capacity and independence. Thus, even with soaring gas prices, it is likely that vehicles will still be in use.
Consumers’ bargaining power is very strong in the automotive industry. Given that consumers can also hire vehicles and therefore not necessarily purchase them, the consumers continue to wield stronger bargaining power than the manufacturers. It is also easy to switch brands from one manufacturer to another.
Most suppliers depend on particular car manufacturers to purchase their products. As such, the suppliers’ bargaining power is relatively low, since any loss of a manufacturer means death to the supplier’s business. Additionally, the US automotive industry has only a few car manufacturers, therefore giving suppliers little of choice in substitute companies to supply to.
Critics of Porter’s model have criticized the fact that the model usually does not give much details into what the customer needs are (Denning, 2012). Therefore, while the customer should be the central focus of a company and of strategy, the model gives precedence to competition and industry size. It is possible that in giving precedence to these, as well as strategy, the company, in the end lose will the most important element, the customer.
Developed back in the 80s Porter’s Five Forces Model assumes that the industry is stagnant. With a change in technology and market dynamics, it is possible that the markets have changed and do not therefore follow such streamlined thought. Additionally, the framework usually analyses an industry. According to Porter (2008), the model is applicable to an exact industry and not to sections within an industry. This is misleading since industries can further be divided into segments and sections, not covered by the model.
Suppliers, competitors and buyers are mostly unrelated since there is no interaction among them. This is an assumption made by the framework. In the real sense however, there is direct interaction among these three entities, which the model denies.
The Balanced Scorecard is a system for strategic planning and management adopted by private, public, for-profit, non-profit and governments for the alignment of enterprise activities with both the organizational vision and strategy for the improvement of the internal and external communications, while monitoring the organizational performance against the strategic goals (Kaplan, 2010). David Norton and Robert Kaplan introduced the system in 1992 after wide research in both public and private companies on the role of intangible assets on value creation (Kaplan, 2010).
At the center of the balanced scorecard (BSC) are the organization’s vision and strategy, these are tied to four perspectives, which work together to form a complete organization and therefore guide performance. The four perspectives herein are the financial, internal business processes, customer and organizational learning and growth (Kaplan, 2010). The conceptualization of the BSC, with these four perspectives, is therefore to measure organizational performance (Bisbe & Barrubes, 2012).
The four perspectives herein, therefore, smooth the progress of balancing long and short-term, expected results and performance drivers as well as objective and quantifiable but subjective performance indicators (Simoes & Rodrigues, 2013). For each perspective therefore, the BSC forms a central part since it is integrated within the desired organizational objectives.
Moreover, each perspective has objectives within it, with a provision for the measures used for the achievement of the said objectives, the targets to be reached and the initiative an organization can use for the achievement of the objectives. In essence, therefore, these four perspectives offer a window to manager through which they can monitor organizational performance, while making adjustments (control) where necessary for achievement of the given objectives (Lawrie, Kalff & Andersen, 2005). The activities within each of the perspectives are therefore important in helping the manager of the organization understand peripheral performance and through this understanding, enact necessary and applicable intervention, and as well inform the evolution of organizational strategy according to market changes. BSC in its primary construction stipulates each of the four perspectives and within each perspective identify the measures and indicators that are vital for organizational performance (Bisbe & Barrubes, 2012).
An advantage of using is its focusing feature. Thus, it enables managers to focus since it provides the position of the company in relation to each perspective. The positioning that BSC gives is usually aligned with a particular strategy, which the company has formulated (Bisbe & Barrubes, 2012). With such a clear visibility of the position of a company therefore, managers are capable of monitoring and controlling the activities set within each perspective in the scorecard. With such monitoring and control, it is possible for managers to achieve best practice performance levels using the BSC.
BSC is also instrumental in overcoming deficiencies related to the traditional evaluation of performance systems based on financial indicators alone. With the knowledge of the different elements and stakeholders that form the organizational operation environment such as employees, customers and investors, BSC recognizes the need for the satisfaction of these multiple objectives (Lawrie, Kalff & Andersen, 2005). In the same breath, BSC sees financial indicators not as a final entity and indicator of performance, but as part of a diverse set of performance measures.
One of the limitations of the BSC is the high chance of resistance from employees. The resistance in this case may come from the managers or other lower cadre employees who may feel the BSC is not adding any value and therefore resist its implementation. Managers may especially view the system as burdensome to their work, and as an indicator of lack appreciation of their work.
The successful construction and implementation of BSC requires valuable information to be useful in driving the process. Therefore, any incomplete, inaccurate and irrelevant information supplied to the system may end up creating a non-viable BSC. This reliance on information given thus makes the system prone to errors.
BSC is intensive in time and cost. Thus, while the system is effective if accurately implemented, it remains highly costly and time consuming since it requires a deep understanding of the process. The absence of a staff with knowledge in the process means that external consultation will be required, which is costly to the organization. The system specifically requires, for its effectiveness, the need for knowledge on the theory behind it, its processes, measures and its use for performance and process improvement. This requires that an organization train the whole staff, a feat that is not only challenging but also almost impossible for small organizations.
Bisbe, J. & Barrubes, J. (2012). The Balanced Scorecard as a Management Tool for Assessing and Monitoring Strategy Implementation in Health Care Organizations. Rev Esp Cardiol, 65(10): 919-927
Denning, S. (2012, November 24) Even Monitor Didn’t Believe in Five-Forces Analysis. Forbes
Kaplan, R. S. (2010). Conceptual Foundations of the Balanced Scorecard. Harvard University.
Lawrie, G., Kalff, D. & Andersen, H. (2005). Balanced Scorecard and Results-Based Management. Berkshire: 2GC
Pearlstein, S. (2005, March 25). Big Three Lumbering Toward Failure. The Washington Post
Porter, M. E. (2008). The Five Competitive Forces that Shape Strategy. Harvard Business Review
Simoes, A. M. & Rodrigues, J. A. (2013). The Effectiveness of the Balanced Scorecard on Strategy Management Processes: A Case Study in a Portuguese Industrial Company. Global Advanced Research Journal of Management and Business Studies, 2(3):154-164
Organizational Change Management
Suffolk county council is facing a challenge in developing a different culture of doing business due to the reluctance from members of staff to develop a different culture of doing business. The county chief executive has already warned about the looming mass retrenchment which has not been effected due to the slow pace at which reforms are being made. The situation has been particularly challenging for the chief executive who was hired specifically to steer the council in a new direction and yet when she does make an attempt there is a slow response.One of the main causes of the massive job losses is the budget deficit of one hundred and fifty three million pounds that the government faces.
The intention of the council executive was to cut costs by cooperating with the district council, police, voluntary sectors and other administrative branches to as opposed to the mass retrenchment being proposed as the council does not run on a system where financial rewards are the only target (Beer &Nohria 2000 p. 15). Her proposals also garnered criticism from the opposition who did not support the proposal to reduce the on demand services as they view them as a necessary part of the community. The New Strategy Decision that was proposed has been discussed by over a hundred and seventy five officials and with the elections approaching, there is a an urgent need to get the direction implemented especially since the council does not foresee an increase in revenue while an increase in costs is almost certain.
The council has therefore lagged in the implementation of the program that is the cause of the executive’s problems in the development of a strategy that will lead to its successful implementation. The strategic program was focused on the review of most public services and analyzing the root cause of social problems in Suffolk to find a way to prevent them instead of treating their symptoms. The risk of retrenchment has also not been well met by the employees with the threat of unemployment causing those who are uncertain of their future to be too insecure to ask in times when they are unsure as this might make them appear incompetent and therefore more likely to be let go. The executive has however constantly said that it is against the proposal of mass retrenchment especially since it will cost the council a lot of money in terms of compensation for them, but also because it will save them at most fifty five million pounds that is not enough.
This report looks at the problems that are faced in implementing changes in a work environment more so in one in which the methods of operation have not changed for a long time. The problems include the hostility that the one bringing change will receive as not many will view the changes as a necessary part of doing business due to the long period of operation under the old system. The report will also show the possible solutions to these problems including a change of view in the process and different schemata for the council. The report will also look at the different methods that are used to develop at organizational change and the merits and demerits of each; these methods include downsizing, change in view and reduced consultation. A conclusion will be given on what the best methods are for the current scenario at the Suffolk County Council. Finally the report will look at the feasibility of the solutions offered and their shortcomings as well as offer recommendations that will assist the county council in the present and short term future.
The Suffolk County Council (SCC)has a serious problem in its schemata that is resulting in it being overstaffed and this is what is leading to the excess expenses in the council. The function of the schemata in management is to govern the view that is held by employees and management on how the business operates (Balogun& Johnson 2014 p.524). It is important in the establishment of a proper working relationship to prevent unnecessary costs of production developing due to excessive expenditure in communication, retraining of staff, and the cost or reminders such as memos. The poor schemata also means that there is overemployment of people to accomplish tasks that could be done by a single individual as seen in the SCC which foresees a massive retrenchment occurring in order to reduce the costs and run the council more efficiently.
There is also the resistance to change that is met in any organization whenever a new idea is formulated due to the view that the change is wrong (Fernandes& Rainey 2006 p.172). The chief executive is therefore facing a difficult task in making people change their view on the new strategy (Kim &Mauborgne2003 p.37). One of the sources of resistance to an idea occurs when a radical idea is forced too fast due to the executive underestimating the time it takes to change the organization. The executive could have had an overly ambitious plan which although applicable given time is not practical in the given time frame and this can force the other members to refuse its entirety instead of trying to review it since it is a necessary part of growth (Tsoukas& Chia 2002, p.575). This is seen in the opposition to the proposal to have the on demand services be cut with the opposition protesting the tone of the letter and not just its content showing how a radical idea can get resistance even from those who should be in support of change (Harsh 2011, p.96). The internal resistance is extremely important as it can even lead to the complete failure of the organization as it fails to adopt new, more efficient methods of working and is unable to be competitive with its budget.
The SCC is a public sector organization and this is an important consideration in analysing its slow pace of accepting change. The public sector has always been significantly slower than the private sector in accepting change due to the large number of experts employed (Sminia&Nistelrooj, 2006 p. 101). This large pool of experts that must be consulted is seen in the fact that the SCC has a hundred and seventy five managers who had to be consulted in order to form the New Strategic Direction and will have to be consulted frequently as the program is implemented. This means that the decision making process takes significantly longer due to the time it takes to collect these opinions. The bureaucratic process is also significantly longer in the public sector and an individual has to get approval from more individuals in order to implement an idea as compared to the private sector meaning a slower process of change.
The SCC is a political institution and this means that the individuals whose approval is required to implement change are elected officials and this brings a political aspect to the decision making process. Due to the different interests of various political groups it can take time to get the necessary approval to have a move supported even if it is in their best interest. This political aspect is especially crucial since it can be underestimated by members of the private sector as to how much it can delay the process and an individual moving from the private sector to the public sector might find it significantly more difficult to get things done due to their attempted reliance on administrative authority which can lead to their failure in public office (Kotter2007, p.5). An example of this is seeing in the opposition’s outright criticism to the proposal to work with administrative authorities to reduce on demand services so as to cut costs. This political aspect also makes it a challenge for the organization to become more efficient as the negation aspect can at times mean that one issue is addressed at the understanding that another one will not.
In order to improve the acceptance of the new methods, it is imperative that the management first categorize the change on whether it is episodic or continuous. Episodic change would be change that is a brief interruption to the normal flow of the organisation and after the given period, the system reverts to what it used to be such as the retrenchment of staff (Weick& Queen 1999 p.363). Continuous change is a change, which is set for a long-term period, changes the entire equilibrium of the organization permanently, and includes the analysis of the roots of the social problems at Suffolk to treat their sources. To start the episodic change process, the executive must convince the other members to surrender control to her to perform the business activities in the desired manner as the legitimate head (Erkama 2010 p.25); this will lead to a faster implementation of ideas as they are now following a single mind-set which is of the management.
The management must also ensure that there is planned change and that the planned change is discussed by the affected parties in order to create a continuously adaptive environment that is suitable to them. The organization can in order to quicken the decision making process focus on the outcome and not the minute details that lead to it (Hebson, Grimshaw, Matchington& Cooke 2002 p.5). This would mean the SCC taking a view that is traditionally of the private sector however the private sector does implement change faster than public companies. This can be achieved by reducing the number of people that must be consulted in order to approve a plan. The SCC can reduce the bureaucratic process through a better working Schema in order to find where the delays are and either quicken the procedure to gaining approval through reducing the number of officials one has to get the approval off (Collins 1998 p.126). The method of approval can also change so that if a policy is not being implemented in certain elected officials’ jurisdiction then they do not have to be consulted for approval as it makes it difficult to gain approval of ideas when the individuals asked have no knowledge on it and will require coaxing to abandon their other engagements to come and vote for it.
For this change to happen, it would be necessary for the SCC to focus more on the public good of their policies as it will not go well with some officials who would feel that the move to segment the voting is tantamount to taking their power from them (Leitch & Davenport 2002 p.3).
The political dilemma is a serious issue to be overcome for the SCC as to reduce the number of approvals necessary to implement an idea they still need to get that number of approvals.The chief executive must through dialogue and persuasion show the opposition the importance of the changes being implemented in the council before there is a severe budget deficit (Garvin & Roberto 2005, p.26). The council can then implement policies that would get radical policies approved quicker through having the support of the opposition. The politics of the council are heavily influenced by the ideology behind ideas and by the executive showing that their ideology is similar to that of the other politicians they can receive their political endorsement in the call for a change in the working culture of the council (Buchanan &Badham 2008 p.5). The receptivity factor must also be analysed by the group for them to comprehend the difficulty they will encounter in proposing the different ideas (Ferlie, Hartley & Martin 2003, S9). The executive should also be given authority in the scope of operating with minimal interference however this can only come through analysing the history of the SCC so as to develop a proper policy that both the opposition and the incumbent can view as a compromise of their intentions. The receptivity variable is of utmost importance as an idea that is not viewed positively can lead to the entire New Strategy being scrapped and labelled as unpopular due to the political desires more so of opposition to show themselves as the better option for the county’s leadership (Kegan&Lahey 2001, p.52). The politics of the council cannot therefore be overlooked, as it is one of the most crucial variables in determining the success of the New Strategy.
The SCC executive is facing a major challenge in trying to develop a change in the work culture of the office due to a perceived reluctance by the members of the council to implement the New Strategic Decision that would see them save a significant amount of money and therefore remove the fear of a deficit that appears inevitable. One of the methods proposed to reduce the deficit is to retrench hundreds of employees from the council however this proposal will not save the council much and is probably part of the reason for the slow implementation of the new policies due to a fear of inquiring and hostility from people who feel that their jobs are threatened by the chief executive. The chief executive is also facing a challenge from the bureaucratic nature of the public sector due as it is responsible for the slow rate at which ideas are successfully implemented. The SCC has at least a hundred and seventy five managers that it consults which is a significantly large number and this is another cause of the delay in decision making which the council must address for it improvement.
The speed with which the executive wants ideas implemented might be ideal and if attempted could actually fail the council and make her look incompetent as well. New ideasand changes do not receive positive receptions but with time many are adopted by their respective organizations. A push for faster acceptance can lead to the executive being isolated and eventually removed in favor of a more moderate person or one who will not change anything and this could lead to eventual hostility to any new idea. The opposition could also be reluctant to work with the incumbent part and help them with their ideas as it will make them look less competent and could lead to poor performance in the upcoming election. The opposition has already shown its reluctance to cut the on demand services and addresses the problems from their source, this could lead to their further opposition to new ideas from the council. Finally, the executive must acknowledge that even internal politics of the ruling party are going to be responsible for the slow rate of implementation of policies, as they must ensure that the members of the party accept the ideas. By showing members that the SCC has the same ideologies as themselves they could earn trust to have less restriction although it is limited. By use of the five case model the SCC can also analyse the best strategy to use in terms of policy development in the financial, economic, managerial, strategic and commercial sectors of the organisation (Green book 2013 p.13).
For the council to have a successful change in culture it should educate employees on the benefits of the new policies implemented through employee assistance programs that will help them be at pace with the management in the rate of behavioural change. The employees are not necessarily hostile to the proposals however it is a challenge for them to see the direction in which the management would like to steer them and can only perform short tasks that they are commanded due to their lack of knowledge in the long term target of the SCC.
The opinion of a neutral third party that is equally as knowledgeable in the field, if not more, as the executive can be called to analyse the policies formed. The opinion of this third party would be of high value especially when dealing with the opposition who might not necessarily approve the radical ideas recommended by the executive and would block their plans through their voting power. The opinion of the third party can also be of value to the opposition who can also use them to show the executive when their plans are lopsided in their favour or lack a modern professional measurement framework that analyses their success (Brignall and Model 2000, p.6).
It is important for there to be a proper framework developed for the SCC that can lead to more transparency and faster identification of areas that are wasting money unnecessarily. The council needs more efficient schemata as the one in place have led to excessive expenditures in departments that are unnecessary and hence being pushed for removal. The importance of cooperation with the opposition through political debate is also necessary due to their electoral power, this therefore means that the council cannot ignore the concerns of the opposition and has to actively involve them and while discussion is important, it is also necessary for them to accept that for the opposition to accept their proposals, they too have to accept some of the proposals that the opposition has. Finally, both groups should change their measurement on how a county assembly is supposed to operate from the view that the process is just as important as the final result and instead focus on whether the end result can still be achieved by faster means even if at the expense of their consultation through multidimensional performance measurement frameworks. By doing so the SCC can reduce the number of consultations the executive needs to make to execute policies successfully.
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President’s Budget and the Congressional Budget Process
The term budget process is the number of procedures that develop independently and that arise with contrasting levels of harmonization. This paper attempts to describe each part of the budget process involving the Congress, and the president’s budget process. The budget process has three steps: progression of the budget plan compliance and validation of the President’s budget plan, and execution of approval appropriateness and other budgetary laws. The President’s budget is a statement of the President’s plans precedence and an incorporated plan for the distribution of centralized budgetary possessions. The President’s budget is a set of suggestions in which the Congress has a choice of executing the incorporated offers. The president is required to present to the Congress a planned financial plan by the first Monday in February, and the advancement commences 18 months before the financial year (Streeter, 2010, pg.10). It is an inclusive examination of centralized revenues and expenditure, together with any proposal suggested by the President, and is the establishment of wide relations with Congress.
Within six weeks of the President’s budget assent, congressional committees are obligated to present their “views and estimates” of expenditure and revenues in their relevant commands to the House and Senate Budget Committees. Every Budget Committee then employs these views and estimates, alongside the information from other sectors, in planning and reporting a concurrent resolution on the budget to its respective house. In practice, the President has handed over to Office of Management and Budget (OMB), assured budgetary responsibilities and jurisdiction required for developing the financial plan. OMB organizes the progress of the President’s budget scheme by issuing circulars, memos, and direction documents to the leaders of directive agencies (Streeter, 2010, pg.10). Directive agencies then put in order their budget requirements in harmony with the directives and supervision offered by OMB.
The Budget Resolution and Reconciliation
The budget resolution signifies an agreement that involves the House and Senate pertaining to the general size of the national budget, and the common composition of the financial plan in terms of practical classifications. The sums in practical classifications are interpreted into provision to each group with influence over expenditure in a method called “cross walking” under Section 302(a) of the Congressional Budget proceed (Schick, 2007, pg.121). The laws implemented by the house must be dependable with these allocations as well as with the degree of expenditure and revenues. Reconciliation instructions that are included in the budget resolution identify the committee that must advocate the modifications in the law involving revenues or direct expenditure programs in their command.
The Appropriations Process
The yearly appropriations procedure offers funding for unrestricted expenditure programs through 13 regular appropriations by laws that are created by 13 subcommittees. The congress has to ratify the procedures before the start of the financial year. Restrictions in terms of the sum of financial support are current on numerous levels. For a person’s agenda, money may be restricted to the degree suggested in empowered laws (Joyce, 2011, pg.35).
Revenue and Public Debt Legislation
revenue level decided upon in the budget declaration acts as a least, warning deliberation
of revenue legislation that it will reduce revenue less that degree. Additionally,
Article I, Section7 of the Constitution calls for all revenue procedures to start
from the House of Representatives, even though the Senate may modify them, like
other laws .The budget resolution also identifies a proper level for the public
arrears that reveals the budgetary plans approved in the declaration. Any modification
in the certified rank of the civic debt ought to be executed through a legislative
Joyce, P. G. (2011). The Congressional Budget Office: Honest numbers, power, and policymaking. Washington, D.C: Georgetown University Press.
Schick, A. (2007). The federal budget: Politics, policy, process. Washington, D.C: Brookings Institution Press.
Streeter, S., Library of Congress. & Capitol.Net, Inc. (2010). The federal budget process: A description of the federal and congressional budget processes, including timelines. Alexandria, VA: Capitol.Net.
Why Publix Should Venture in the UK Market
Publix supermarket is a premium supermarket chain situated in Lakeland, Florida USA. The company is employee-owned and operates in a number of states in the US. It was founded by George Jenkins in 1930, and it operates as a private corporation whose shareholders are past and present employees. The company is ranked among the best companies to work for and is among the fortune 100 list of largest private companies. The company currently has 1080 stores with more than 140,000 employees (Publix Supermarkets, 2014).
Given the globalization trend across the grocery market, a number of chain stores have focused on expanding to new market ventures to take advantage of untapped markets. Publix being among the most ambitious companies in the world has the option of expanding to the markets beyond the US. One such market is the UK. However, the company must first explore its strategic position before taking the plunge into the UK market. This paper analyses Publix’s strategic position to ascertain whether it can enter the UK market or not.
The company’s financial statement in the last four years is shown below:
Figure 1: Publix’s financial statement in the last four years (Bloomberg Business, 2014)
From the financial statement exhibited above, it can be seen the company has achieved considerable growth in revenue from 25.13 to 28.92 billion dollars in the last four years. The increase has been steady in those four years and is an indication that the company has a healthy financial situation.
The company transacts in the US dollars whereas the UK market requires a British pound. The current exchange rate is 1.0 British pound to 1.65 US Dollars. This means the company will be forced to inject a lot of capital because it will require more dollars in exchange for few pounds. However, such an imbalance maybe offset by returns, which will be converted to dollars. In addition, any change in exchange rate will affect the company.
The UK has a high inflation rate compared to the US. Between 2009 and 2013, annualized inflation rate was 2.40 in the US compared to 4.91 in British (Numbeo, 2014). This means prices are higher in the UK than in the US, and such Publix company will be forced to deal in essential range of products, including groceries.
The UK and the US have a good political relation and thus the company will not be affected by any political issues when it ventures in the UK (Management Paradise, 2013).
Generally, the operational costs in the UK are higher than the US. Rent in the UK is about 26.2% higher than in the US. However, consumer prices in the UK are also higher than in the UK, whereby they are 30.2% higher in the UK than the US. In addition, grocery prices are 13.04% higher in the UK than in the US. This means that although the UK operational cost are high, they are offset by high cost of selling products and thus the company will realize its profits when it ventures in the UK market (Numbeo, 2014).
- The company enjoys an established brand reputation for its quality services. As such, it will be easy for it to venture in unknown territory. Given that Britons are good readers, they must have read about Publix on Fortune 100 list, and thus it will be possible to launch in the UK market (Management Paradise, 2013).
- The company has a motivated workforce established through its stocked ownership program. This means such workforce will readily help the company achieve its aim, including accepting to be sent to the UK to help roll out a new market (Management Paradise, 2013).
- The company has its own production plants for dairy, confectioneries, and a number of consumables making it boats of its weakened channel competition. This will ensure that the company remains productive at home as it venture in the uncertain market abroad (Management Paradise, 2013).
- The company has stable returns on its investments, whereby its returns have been on a steady rise since 2009. This means that it is in a potion to invest part of its revenue, whereby it will finance itself through profit plough-back system. In this case, the company can easily venture into the UK market without experiencing financial barriers (Management Paradise, 2013).
- In 2013, the company was voted on the 8th position on fortune 100 list as the best company to work for in the US. This means that it will attract the best workforce in other environments, including the UK (Management Paradise, 2013).
- The company has stores conveniently located at strategic places where the population is very high. This enables it to tap on the market and remain productive (Management Paradise, 2013).
- The company has been accused of gender discrimination and such reputation may ruin its acceptance in the UK whereby gender equality is valued.
- The company has the same store design in all its locations. Such designs lucks creativity and may not entice creativity-hungry Britons when the company ventures in the UK.
- Prices are not fixed and may not be affordable for everyone.
- The policy of standardization gives its stores a unique outlay, as well as unique customer care experience. This can help the company capture the conservative British when it decide to venture in the UK
- The company has in the recent years concentrated in opening new stores within five states in the US. This will ensure 100% market concentration in the home market, which will act as a cushion as the company ventures abroad.
- The company has a slow response to Internet market, and such slow response may affect its efforts to cope with emerging trends.
- The company faces strict competition from established brands, such as Tesco and Wal-Mart among others.
- The global rise in operational cost and labor may affect its operations.
From the analysis of the strategic position of Publix supermarket, it is evident that the company is well placed to venture into the UK market. This is based on its profitability. The company has achieved considerable growth in revenue from 25.13 to 28.92 billion dollars in the last four years. The increase has been steady in those four years and is an indication that the company has a healthy financial situation. There is no financial risk, and the inflation rate will not affect its operations adversely. In addition, the operational cost balances its profitability and the political climate is conducive.
Bloomberg Business. (2014). publix super markets inc (PUSH:OTC US). Retrieved March 23, 2014, from Bloomberg Business: http://investing.businessweek.com/research/stocks/financials/financials.asp?ticker=PUSH
Management Paradise. (2013). SWOT ANALYSIS ON Publix Super Markets, Inc. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from Management Paradise: http://www.managementparadise.com/forums/principles-management-p-o-m/208561-swot-analysis-publix-super-markets-inc.html
Numbeo. (2014). Cost of Living Comparison Between United States and United Kingdom. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from Numbeo: http://www.numbeo.com/cost-of-living/compare_countries_result.jsp?country1=United+States&country2=United+Kingdom
Publix Supermarkets. (2014). Publix Supermarkets, Inc. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from SEC: http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/81061/000119312512089457/d263014d10k.htm#tx263014_11
Immigration Activities and Programs in Immigration Enforcement
Do immigration activities and program immigration enforcement cause burden in America’s cities?
This research question is paramount in the study of Homeland Security and Emergency Management in that, it brings in to view a cost benefit evaluation of the immigration activities and programs. The solution to this will help the legislature when allocating funds for the counties determine the appropriate proportion to be set aside to facilitate their full implementation. The question will also assist the reader evaluate the consequences of removing the criminal aliens and differentiating them with aliens who have no criminal records. The Congress has targeted to offer financial support for the removal of criminal aliens, however, majority of unauthorized aliens in U.S have not been found guilty of committing any crime (Rosenblum, & Kandel, 2011).
The identified hypotheses of this paper are; the cost of Immigration Enforcement to City Budgets and home Economies, Counter-productivity of Immigration Enforcement to Public wellbeing and effectiveness of local Immigration enforcement to target criminal movement.
The cost of Immigration Enforcement to City Budgets and home Economies
This hypothesis is significant to the theory since it tries to explain the burden immigration activities and programs under the DHS put on the shoulders of the tax payers. This paper found that putting into effect broken immigration laws enhances waste and lost income for cities in existing tough fiscal position. By examining 3 federal-local associated programs that control metropolitan communities and their resources in service of national immigration enforcement objectives, that is 287(g), Secure Communities and the Criminal Alien Program, the paper finds out that these programs inflict high costs on local budgets, inefficiently aims dangerous criminals and ascertain counter-productive to defending public wellbeing. In joining up local police into adding up national enforcement duties to their daily duties, national local affiliations strain inadequate police workforce required to fight crime this would also compromise how police relates with immigrant communities that are important for maintenance of the public safety (Sreeharsha, 2010). The research found that, in practice, these programs are likely to encourage racial and ethnic divisions, contributing to violation of civil rights for United States people and ensnare refugees who are not at all criminals or ones that have only committed minor crimes (Ashar, 2002). Due to these reasons, many immigrant targets have backed down this work, and instead concentrates on local rules intended to build community-police confidence level encouraging the immigrant incorporation. Unluckily, the rising Secure Communities program, which requires local government to fully get involved in immigration enforcement, threatens to destabilize these policies (Ashar, 2002)
By continuously threatening the freedom of immigrants and further forcing them go underground, local immigration enforcement efforts threaten cities’ economic development weaken and lower the municipal tax collection too. A good number of immigrants add to the growth of an economy through paying taxes to the local authorities. Both the undocumented and legal immigrants contributes immensely to the building of the local economy in their capacity as workers, consumers of commodities paying of business and personal taxes, and also by inventing in businesses (Rodriguez, 2008). The impact of contributing to economic development is closely felt in the key cities and municipal counties where great numbers of immigrants dwell and carry out their daily activities. In the year two thousand and eight for instance, immigrants contributed an amount equivalent to two hundred and fifteen billion dollars in financially viable activities to New York City, which is the nation’s leading immigrant destination. In addition, a current Fiscal Policy Institute study established that immigrants generate twenty percent of the economic production in the nation’s twenty-five largest urban areas. The programs set by the DHS threatening the existence of these aliens who have no criminal records lower their contribution to the economic expansion. On the other hand, immigration programs like the 287(g) are accompanied by the highest costs that are burden to the cities and counties. For this reason, they drain the resources to support their operations directly for law enforcement agencies (Harrison, & Lloyd, 2012).
Counter-productivity of Immigration Enforcement to Public wellbeing
This hypothesis outlines that, in case of municipal police units, the added duty of implementing immigration laws stimulates demands on police resources required for regular law enforcement (McDonald, 2006). It is evidenced that joining police officers in federal immigration enforcement hinders them from achieving their core goals of daily fighting of crime. This plays major part in compromising public security. By performing immigration responsibilities consumes police time and resources. Law enforcement managements and rank-and-file police officials warn strongly against social immigration enforcement considering the effects it causes to local policing and community security. Various agencies like Major Cities Chiefs Association, for instance stands by the fact that, immigration laws are very complicated and the training necessary to comprehend them would considerably detract from their core duty of the local police to create safe communities. This also affects the budget and the staffing in the police units (Sullivan, 2009). The immigration program diverts the police officers concentration required to handle investigations and solve criminal cases. The concentration, resources and time required to solve the criminal cases is partially used to enforce the immigration laws. The 287(g) program are in one way damaging the local police work, as trained officers are obliged to enforce immigration laws besides their main duties(Sullivan, 2009). This affects public safety since crimes committed are partially handled by under staffed police officers. The compromising of society safety has been evidenced by the increased 911 calls far above their response time in fiscal year two thousands and seven compared to the previous years in Maricopa. Additionally, county detective numbers of arrests made in year 2007 dropped drastically compared to the previous years.
After the implementing of the Criminal Alien program and the community safety together with 287(g), many criminal cases have escaped justice ending up being unsolved. This is because the overburdened police officers are not in a position to tackle these cases effectively (McDonald, 2006). Also due to lack of the necessary training to handle the immigrants, the local citizens have experienced injustices. Majority have failed to raise an alarm in case of crimes committed to them due to fear of being uncovered and be deported. Additionally, unregistered immigrants, authorized immigrants or U.S. citizens who are living in mixed-up type of families may also be indecisive to relate with law enforcement in participating communities, due to fear that it could disclose the status of their unregistered relatives.
Effectiveness of Local Immigration Enforcement to Target Criminal Movement
ICE’s immigration enforcement procedure and its central partnership programs are promoted to concentrate on aliens with criminal records and dangerous criminal aliens who cause threat to public security. This research hypothesis indicates that, these programs frequently discover immigrants in cities who have not committed any crime, or the aliens found guilty of committing relatively inconsequential crimes (Rosenblum, & Kandel, 2011). There is overwhelming facts showing that federal-local partnerships are being used to eliminate great numbers of aliens for violating the status. ICE ACCESS programs as well pick up U.S. citizens in the process, and are susceptible to cultural and ethnic discrimination.
ICE releases regularly report unfolding aggressive crimes perpetrated by aliens and the ACCESS program in charge of their successive deportation. In spite of this reports generated by the ICE in its effort to disclose the importance of federal partnership programs as a critical public security tools, the reports do not reflect true and fair operations in cities (Menjívar & Abrego, 2012). As a result, the cities should not buy the ideas and instead should re-evaluate utilizing their inadequate resources to maintain this work.
The range of local immigration enforcement programs ensnares large number of immigrants who are yet to be convicted of criminal act. A report released by the Department of home land security (DHS) in fiscal year 2009 revealed that great number of persons identified by 287(g) and the Criminal Alien Program were not criminal aliens. These were only immigrants who were yet to be convicted of committing crimes (McDonald, 2006). The research shows that, the high growth in detention and removal of aliens in FY 2005 and 2009 was as a result of increased number of innocent immigrants. Since the inception in the year two thousand and eight, Secure Communities has arrested over fifty thousand innocent immigrants and facilitated removal of many others. In conclusion, effective immigration and enforcement programs need to be established. By so doing, the majority of citizens living in the shadow would be registered hence lowering the burden of detention and removal. This will as well improve the security and economic in the cities (Rosenblum, & Kandel, 2011)
Ashar, S. M. (2002). Immigration enforcement and subordination: the consequences of racial profiling after September 11. Connecticut Law Review,34, 1185.
Harrison, J. L., & Lloyd, S. E. (2012). Illegality at work: Deportability and the productive new era of immigration enforcement. Antipode, 44(2), 365-385.
McDonald, W. F. (2006). Police and immigrants: Community and security in post-9/11 America. Justice and Safety in America’s Immigrant Communities, Princeton University.
Menjívar, C., & Abrego, L. (2012). Legal Violence: Immigration Law and the Lives of Central American Immigrants1. American Journal of Sociology, 117(5), 1380-1421.
Rodriguez, C. M. (2008). The significance of the local in immigration regulation.Michigan Law Review, 567-642.
Rosenblum, M. R., & Kandel, W. (2011). Interior immigration enforcement: Programs targeting criminal aliens. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.
Sreeharsha, K. (2010). Victims’ Rights Unraveling: The Impact of Local Immigration Enforcement Policies on the Violence Against Women Act. Geo. J. Gender & L., 11, 649.
Sullivan, L. (2009). Enforcing nonenforcement: Countering the threat posed to sanctuary laws by the inclusion of immigration records in the national crime information center database. California Law Review, 567-600.
Top Five Ethical Issues
An ethical issue depicts a challenge that needs an individual or a firm to select between alternatives that are perceived as right or wrong. In management, ethical matters affect private, nonprofit, and public organizations. These issues arise due to increase in complex and multinational firms that result in spread of commerce to global markets. Aspects of culture, languages, and different ways of executing business activities have contributed to these problems in management.
If such matters are not given proper attention, they decrease efficiency among team members. This is because ethical problems tend to affect working relationship between the management and staff. Ethical matters differ from one belief or culture to the other and are linked to thoughts, norms, and customs of individuals. There are no complicated principles to tackle these issues implying that people affected have to apply their entrepreneurship skills to solve challenges in management. To create harmony in a firm, the management can bridge the gaps by ensuring that it is operating by the acceptable terms.
The following are the top five and common ethical issues that affect management in contemporary organization;
Lack of Cultural Awareness
This is an ethical matter that affects mostly the multinational managers. The reason is that it is inevitable for them to handle absence of cultural awareness and miscommunication (Flynn, 2012). To avoid such problem, it is mandatory for the management to prepare their workers to ensure that they conduct themselves in an appropriate manner. This need to be done before employees visit oversees destinations to perform their duties. To handle this matter, it is good for the management to plan for a training program. This is to enlighten workers concerning various cultures and practices they will face in overseas destinations. Lack of respect towards liberal nature of other customs or for conservative purposes depicts absence of cultural awareness. In this situation, managers need to take responsibility by imparting the right knowledge to employees. This provides a platform to navigate successfully cultural matters that affect foreign states (Linton, 2007).
This is another issue that affect majority of organizations, especially those that are international and encounter pervasive corruption. To ease the challenge, there is the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act that forbids bribery. Nevertheless, this law cannot sort all issues of bribes that occur in all international businesses. To evade this issue, the management needs to play a significant role of preparing employees who ought to work in outside states. They can accomplish this by teaching them to interact well with authorities and citizens of the state to ensure that they are secure and safe.
This is a persistent matter that tends to affect most organizations, whereby laws differ depending on the region. For instance, Europe has strict set of laws contrasted to the United States that contradict each other. This condition makes it difficult for the management to select appropriate rules to aid in administering their firms. As a result, a section of firms decides to enforce their home policies. They believe that by adhering to their standards, this will increase performance of the company and protect their workers who are based in foreign countries.
It is another vital matter to consider by putting attention on the relative compensation levels in each state. Multinational corporations have offices in developing and developed states in which salaries of the two states vary. This issue has become inappropriate as employees who perform duties of same nature end up earning differently. This situation subjects the management to encounter an ethical problem that makes it difficult to decide if it is proper to narrow the compensation gap (Hines, 2008).
This refers to openness in transacting activities of any given business. Transparency exhibits communication of business messages that cannot be misinterpreted. It also represents intentions of the firm in a clear manner. Transparency for public firms means that there should be accurate, honest and complete reports concerning use and flow of cash. However, it has become an ethical issue in most prominent companies when they encounter scandals in accounting. For instance, when business managers provide false reports or evade disclosing the right information, this harm an enterprise. As a result, lack of transparency has affected both small and huge entrepreneurships leading to their downfall.
Ranking of Ethical Issues
According to study, lack cultural awareness is ranked as the most significant issue. This is because it is central to running of any business. If employees are aware of their diverse cultures, they work in harmony. The impact of this problem is that it causes misunderstandings as a culture some workers are perceived differently by others. Launch of training program concerning different cultures is a relevant step because it benefits stakeholders in present times and future. For instance, learning about the culture of foreign countries assists in ensuring that members of the company work in unit. As a result, this increases the performance of the company because there will be respect and good relationship between the staff and management.
The second ethical issue to be ranked by current media is bribery whose impact subjects the company to be liable for the wrong action. The significance of this issue is that when there are strict regulations, it will keep stakeholders alert. A good example is that in future, employees will obey the bribery Act by staying focused and check if the company is subjected to risk by identifying those involved. At the moment, relevant measures should be taken to ensure that there is a comprehensive practice that is offered to stakeholders to eliminate corruption incidences at the firm.
Based on the study, privacy is ranked as third ethical issue because it depicts rules that companies should use in operation. The impact of this issue is that it assists the management to evade a privacy disaster by making reasonable decisions. Relevance of privacy in a business is that it enables stakeholders to operate with guidance of accepted rules for smooth running of the company. The fourth ethical issue is compensation that makes it difficult for the management to pay equal dues to satisfy employees who perform similar duties. The impact of compensation is that if it is done fairly, it determines success of the company (Purves, 2009). This can be achieved by hiring contractors to aid in boosting the company. In addition, matters of compensation can be resolved by recruiting a manager to run errands of the firm. This is relevant to both current and future good of employees and entire organization. The reason is that the manager will ensure he is keen with such matters and that every person is paid fairly (Smith, 2010).
The fifth ethical issue is transparency that reflects accuracy, honesty and completes reports of how the firm operates. Impact of transparency in management is that it saves the management liability that arises due to money problems. Its outcome in a business is that it enables organization to operate without hidden agendas. For instance, the management discuss about progress of the firm and how money is spend in a transparent way. This is relevant to operation of the firm because it instills trust among employees and motivates them to work hard.
Analyzing the aspect of social responsibility, individuals and members of the organization are obliged to engage in activities that benefit entire society. Each person has to participate in this duty to create balance for both the organization and entire economy. Through social responsibility, individuals take part only in right activities that creates a positive impact to society. Social responsibility has contributed a lot in assisting leaders of this field in management to deal with these ethical issues. In a business, managers make decision in an ethical manner in securing their operations. They fulfill this by minimizing rate at which government agencies engage with the company and protect its information.
The most vital step to improve the above ethical issues is to apply related Acts in running the business. For instance, the bribery rule will prohibit the idea of exchanging bribes and ensure that the company is operating in a fair manner. In general, the management can improve ethical matters by making proper decisions to direct the business. Managers should also offer training programs for employees to ensure that they understand cultures of foreign states.
Flynn, D. 2012). Ethical Issues in Management. New York: NY, Citadel Press.
Hines, L. (2008). Leaders and Social Responsibility. London: University Press.
Linton, M. (2007). Solving Ethical Issues. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
Moore, T. (2006). Significance of Cultural Awareness. Washington: Sage Publications.
Purves, A. (2009). Working in Foreign Countries. London: Sage Publications.
Smith, M. (2010). Ethical Matters. Chicago: University Press.
e Ethical Issues
Management Strategies for the Trikon Company
The Trikon Group Corporation prides itself as the leading commercial real estate company that provides solutions to their clients. These solutions are based on representing the clients in divesting their real estate and consulting with the clients to research, locate and negotiate future premises for their business worldwide. This trend has contributed to their growth in the Canadian market through systematic approaches that assess the needs of their clients. It has also helped them to acquire accurate information about their businesses and financial situation. However, despite these strategies, the company still faces challenges in the area of recruiting members who have the right skill set to boost the company to other regions. The Corporation set a 10-year plan that aims at establishing a team of 25 individuals by the end of 2014 before having a fully operational satellite office in Calgary by 2015.
The Trikon Group Corporation is engaged in a dilemma where it feels that it is not on the right track in their growth plan. The members who have been brought to the team do not meet the feasibility that is required. The efforts for recruitment utilized in the company have failed to attract talent or the right individuals for the team. Therefore, the company aims at getting more bodies and members who will fill in the positions of intern assistants and associates to form a solid team. Similarly, the Trikon Group Corporation has failed to expand to other regions within the country without the proper head office foundation. The company lacks proper channels of creating awareness which hinders or rather inhibits finding prospects that express interest in real estate. It also makes it difficult to find prospects that are the right fit for the company.
In order to change the strategies used in the company, Trikon Group Corporation seeks to find ways through which they can find the best candidates who can draw more awareness to the industry. This will be coupled with establishing strategies that promote and highlight opportunities within the university and college community as well as recommended activities that aim at reaching out to increase the number of applicants (Jackson and Werner, 2011). Similarly, it will also involve the incorporation of social media in the recruitment strategy and the engagement of the current intern assistants and associates. This will be followed closely by creation of strategies that will attract experienced associates to join in the team (Jackson and Werner, 2011).
Alternatives and Recommendations
A company like Trikon needs to attract the best and brightest employees through launching future talent on career path with the company. This will require an effective model that offers specific recommendations based on peer reviewed research (De and Carlsen, 2008). It will also require approaches that cover interrelated topics that include the identification of the right people who should be employed. This should be coupled with strategies that include: reaching the targeted individuals, determination of the best timing for recruitment, designing a recruitment message, planning an organizational site visit, evaluation past recruitment efforts and management of the holistic recruitment operation (De and Carlsen, 2008). The best method in which the Trikon Group Corporation should incorporate would be external recruitment that includes the actions that aim at bringing job openings to the attention of potential candidates outside the organization. It would also influence the fact that the best candidates would apply, maintain interest and accept the job offers (De and Carlsen, 2008).
The company should establish recruitment objectives where the number of open positions to be filled would be included. It would also entail the inclusion of the number of applicants required as well as the types of applicants they seek (De and Carlsen, 2008). Applicants would be required to fill in their level of education, knowledge, skills and abilities as well as interests and values. Their diversity should also be included to give the human resource department within the company a clearly detailed overview of the applicants’ potential. This should be coupled with seeking input from other valuable sources who might give insight on the required information about the skills that should be targeted (De and Carlsen, 2008).
The employment brand within the company should be used to attract and recruit the best employees. It should have a strategic tool for attracting, recruiting and retaining talent on the organization’s brand. This involves creating the organizations’ prospective in terms of how the current employees see the company (Sorenson et al, 2010). This should help the company to establish the values they seek in the recruits through recognizing the values that match those of the organization (Sorenson et al, 2010). The employment brand should be made in an authentic way that creates morale. Similarly, the company should ensure various strategies that communicate their employment brand. The brand should be highlighted in the company’s website and clearly described in the recruitment literature in a manner that sponsors college campus events (Sorenson et al, 2010).
The next step that is necessary for the company involves creating advertisements that attract positive response from the best applicants. The advertisement should be created in ways that discourage the people who are not suitable for the positions but promote the positive image of the organization (Ree et al, 2010). Additionally, the ads should be made in accordance to the discrimination legislation. They should appear on newspapers and press magazines in order to target the right audience who range from managerial, professional or even specialist jobs. The best candidates for the positions at the firm will be acquired through this process as those with the right skill set is aware of the positions through the advertisements on the newspapers. The best candidates are those who will have experience in other fields that were probably awful for their career. They also entail specific skills in different areas out of their experience and have some form of diversity that can be utilized in the organization (Ree et al, 2010).
The internet and social media are also sources that need to be incorporated in the company in order to attract the best candidates. They should be used in creating social career centers and sources as well as career sites. Social sources on social media would give tools to search quality talent from online profiles as well build relationships with candidates. This would help the human resource department to build a robust talent pipeline that would facilitate better selection of quality candidates as well as launch campaigns (Ree et al, 2010). The social career sites created through social media creates a platform where communication with candidates would be created. It would be effective for the Trikon Group Corporation through representation of the company’s internal brand. It would be used in communicating and explaining what it is like to work at the company as well as identifying what the company expects from the employees and vice-versa (Ree et al, 2010).
Social media within the company should be enhanced to incorporate strategies that attract experienced associates to join in the team. This would require creation of a platform through which viable candidates would be required to engage in discussions about the company as well as give feedback to some of the strategies issued. The current intern associates and assistants should be highly involved in the social media platform as they can give their experience and reach out to other talented recruits. They have the experience and skills of the modern world and they can use it to communicate the company’s message across to attract more talent (De and Carlsen, 2008).
Similarly, the company should engage in sponsorship activities for the university and college community. This would motivate the students to put in more effort and get the clear understanding of the requirements in the industry. Workshops and career centers would help identify the best students based on their education and intellectual capability. The company should also offer internship to such students to motivate them in working for the company.
This figure would help the applicants to understand various factors that are incorporated in the recruitment process. These factors include: the company’s recruitment actions and whether they generate interest in job opening, the positions to be applied for, and the site visit invitation and whether the applicants accept the job. The company should have an elaborate structure through the internet and social media that defines the actions that are involved in the recruitment process. The risks involved in the organization include the stability of the outsourcing vendor where the anticipation of the vendor personnel could not be identified. It brings challenges to the organization in terms of instability in various aspects such as lack of professionalism, and credibility in the RPO providers. Similarly, there is also poor control of outsourced processes and understanding the fact that recruitment does not imply replacing other employees. There are also differences that occur in the area of weak terms and conditions as well as different corporate values and culture.
The short medium plans that need to be implemented include strengthening the relation between the employees with better orientation upon their arrival at the organization. This should be coupled with submission resumes before arrival as well as assessment and proper training. There is also taking full responsibility for the translation of employment contracts into languages that are well understood. They should also ensure that before the new employees sign the contracts, they are well oriented on the terms and conditions of the employment contract.
On a long term basis, the management in the organization should ensure that there is direct supervision in the employees conduct from the time when they signed the contract. This will enable them to maintain a record of the employees and point out those who ought and deserve to be promoted. Additionally, there should be labor brokers who ensure provision of all documents that facilitate their working deals and conditions. The employees should be assessed in terms of their diversity and development to what they have brought to the company. This will facilitate their promotion to higher positions and the management may even hasten their process of becoming associates.
Business & Society Review (00453609) (2010). Decoding the Signal Effects of Job Candidate Attraction to Corporate Social Practices. SORENSON, SARAH; MATTINGLY, JAMES E.; LEE, FELISSA K, 115(2), 173-204.
De, S. A., & Carlsen, B. J. (2008). Attract, engage & retain top talent: 50 plus one strategies used by the best. Bloomington, IN: Author House.
Deb, T. (2009). Managing human resources & industrial relations. New Delhi: Excel Books.
Jackson, S. E., Schuler, R. S., & Werner, S. (2011). Managing human resources. Mason, Ohio: South-Western.
Ree, G., French, R., Rayner, C., & Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (2010).Leading, managing and developing people. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
FROM: Paralegal Office Manager
RE: Outsourcing Legal Research
Although it is cheaper to buy than to make the tennis balls, the deal would benefit Serve-It more than the company. The company’s product might be altered in terms of quality and economically empower the competitor which would lead to reduced demand and revenue from tennis balls.
The Serve-It company products will increase popularity among some of the company’s customer, if the public becomes aware of the deal and they are of superior qualities. In addition, the deal will economically empower the competitor who has he additional advantage of being able to sell at an even lower price than the company, which may escalate into a price war.
Tennis balls and rackets are complementary products that can be promoted and sold together, which reduces the selling costs. UTO manufactures the balls at a lower cost and sells to the company at a profit it can sell its products at a lower price, which would lead to a shift in the company’s tennis ball demand in the market. Additionally, the company may be inclined to share trade secret with Serve-it so that the balls are similar to those they manufacture. This would also mean that the company would produce more rackets, which increases supply in the market andmay lead to reduced prices in a competitive market. Therefore, the company should explore other business strategies to lower the cost of producing, as this strategy does not guarantee that the increase in profit margin resulting from buying cheaply is sustainable in the long run.
The company should explore long-term solutions to increase its capacity so that it can enjoy more economies of scale and reduced marginal production costs.
The Value Stream Mapping
Value stream mapping relates to a Lean-management approach that serves in analyzing the current state as well as designing a future position that is coupled by a series of occurrences that take a product or service from its initial process through the customer (Nicholas 2010, p 26). The process is mostly applied in Lean environments to enhance analyzing as well as designing flow within the system levels. Despite the process application occurring associated mostly with manufacturing procedures, it is also used in a variety of other fields. Taking such a consideration, it is therefore apparent that application of visual stream mapping is also effective on the individual level (Tabanli and Ertay 2013, p.999). Like organizations, individuals also need to develop plans that that are aimed at ensuring that a difference is created from the current situation when compared to the future situation (Hasle 2012, p 49). On the individual level, value stream mapping aims at adding value to an individual with career development, a notable value addition concept. However, it is important to note that different individuals despite possessing a variety of similarities in their value stream maps, they equally experience some differences (Keyte and Locher 2004, p.179). It is very important to note that the implementation of proposed future value stream map is subject to potential risks, and it is important for a person to prepare in offsetting such risks. Preparation to offset the risk involved is very important, and should not be ignored.
Through identifying areas as well as respective steps essential for improvement, like in the organization platform, it is also possible for an individual to apply the same process of lean manufacturing to achieve set goals and objectives. The attainment of a good VSM requires application of a variety of mapping tools that aid in identifying various processes as well as actions that posses the capability of adding value to an individual. It is however important to note that some of these value-additional processes or actions may prove costly but where the returns are significant, it is worth to incur such costs. While comparing my individual Value Stream Map (VSM) with that of my classmates, it is clear that there is a connection between my VSM and that of my colleagues. However, there are also differences. In a management class, it is apparent that one of the notable shared concepts across all students relates to landing of management roles in the near future with most students projecting a period of between ten to fifteen years to have accomplished their goals. As management students, aligning goals towards achievement of a top management post is in line with the goals of potential managers after acquiring the skills. Management skills gained during the course of education as well as the experience that will result in the period of the proposed ten to fifteen years works as the tools towards Lean-thinking approach.
Some other attributes shared relates to less painful annual budgeting cycles with expectations for an end to the challenge predicted upon completion of college education. Painful budgeting cycles serve as hindrance towards individual development. This is attributed to the fact that despite gaining opportunities for adding individual value through attending training and development programs, failure to possess adequate funds hinders the development. Once the challenge is over, it becomes easier for a person to add value through learning more about management practices. As it happens within organizations, value-addition may require organizations to incur initial costs despite the overall aim of the organization being to reduce costs of production. Failure to posses the funds required for initial implementation of a project hinders an organization implementation of Lean approach (Laureate Education 2014).
Another shared concept among individuals relates to shorter lead times with every person attributing the importance of shorter lead times to assist in achieving set goals and objectives within the set framework. The process ensures that the projected future plans and continuity is achieved in time if projected employment opportunities are achieved. Shorter lead-time serves as one goal of Lean Thinking in organizations. Through establishing shorter lead times during production, waste reduction is eliminated and thus saving on the company resources (Womack et al. 2003, p. 139). Consequently, fewer raw materials are used in production as waste products are eliminated fully or achieve significant reduction. Focusing on shorter times towards accomplishing set goals is equally mentioned by my classmates as a means to ensure that time wastage is eliminated through trying on achieving unachievable goals and unrealistic objectives. Evaluations and reflections are easily made where short lead times are set and corrections easily made where required as opposed to wastage of resources emanating from long lead times while aiming at achieving unrealistic goals and objectives.
However, I realized that there exist a number of differences from my VSM with that of some of my classmates. The first difference relates to leadership where those aiming to achieve leadership qualities as part of their VSM attribute leadership as an essential factor towards effective management. It is important to note that there is a difference between management and leadership where management involves the activities of coordinating, staffing, and directing among others (Lean Enterprise Institute 2006). Leadership on the other hand, relates to the ability to influence others. Possessing leadership qualities is considered an essential factor in good management among my peers. Those in support of leadership qualities in management rely on the role of a manager as a role model and therefore argue on the need to possess the ability to influence other members within the organization. Aligning the VSM towards achievement of leadership attributes therefore proves an essential tool in adding value to the quality of an individual aiming to succeed in a management role.
Another notable difference is achievement of set goals within an organization without straining. That simply implies to succeed in doing assigned tasks with ease. The last concept relates to quality performance with those achieving that objective terming it as an important tool towards achieving promotions and trust within an organization (Sim and Chiang 2013, p. 203). Success in practical applications was attributed as a major drive towards achievement of higher positions by my peers that classify ease in performing tasks allocated as a tool towards achieving of higher management positions. In essence, it makes sense that in the current world where competition is very crucial, success and one attained with ease is a plus towards achievement of higher positions. Organizations will only reward individuals that portray active and consistent success in their assigned roles with better roles whenever opportunities occur.
After comparing my VSM with those of my classmates, I realized two changes that I termed crucial and intend to make. In addition to the already existing future goals, I consider to incorporate leadership as a key concept. I intend to ensure leadership alignment in all my processes and roles. Ensuring leadership alignment in every action or role I undertake is as a result of realization that leadership alignment serves as a critical tool to enhance in achieving outstanding performance. Aligning towards leadership is essential in that, the psychological directive within the head of every leader is directly tied to how an organization will perform effectively. VSM is essential in helping a manger to align all the team members and departments around the purpose of the organization, strategic direction together with annual goals of the business as well as priorities for improvement. Consequently, through leadership alignment, it becomes possible to identify cracks within the organization’s operation, treatment of customers and suppliers as well as the employees. Therefore, consideration of adding leadership as an essential tool in my VSM is a result of the significant benefits attributed to the concept.
The next concept I intend to incorporate in my VSM is based around the work itself (Martin 2015). Through ensuring that I perform my roles with ease, it will not only serve as a show of my success in my field, but equally as a measure of how I ensure utilization of my skills, knowledge, as well as aptitude for learning. In essence, considering success as an additional tool in my VSM help in adding value and serve as a supportive indicator towards achieving my future goals and objectives. Effective completion of roles assigned opens room for further challenging tasks that serve in preparing my path towards attainment of a top management post. Consequently, success serves as a boost to a person’s confidence and is therefore an essential tool towards attainment of my future goals.
It is however important to note that there exists various potential risks associated with implementing my proposed VSM. Some of these risks relate to poor working conditions within organizations, lack of motivation, and technological changes (Manos 2014). It is important to note that some challenges are beyond individuals control and therefore individuals need to work at their best level possible. For example, a challenge emanating from poor working conditions is beyond individual control as presentation for improvement comes from the management and other parties deliberate on the issue. To facilitate offsetting negative impacts that may affect the process of implementing my VSM, observing various processes prove essential. First, there is a need to continuously engage in training and learning of management roles through attending training and development programs. This serves in ensuring that a person is prepared to deal with a variety of challenges within the organization. Keeping in touch with technological changes is also an essential factor to avoid remaining behind in terms of the direction of the industry and the organization (Womack et al. 2003, p.238). In handling issues related to improvement of employee morale as a result of the possibility of retrenchment, it will require a broad thinking to portray to employees that the performance and success of an individual serves as an assurance of their positions. Encouraging employees to undertake continuous learning will also help in ensuring that they remain competitive.
Hasle, P., 2012. ‘Lean production—an evaluation of the possibilities for an employee supportive lean practice’, Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries, 24 (1), pp. 40-53.
Keyte, B., & Locher, D., 2004. The complete lean enterprise: Value stream mapping for administrative and office processes. New York: Productivity Press. (179).
Laureate Education., 2014. Pizza margherita: an exercise in value stream mapping [Multimedia, Online]. (Accessed: 03 September 2014).
Lean Enterprise Institute., (2006, August 9). The Value Stream Manager | Lean Enterprise Institute. Retrieved from http://www.lean.org/common/display/?o=221
Manos, A., (2014, October 20). 12 tips to improve your value stream maps – TheFabricator.com. Retrieved from http://www.thefabricator.com/article/shopmanagement/12-tips-to-improve-your-value-stream-map
Martin, K., (2015, January 27). The Karen Martin Group, Inc. » The Human Side of Value Stream Mapping. Retrieved from http://www.ksmartin.com/the-human-side-of-value-stream-mapping
Nicholas, J., 2010. Lean production for competitive advantage: a comprehensive guide to lean methodologies and management practices . Boca Raton: CRC Press. (pp. 21–56).
Sim, K. L. & Chiang, B., 2013. ‘Lean production systems: resistance, success and plateauing’, Review of Business, 33 (1), pp. 14, 97-110.
Tabanli, R. M. & Ertay, T., 2013. ‘Value stream mapping and benefit–cost analysis application for value visibility of a pilot project on RFID investment integrated to a manual production system—a case study’, Int J Adv Manuf Technol, 66, pp. 987-1002.
Womack, J. P., Jones, D. T., & Simon & Schuster Audio (Firm)., 2003. Lean thinking. New York: Simon & Schuster Audio. (123- 141, 238).
Background to the security problem
The Madrid Train Bombing was considered a coordinated and politically instigated simultaneous attack, which targeted the commuter trains in Madrid. The Morning of 11th March 2004 was marked with agony as people saw their loved friends and families fall into the trap of terrorist attack (Armitage 2007). At around 7.30 am and extending for several minutes, 10 bombs exploded simultaneous on four commuter trains in the city centre at Atocha Station. The incident left over 190 people dead with more than 1,500 individuals seriously injured. The attack occurred just a few days before the country’s general election resulting to severe political consequences; an attack that was believed to have been operated by the Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) (Baird 2009).
According to Bowcott and Tremlett (2004), ETA is a Basque Separatist Organization that had exited in the country for several years and within the 30 years of its active involvement in politics, the organization was known to conduct campaigns of violence, which at one point had seen close to 800 people lose their lives.
Following the attack, Spain experienced outpouring grief and defiance as close to 11 million Spaniards (2.3 million in Madrid alone) conducted demonstrations across the country against the violence the was being propagated by the ETA and also in support of the victims’ urge for compensation (Fuchs 2004). The unity that was seen during the demonstration finally ended as the investigation continually linked the attack to the Islamist Militant group known as the al-Qaeda. Even with the first arrest on March 13th 2004, Spanish government continued to blame ETA for the attack since they were considered the main threat to the country’s security system (Hamilos 2007). This meant that the attack could not have occurred if the country had put in place security measures after realizing that Basque Separatist Organization had plans to cause violence, especially now that the country was approaching its general election.
Resilience/security issues raised by the incident
The incident indicated clearly that Spain was the main target of the terrorist groups and 11th March 2014 was the set date to execute the deadly outrages with the country’s transit system becoming the possible target (Siegel 2012). The attack was linked to failures in the country’s security system and inability to control the renowned violent groups like the ETA. For example, on September 2003, the National medial released information concerning plotted terrorist attack on the county’s busy transit system. After the media report, the country’s interior minister announced a meeting with the National Counter-Terrorism Committee to review the security measures in the country (Siegel 2012). It was however noted that the individuals who were involved in decision-making had not released any report on the decision against the plotted attack.
The latest report revealed that the Spanish security team could to marginalize its transit system in order to upgrade security because any attempt to marginalize the transport system would have had negative effects on the work practices, or would have contravened the country’s position in the fight for individuals’ rights. It was also not possible to convict the members of the ETA on the basis of mare allegations since any attempt would have contravened human right provisions.
The argument raised over the role of government towards ensuring protection of its citizen is rightfully placed, because it is the responsibility of the any government to provide security to its voters and ensure that the most targeted areas are properly secured. However, at times it becomes very hard for the government to provide maximum security since most terrorists mutate and operate just like other citizens (Tremlett, Bowcott, Black & Arie 2004). Since it is hard to differentiate terror groups from other members of the community, particular when the population is consists of different ethnic groups, the government felt that it is the responsibility of citizens to report to the security team incidences that would jeopardize the country’s security.
Another issue raised by the public was that most transport companies were employing the services of security sub-contractors with unknown backgrounds. This opened the country’s transit system to threat of terror or to persons with bad intentions (Tremlett, Bowcott, Black & Arie 2004). As stated by the National Executive Council the country lacked overall security arrangement, and even after reports were released concerning terror attack, the government gave very little attention to land transport compared to other transport networks like airline and maritime.
Solutions, failures and lessons learned
From the discussions above, the 2004 terror Madrid train attack was because of security neglects. The security team seemed to have paid less attention to land transport, but instead focussed on less targeted areas (Jones 2010). The failure to incorporate transit system among the secured areas is the main factor that contributed to the terror attack. The most prominent solution to the observed incidence is for the government to consider all its sectors vulnerable, and therefore the need to ensure maximum security (Lichfield 2012). Proper preparation on the side of the government, especially when the country is facing terror warning is necessary. This would mean setting up an investigation team to identify those behind the terror plot, regrouping the security team for maximum protection of the most sensitive institutions and sectors (McCleskey etal, 2007). The most important lesson learned from this incident is that the security system, if flawed, can lead to severe consequences and the political dimension can shift any time as long as the citizens feel that their interests are not being served. The decision to provide higher security levels is the sole responsibility of the government, but at times require the proper engagement on the side of the public (Sciolino 2004). The government as the service provider and citizens have a role to play when it comes to issues of security.
Conclusions and recommendations
Terrorism is an international problem experienced in most countries, there has to be cooperation in fighting the menace. This insinuates that terrorism has evolved to a modern sophisticated act that requires the cooperation of different security apparatus through sharing of information (Schrijver and Larissa 2010). This can be done by employing more front-line staff and training staff members on counter-terrorism issues. The training will allow staff members to ensure community safety in future, and where there will be low response on the side of the security team, the trained staff will be in a position to assume the role.
To ensure security in the transport
sector there has to be a wide approach of putting more efforts on areas that
may be vulnerable (Robinson etal 2005). This can take the direction of
involving all the stakeholders in transport while making security arrangements
such as coordinated anticipations, training awareness, increased staffing as
well as improving the country’s infrastructure, upgrading and extending CCTV at
major railway stations and on trains (Golden & Johnston 2004).
All these activities can he improve the level of security within the country’s
transport systems so that the incidence that took place in 2004 cannot be
experienced in future.
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