Human Resource Business Partner
Who are the Top People in your Part of the Business you must not lose?
|Employees; – Lack of motivation -High turnover -Reduced productivity -Boredom||Create a conducive working environment for the kind of employees that the organization requiresShow employees that they are valuedKeep existing talent challenged, focused, engaged and productive|
|Buyers/ customers -Reduced demand of products -Complains regarding delivery of goods||Ensure consistent quality of productsEnsure competitive pricesEnsure consistent supply of products to meet demandImprove products in terms of new designsOffer after sales services|
|Suppliers -Lateness in making payments -Inconsistence demand of raw materials||Ensure timely payments according to planEnsure consistent demand for the raw materials and other supplies|
|Transporters -Untimely/ late payments to service providers -Inconsistency in the usage of transport services||Ensure timely paymentsEnsure continued businessRespect contractual agreements|
|Creditors -Late payments due to insufficient funds||Make payments according to agreed upon plansHonor agreements|
|Bankers -Reduced/ inconsistent banking activities -Failure to honor loan and overdraft payments||Service loans, overdrafts and other credit facilities advanced as agreedKeep bank accounts active|
|Partners -Lack of transparency in disclosure of business issues, especially in matters to do with finance -Conflicts in decision making processes||Honor agreements and contractsEnsure integrity and honesty in business dealingsConsult before taking any business decisions and actions|
Do you know your Best and Weakest Performers? Do you Have Action Plan for Each?
The best performers are those who generate more revenue for the organization, make better and sound decisions, and solve difficult technical problems. These individuals are vital, not only to the organization they are currently working for but also for other companies in the competition who may feel that, they would also be important to them. To avoid losing top performing workers, it is vital to have an action plan for motivation and enhancing loyalty.
Offering challenging and more interesting work which the workers enjoy doing keeps them motivated to do more. This comes hand in hand with offering opportunities to learn new skills and grow in their jobs, which increases loyalty. The organization should also help to ensure that good relationships exist amongst co-workers by enhancing cohesion and teamwork. Overall, a reasonable and attractive pay package for the good performance is a sign of appreciation that the staff should take home at the end of every month for this reason, the organization should offer rewards that motivate workers to work more (Insightlink.com).
The weakest performers are those that fail to meet their targets or in performing their duties diligently. This may be due to having the wrong attitude towards issues such as life, co-workers, the organization or the duties assigned. The individuals could also be suffering from self-internal conflicts, which interfere with their performance. The action plan for dealing with the low performers will involve understanding the real problem of the individual that contributes to the weak performance. These will be the underlying issues, which could be physical, social or even environmental in nature. After this has been done, the personality of the individual shall be assessed against the roles they have been assigned to measure compatibility. This is because different personality types lead to different strengths and weaknesses and the individual could have been placed in a job that is not right for them. This will help to match right personalities with the right roles. Before moving the workers to other positions or letting them go, it is also required by the action plan to inform them of the situation and allow them an opportunity for improvement. This will involve informing them of the gap that exists between their actual performance and expected performance. Work out a development plan together with them and give clear guidelines and deadlines of the time that specific outcomes are required. Upon lapse of the set deadlines, appraise the performance together and address any shortcomings. Improvement or failure should be used to make the next decision, which should be either dismissal or deployment.
The action plan also includes setting measurable goals so that performance and improvement are measured objectively without the involvement of emotions. This will also help the worker to focus on improvement measures against the real expectations. The organization also ensures to strictly stick to the set HR policies by ensuring consistency in the manner in which treatment of non-performers is carried out. During the process of carrying out the above processes, all the steps shall be documented for reference and clarification purposes in case of future dispute. Documentation also saves the organization from unreasonable requests in case of dismissals, and therefore it is imperative that any warnings, performance reviews and people development plans are kept safely for without them, the organization could face serious litigation issues (Csus.edu).
What will you do over the coming six months to ensure that people in your area of business are prepared for change, or able to cope with it?
Change is inevitable in today’s tumultuous economy and organizations are seeking for ways to remain competitive in rather aggressive manners ranging from radical restructuring to reductions in workforce. The major setback behind the changes being undertaken by organizations is the lack of preparedness and planning, and this can undermine the firm’s ability to achieve the goals that the change has been designed to produce.
The firm needs to put in place a change management strategy that includes a planning process. The action plan will include the following steps;
- Understanding previous change initiatives by finding out what happened in earlier change initiatives and getting to know about the things that worked, the things that did not work and the gaps that need to be filled
- It’s also imperative to involve top leadership including the CEO and other senior leaders and ensure that they support the effort fully
- Identify individuals who may be potential champions or obstacles to the change by helping them understand their strengths and weaknesses. By doing this, the people get to understand their reactions to the change and in this way, they are helped to better cope with the changes as well as respond to them upon implementation
- Mapping out the change process involves pointing out the most likely areas in which the employees will get affected are pinpointed. These may include re-organization or a new performance management system, after which appropriate initiatives to assist with the adaptation should be put in place
- Communicating the vision and plan of the change to everyone in the organization
- Providing sufficient support and development for the line managers in the firm so that they may lead the workers through the change process
- Coaching and training for the managers who may need additional support
- Measuring success is the final step that includes defining success of the change. This is done at the onset by setting out the metrics to be applied in determining whether the goals and objectives of the change have been achieved (Hrvoice.org)
How does the business make money-what are its key challenges?
The business gets revenue from the manufacture and sale of sports shoes. The challenges include;
- Availability of raw materials
- Competition from cheap imports especially from the Asian market
- Escalating operational costs due to rising fuel prices
- High labor costs
- Unfavorable government policies and regulations including tax law policies and various restrictions
Action Plan for Countering Challenges Encountered
|Challenge/ problem||Action Plan|
|Reliable availability of raw materials from suppliers due to depletion of resources, and inability to honor payment agreements||Source for reliable suppliers of raw materials and enter into long-term agreements for supplyAcquire raw materials in bulk so as to last for longer duration of timeAcquire additional warehouses and storage facilities that will allow additional accommodation for more materialsRecruit a team to exclusively handle logistics surrounding raw material inventory|
|Competition from cheap products||Reduce prices of products which will increase salesAggressively market the productsImprove variety by improving designs and quality|
|Escalating operational costs||Cut on costs by taking measures to reduce energy costs, day to day running costs, costs of acquiring raw materials, transport costs and other production costs|
|High labor costs||Reduce the number of employeesOutsource some of the functions for instance maintenance of production equipment|
|Unfavorable government policies and regulations||Comply with the government policies and regulationsDiversify production to other countries with less stringent government policiesDiversify production by introducing other products to the organization|
How does the business measure success and how well does HRBP measure its impact on this?
The business measures success by measuring growth in the following areas;
- Growth in the levels of inventory
- Growth in profitability levels
- Growth in customer base
- Increased customer satisfaction
- Improved employee satisfaction (Fard, Mansor & Mohamed, 2011)
Where can the business make money-how can you influence this?
The business should follow the action plan to increase on the amount of income received from the manufacture and sale of shoes. The business may also make money by selling shoe parts to other smaller manufacturers or shoe retailers. These parts include shoelaces, inner soles and soles that could be used to repair damaged shoes or for replacement of damaged parts. The firm could also increase revenue by seeking ways of reducing the costs of production by using various strategies, increasing market share and demand for their shoes by creating awareness about products and increasing promotion and advertising.
a HRBM, I would influence this by providing ideas about the strategies,
contributing to the build-up, and implementation of the strategies, putting my
contribution in making of strategic decisions, identifying and growing of
workforce to assist in the implementation and success of the strategies and
making contribution to suggest changes that would be valuable in making the
business make more money (McMullen, 31).
Fard, F.S., Mansor, N.N. & Mohamed, A. The Critical Success Factors of Performance Measurement for Malaysian SMEs in Manufacturing Sectors: A Proposed Framework. 2nd International Conference on Business and Economic Research Proceeding, 2011, Print.
Insight link Communications. n.p. How to Keep your Top Performing Employees. n.d. Web. http://www.insightlink.com/how_to_keep_your_top_performers.html. 21st March 2014
Littler Learning Compliance Training Solutions Worldwide. n.p. Performance Management and Corrective Action. 2009. Web. http://www.csus.edu/hr/docs/professional/perfmgmtandcorrectiveaction050109.pdf 21st March 2014.
McMullen, T.B. Introduction to the Theory of Constraints (TOC) Management System. CRC Press LLC, 1998, Print.
Usher, B. Preparing Your Workforce for Change: A Strategy for Success. Web. 21st March, 2014, http://www.hrvoice.org/preparing-your-workforce-for-change-a-strategy-for-success/ 21st March 2014
New and Improved Rewards at Work
Top employees’ performance is among the driving factors towards overall organizational performance. It is therefore important that employers ensure that employees perform at their optimum if results are to be achieved. Motivation therefore plays a vital role in the improvement of employee and organizational performance. A highly motivated staff often translates to better organizational performance. On the contrary, employees who feel cheated by the system and unappreciated, are likely to leave the organization in search of greener pastures. With the changing times however, reward programs are also undergoing rapid transformation to become more adaptable especially to the younger generation (Smith, 2001). While these rewards and incentives remain purposely for the improvement of bottom-line results as well as individual performance, the innovation in the provision of these rewards has proven quite helpful in engaging employees even more in their work (Datta, 2012). Traditional reward systems have included monetary perks on employees, which have so far been effective. Changes in the corporate and social spheres have however led to more innovative methods of employee rewards that include non-monetary rewards and recognition. These (non-monetary rewards) have been known to motivate employees, assisting in confidence building and job satisfaction. It is however important that these innovative reward programs are tied to specific jobs. Even more is the importance of making a choice between equity-based reward schemes and the creative approaches to come up with a more suitable reward program, as well as the integration of the new reward schemes with the more traditional schemes to allow for variety.
The changing workforce continues to put pressure on organizations to come up with dependable and innovative means of rewarding these young employees, for improper compensation easily leads to lose of these top, creative and innovative talents (Smith, 2011). Purposefully, rewards and benefits are meant to increase employee involvement in work and ultimately improve the company’s performance. Traditional reward programs have been pegged on the monetary benefits that employees get for their work in an organization. Monetary payment will therefore continue to play an important role in increasing employee job satisfaction, however, there are innovative reward schemes, which are not necessarily monetary, but go a long way in increasing employee engagement at the work place. Such benefits cost the company much less in terms of the wage bill, but increase the overall company performance.
The current age of online sales, entertainment and virtually anything poses one of the most innovative ways of rewarding employees, and at the same time improving the company’s compensation strategy. By allowing employees to access social networks at work, use organization email for their personal communication and doing online shopping helps boost the morale of the employees, while improving their performance at work. The online rewards however go beyond these personal communication and shopping into instant feedback programs in which employees get to know the results of their work, which is broadcast across the company website, giving them recognition. Through such a program, employees are capable of seeing, “which colleagues have been honored, or view their department’s success in achieving safety benchmarks” this in essence, eliminates, “the disconnect between a job well done and an award received three months after the fact” (Smith, 2011).
Such a reward and benefits program therefore increases the employees’ confidence in the organization as well as job satisfaction. More importantly, the benefits program works towards the retention of employees and top talent in the organization. Rewards and benefits in this case therefore would include flexible work schedule and a relaxed dress code. Such rewards help in changing the attitude of the employees towards the company and their jobs in particular. The fact that the relationship between employees and the organization is benefits based on the performance of the employees, therefore, demands for care in the rewards program. To put it aptly, “the equity in rewards is a form of implicit stipulation where the organization promises a just and apportioning of rewards as a signal of an objective exchange of rewards for performance” (Datta, 2012, p. 480). Therefore, it is “incumbent on the organization to offer distributive justice through inducements to correctly reward current contribution and effect desired contributions” (Datta, 2012, p. 480).
Compensation has largely been set on the basis of industry and geography within which the employees work (Allen & Helms, 2002). This traditional form of compensation and reward revolves around the HR research on the base levels within a particular industry, market or geographic location. The current shifts in employee compensation however lean towards a more personal-based approach, shunning the traditional job-based tactic. This methodology now focuses on the competencies, skills and knowledge that an individual employee possesses. This is in tandem with industry demand in intellectual capital and technological evolutions in which these two determine the compensation levels rather than the total number of employees. For this trend therefore, benefits and compensations are pegged on an individual’s talent, instead of the job. This compensation therefore goes beyond their base salaries into the benefits, which by definition refer to “compensation other than an hourly wage or salary” (Beam & McFadden, 2001, p.5).
Given that sometimes the number of employees may be overwhelming to the organization (Beam & McFadden, 2001), it is important that in determining the benefits accorded to employees, the benefits be not only meaningful to the employees, but cost effective to the organization, even as they bring in results. A comprehensive reward program that recognizes the employee contribution, even as it offers monetary rewards is thus beneficial to both the organization and the employees. Organizations should therefore align reward systems with its strategies (Allen & Helms, 2002).
For instance, reward systems for product differentiation are more sensible if awarded to employees who foster innovation in the provision of products and services. The rewards, which may include recognition from the management, should however be regular and timely if the effect is to be felt, and modify employee behavior towards the achievement of strategic goals (Allen & Helms, 2002). Such a reward, therefore, provides benefits for specific job descriptions, as seen in awarding recognition, tuition reimbursement or payment for further studies to employees who show innovation in their work.
In search of cost reduction strategies and increase of profits, employees can therefore peg benefits on employees who come up with the best, executable and rewarding ideas. This is especially important, as earlier stated, given the number of employees that an organization may have (Beam & McFadden, 2001). Indiscriminately giving benefits may therefore prove expensive for the organization in light of such huge numbers in employees. Thus, employees who come up with strategies that can help minimize cost for organization can be awarded company stock, membership in company clubs or facilities as a way of motivating them, while challenging other members of the staff to do the same.
Rewarding specific jobs, also referred to as variable pay works as a means of employees’ recognition for their role in helping the company achieve its objectives. Additionally, such benefits act as carrots dangled at employees for their current and future performances (Allen & Helms, 2002). While such benefits are often based on the financial performance of a company, they can be diversified to include such specific job performance as quality in provision of goods or services, increased departmental productivity, milestones in organizational safety as well as teamwork.
While traditionally a reserve of high-ranking executives, variable pay presents an innovative benefits scheme even for lower cadre employees. Merit pay is one such benefit scheme that provides increases in an individual employee’s pay based on the employee’s performance. An evaluation of the employee’s performance therefore determines the increase awarded, and is ultimately embedded on the employee’s salary base. The same applies to a team-based reward, which accords benefits in relation to a team’s achievements. The achievement in this case can be the successful completion of a project or beating a deadline and attaining sales targets (Datta, 2012). Benefits in this case could include monetary rewards, but such benefits as time offs, an excursion or team treats can act as benefits for such exemplary performances.
Even in using these innovative reward schemes, it is important to be cautious in balancing their effectiveness with the equity-based reward schemes. By definition, an effective reward scheme is “a system that is data-driven, equitable, and objective rather than built on biases, prejudices, stereotypes, and conjecture” (Datta, 2012, p. 480). Therefore, there is need for any reward system used to be hinged upon performance and not dubious and unfathomable criterion that will only sow disgruntlement upon employees. Emphasis on clarity, equity and performance for the reward scheme is thus put in the sense that, “performance appraisal systems are more effective when there is a connection between the results of the performance management system and the reward system of the organization” (Lawler, 2003, p. 399).
In a sense, creative reward systems have proven efficient in their motivation of employees. The system has however not been effective, especially in relation towards the rest of the employees in the organization. In reference to GE’s “forced ranking” 20/70/10, the distribution was efficient in rewarding employees within the organization, since it emphasized on rewarding employees who deserved benefits for their performance (Datta, 2012). The results of such a scheme were, on the other hand, disastrous to the organization. The scheme “was unsuccessful because it diluted employee morale and “created a ‘zero-sum game’ that dissuaded collaboration and teamwork” (Robbins, 2005, p. 531). Such a creative rewards program was not only ineffective; it was also the source of a lawsuit.
While innovative reward schemes have a way of increasing the motivation of employees in the organization, they can also be a source of many other organizational problems including unhealthy competition among employees. Ineffective and inequitable reward schemes are likely the cause of changed employee perception, which effectively lead to less motivation of employees in prospective tasks (Datta, 2012). The result of reduced motivation among employees usually has a spiraling effect on the organization and its performance. Thus, not only do employees perform poorly, they also poorly handle customers, which degenerate into a bad organizational image and decreased organizational performance.
The use of an inequitable reward scheme, in favor of a creative approach can only compound problems within an organization. While such a reward scheme may induce individual morale and performance, as seen in GE, it can increase employees’ tendency into litigation against the organization. This is in addition to an overall perception of inequality within the organization, loss of confidence in employee aptitude and worst of all, spark disagreement and tendencies of sabotage towards colleagues, executives and the whole organization (Robbins, 2005). Consequently, an equity-based rewards program is more effective since no single individual, department or unit can be responsible for the overall performance of the organization.
The fact that innovative rewards programs may be prone to inequalities does not mean that innovation cannot be infused into the reward programs. Most organizations use total reward strategies, which offer monetary and nonmonetary rewards to employees (Heneman, 2007), and with them achieve better performance results. In their basic form, total reward programs may not necessarily work for the employees. It is therefore important that these strategies be tweaked to integrate innovation into the total rewards program.
Among the key element of integrating innovation into the total rewards program involves determining what the employees want, rewards that enhance the employee loyalty to the organization, then the development of a total rewards strategy that rewards employees on their value in the organization (Heneman, 2007). By finding out what employees want and working towards integrating these ideas into the total rewards strategies, a marriage between TRP and innovation occurs, which goes a long way in improving employee engagement, retention and positive perception to the organization, and ultimately improve organizational performance.
There is therefore a need to formulate a process that will ensure the optimization of TRP. The first stage for TRP optimization would be the assessment of the current TRP (Heneman, 2007). This assessment will determine the impact of the TRP on employee performance and general organizational performance. The assessment should also be in depth, and look into industry benchmarks, examine current policies as well as collect employee views towards the incumbent TRPs (Heneman, 2007).
The second phase of the process is designing the reward program. It is important that the whole process be undertaken by a team to make the work easier. In the second phase therefore, the team “identifies which employee and organizational attributes to reward and which types of rewards to offer. The team should contemplate all sorts of reward strategies, such as, compensation, benefits, personal and professional development, and work environment” (Heneman, 2007, p. 9).
With the design in place, the next phase should be the execution of the program. Here, the team implements the program with consideration of the eligibility of employees to the program. The team also needs to lobby for support of the program from top management, and put in place measures to determine employee qualification to the rewards program (Heneman, 2007). These should be consistent and valid to avoid any disgruntlement among employees who may feel the program is biased.
final phase of the program, as it is with every program, is the evaluation
phase that measures the effectiveness and efficiency of the program rolled out.
The evaluation in this case looks at the actual results against the set goals.
The goal of the assessment is therefore to relay to the management the
effectiveness of the TRP and assure it of the program’s success.
Allen, R. & Helms, M. (2002). Employee perceptions of relationships between strategy rewards and organizational performance. Journal of Business Strategies, 19 (2). 115-139.
Beam, B. T. & McFadden, J. J. (2001). Employee Benefits. New York: McGraw-Hill
Datta, P. (2012). An applied organizational rewards distribution system. Management Decisions, 50(3):479-501
Heneman, R. L. (2007). Implementing Total Reward Strategies. Duke Street, Alexandria, VA: SHRM Foundation
Lawler, E.E. II (2003). Reward practices and performance management system effectiveness. Organizational Dynamics, 32 (4): 396-404.
Robbins, S.P. (2005). Organizational Behavior, 11th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
Smith, M. (2001). Streamlined rewards, improved results. Potentials, 34(5):66-76
A Summary of the Facts Surrounding the Negligent Training Case of Clark v. Coldwater Mach. Co.
Andrew Clark, aged 50 years, was working as a machinist or an operator at a General Electric plant when the corporation hired the services of Coldwater Machine Company to put up some equipment for them. Subsequent to the delivery of the equipment, representatives from Coldwater Company went to the newly installed plant with an aim of training the employees on how to use the machine. At some point during the training process, as Clark clasped a line of airline to the machinery, a pneumatic glide located at the top part of the equipment jolted to and fro unexpectedly, striking his face. His head thrashed rearward and he “suffered a herniated disk at C6-7’’ (American Association for Justice, 2012). He currently suffers from aches and limited range movement in his neckline, and his doctor has proposed fusion or combination surgery. Clark sued Coldwater Co. of ‘negligent training’ arguing that they failed to give written cautions or directives, and train or guide users, in addition to flagging (placing red flags of warning) on machines that are malfunctioned (Clark v. Coldwater Mach. Co., 2011). He won the case and was granted approximately $476,300 as compensation.
Three Ways of Reducing Negligent Training Cases
Firstly, machine manufacturers can post safety guidelines in places that are visible to users of the machine (Schwartz & Appel, 2008). For instance, a post informing machine users to ensure that moving parts are sufficiently oiled would prevent the possibility of a gliding part getting stuck and jerking out abruptly when pulled or pushed, like it happened in Clark’s case.
Secondly, employers should post warning signs on machines or environments that are dangerous (Schwartz & Appel, 2008). Posts such as ‘Hot Surface’, ‘Slippery floor’, and ‘Machine Out of order’, amongst others, can prevent possible accidents such as burns, and bone injuries obtained from falling.
Finally, employers can provide adequate safety training to their employees, in addition to giving them protective wear such as helmets, dust nets, and gloves for working in risky environments that may pose health hazards or accidents (Schwartz & Appel, 2008).
American Association for Justice. (2012, January 17). Case In Point: Lack of Warnings, Negligent Training Lead to Machinist’s Injury. Retrieved from http://www.justice.org/cps/rde/xchg/justice/hs.xsl/17504.htm
Clark v. Coldwater Mach. Co., No. 4:10-cv-02520 (S.D. Tex. Nov. 3, 2011).
Schwartz, V. E., & Appel, C. E. (2008). Effective Communication of Warnings in the Workplace: Avoiding Injuries in Working with Industrial Materials. Mo. L. Rev., 73, 1.
Cipriani S.A prides itself in the provision of traditional Italian foods that it sells in its world class restaurants. Apart from owning restaurants, the corporation also specializes in luxury bars. The corporation income is, therefore, generated from sales of restaurant food and bar items. It also earns revenue from the provision of lodging facilities to wealthy individuals. During special occasions, the bar charges entrance fees as part of its revenue stream. This means that Cipriani has three major primary sources of income.
The target market for Cipriani is middle and high-level income earners. The corporation locates its restaurant and clubs in posh areas in order to attract individuals from the high class. Since Cipriani specializes in the provision of luxury, it does not target individuals who are struggling to meet their basic needs but it does target tourists.
The strategy that entices individuals to enter Cipriani restaurants is the location. The corporation establishes its restaurant in popular locations in order to add appeal to its product and services. An example is the location in Venice and 55 Wall Street. In addition, the corporation ensures that the guests at the hotel are given the best services in the industry. This ensures that the restaurant’s popularity grows.
List of Job Titles
- Director of Operations/ Chief Operating Officer (COO) – he is concerned with running the daily operations of the Cipriani restaurants.
- General Manager – he is concerned with overseeing that all functional units of the corporation are running properly.
- Concierge – assists hotel residents and helps them satisfy their immediate needs.
Number of People Holding Position
|Position||Number Of Individuals|
|Chief operating officer||1|
Activities for Job Holders
|Job Holder||Activities||Number Of Times Activity Is Performed In A Day|
|Chief Operating Officer||Oversee operation of all the restaurants||Frequently|
|Step in for the chief executive officer during his absence||Almost Never|
|Dealing with strategic business partnerships||Rarely|
|Enforcing local government relations||Rarely|
|Managing the activities of various general manager sin different restaurants||Frequently|
|General Manager||Oversee all the operation of the individual restaurant designated to him||Frequently|
|Hiring of management team and overseeing their functions||Rarely|
|Enforcing restaurant objectives and goals||Frequently|
|Handling emergencies is that arise concerning operations and guests||Moderately|
|Financial management and creation of budget||Rarely|
|Concierge||Making restaurant reservations||Frequently|
|Organizing spa services for hotel residents||Frequently|
|Proposing night life hot spots for willing residents||Frequently|
|Assist with travel arrangements||Frequently|
Activities Relation to Strategy
The activities performed by the concierge are directly related to the corporation strategy of providing its residents with the best services. By catering to all the needs of the residents including making hotel reservations or booking transportation, they ensure that the residents maximize their utility in the restaurants.
The chief operating officer directly affects the strategy of the business. Since he is among the individuals who make decisions regarding new locations of the business, his contribution greatly affects the corporation. His input is what constitutes the business strategy of Cipriani.
The general manager’s task is to ensure that the daily operations carried out in their individual restaurants align with the corporate strategy. They therefore need to monitor operations and deal with any emergencies that might affect the overall strategy of the business. This means that the activities of the general managers directly affect Cipriani’s business strategy.
In conclusion, members of Cipriani restaurants work as a team in order to achieve their strategic goals. Members in different levels of hierarchy complement the activities of each other. This ensures that all areas of the restaurant are working concurrently towards achieving the organization’s goals.
United Parcel Services (UPS)
United Parcel Service (UPS) is a package delivery corporation listed among the largest firms globally. It is an American based company established in 1907 by Jim Casey and Claude Ryan during their teenage years. Initially, the company was known as American Messenger Company. The company functions and operations commenced in Seattle and Washington. Currently, UPS has successfully grown, developed and expanded to be the most famous parcel and package delivery firm in the industry globally. It is considered as a giant leading firm providing package delivery services. More so, it is recognized for utilizing information technologies and systems to deliver services effectively and efficiently. Thus, Innovation and advances in technology have both played a key role in leading the UPS Company to achieve and sustain greater commercial success rates. They both ensure the company undertakes operations and functions efficiently and effectively to meet the set out goals and objectives (Eric, Ankit & Stephen, 2003).
UPS is a firm globally recognized for utilizing both air and ground services to deliver packages and parcels across world regions. It also strives to achieve, maintain and sustain a competitive advantage in the package delivery industry. Thus, it is vital for the firm to develop and implement information and technology systems capable of providing the best delivery services at reduced price rates. This ensures loyal clients at the UPS Company are able to access and afford package delivery services immediately, anytime, place and region in America and globally (James, 1999).
UPS utilizes DIAD, UPSnet and COMPASS technologies with unique features to deliver packages to clients. It faces competition from firms such as Airborne Express and Federal Express. However, it strives to maintain and sustain advanced information technologies against competitors. Consequently, it strives to undertake human resource management practices superior to the competitors. Thus, the company has successfully managed to achieve the top and leading positions. This is mainly concerning supply chain management and freight services on package and parcel delivery. The company operations and functions are sustainably undertaken and managed among over two hundred global countries. It has hired, trained and retained over two hundred thousand employees. They consist of drivers using company vehicles to deliver packages and parcels. It also employs package and parcel handlers tasked in ensuring clients receive their products in good condition within the stipulated period (Muhammad, 2011).
When the company was established, the only listed human and capital assets were two bicycles and a phone. The founders of the company utilized them effectively and efficiently in efforts to develop huge infrastructures. They ensured the infrastructures satisfactorily met and fulfilled company goals and objectives. Thus, they utilized the little firm infrastructures to deliver packages at reduced rates while achieving the best service. Currently, the company has employed over three hundred thousand employees. They are distributed among over one thousand operating facilities in the world. Parcels and packages are delivered using company vehicles comprising of vans, package cars, tractor-trailers and aircrafts (James, 1999).
UPS Historical Overview
UPS was established with growth strategies emphasizing on competency, alliances and acquisitions. Thus, the company applied adjacent business management techniques to create new subsidiaries. The subsidiaries were successfully developed into branches and units complimenting core business values, principles, goals and objectives at UPS. The company ensured employees recruited, hired and trained were mainly industrial engineers. Employees were required to possess talents and skills on package delivery procedures. This requirement in hiring practices at UPS ensured operations and functions in the company would be delivered effectively and efficiently (Eric, Ankit & Stephen, 2003).
In 1913, the UPS Company utilized consolidated delivery and packaging services to solve particular issues hindering delivery of services at the company. As earlier asserted, the company was initially known as the American Messenger Company. However, the United Parcel Service (UPS) brand name was officially adopted in 1919. The company also constructed a conveyor belt system tasked in handling parcels and packages in 1924. In 1929, it was listed as the first service company to deliver parcels and packages using air. Private airline operations ensured clients were able to receive their packages faster, effectively and efficiently. During the following year, UPS Company expanded operations to east coast areas including New York. In 1975, it was the first package delivery company capable to serve over forty-eight States in America. Ten years later, it commenced international air service operations. These operations ensured packages and parcels were delivered to six European nations. However, UPS Company began operating its own airline after three years (Eric, Ankit & Stephen, 2003).
This further facilitated the company to develop electronic tracking systems about ground packages in 1992. In 1994, the United Parcel Services Company online tracking software was developed. It provided a receiver’s details including an image, contact details and the signature on a real time basis. The software was however advanced in 1996 to enable the calculation of rates and tracing transit time lines. Shipment of packages and parcels in the company were therefore calculated, transited and delivered through digital wireless devices within United States. In 2002, UPS Company had witnessed growth, development and expanded internationally. This enabled the company to undertake international hub operations concerning delivery of packages (Eric, Ankit & Stephen, 2003).
The international hub operations consolidate collection of packages. It also monitors traffic conditions in air and road to ensure optimal paths are utilized during delivery operations. The DIAD technologies capture information on each parcel to be delivered before they are assembled to the nearest distribution center. Although the company records high success and performance rates, it has faced different and diverse issues. However, it has grown, developed and expanded due to impeccable human resource practices (Eric, Ankit & Stephen, 2003).
Human resource management practices can either steer a firm to failure or success. UPS Company has ensured human resource management practices steer the company to success. For a long period, the UPS Company has been listed among the leading delivery and shipping firms in the world (Eric, Ankit & Stephen, 2003). This can be attributed to the impeccable, effective and efficient human resource practices. Human resource managers at the company have integrated practices to ensure the firm hires employees capable of meeting the set out goals and objectives. It is also important for human resource managers to solve issues and challenges at the company. More so, they ought to ensure they do not re-occur in future. Thus, integrating advanced technologies has differentiated UPS Company from other delivery global firms. Clients and commercial entities acknowledge UPS as a reliable shipping and consulting firm. They all depend and trust UPS Company will deliver products in time at any region in impeccable conditions.
HR Practices at UPS
Various human resource management practices are integrated at the UPS Company. UPS Company was the first delivery firm to provide money back guarantees on shipments. This was based on the company’s efforts in delivering packages within the stipulated time. More so, the clients had to receive the packaged parcels in good condition. This provision was established to reduce complains among clients. Clients complained they were receiving their packaged parcels in poor conditions. For example, fragile products would be broken due to mishandling. Consequently, food and perishable products would not be delivered in due time to conserve and preserve their conditions. Thus, the company had to ensure delivery times are improved. More so, it had to ensure tractors, trucks, aircrafts, vans and modes of delivery were equipped to handle fragile and preserve perishable products (Muhammad, 2011).
The firm asserts it derives strengths from company employees. In December 2012, the company recorded over three hundred and ninety thousand employees. Over three hundred thousand staffs are employed in United States while the rest are distributed internationally. A management team at UPS Company comprises of at least seventy one thousand employees. They are hired on either a part-time or a full-time basis (Scott, 2012).
Company employees are hired under the National Master Agreement. Supplemental Agreements are also implemented with local unions associated with International Brotherhood of Teamsters. Approximately two thousand six hundred pilots are hired at UPS Company. They are hired under a collective bargaining agreement with Independent Pilots Association (IPA) amended in 2011. The Teamsters Local 2727 covers airline mechanics. Ground mechanics are however employed under International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers (IAM). Thus, UPS employs mechanics under different contracts and diverse provisions. The company Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is known as Scott Davis. He asserted the company strives to employ staffs with over twenty years experience on service delivery (Swier, 2013).
Consequently, the company strives to maintain a cordial relationship with employees. Thus, surveys are conducted regularly to determine levels of job satisfaction among company staffs. The surveys also provide an opportunity for employees at UPS to highlight various issues and challenges affecting their jobs. Employees are encouraged to discuss the challenges they face at the company workstations. The listed areas, issues and challenges are presented to company managers. Human resource managers at UPS are required to pay attention on the listed issues and challenges. They ought to derive applicable and acceptable solutions. The solutions should ensure employees at UPS are happy, safe, healthy, motivated, properly remunerated while working at UPS and satisfied (Muhammad, 2011).
The UPS employer of choice program was established in the firm to recognize and award the best performing employees. It also promotes diversity and corporate citizenship among employees. Self- insurance and high-deductible insurance programs are established at the company. They solve insurance risks among employees. Scott Davis asserts the company acknowledges employees face various risks while delivering services to clients. It was therefore important to establish insurance programs. They address the natural risks employees are likely to face while working at UPS. Global servicing operations undertaken at UPS expose employees to various natural risks. These risks include lost cargo, incurring personal injuries, damage of company properties and other liabilities concerning aircrafts, vans, motor vehicles and company infrastructures. Damaged infrastructures often interrupt company functions and operations (Scott, 2012).
Actuarial estimates are applied to determine, calculate and estimate aggregate liabilities incurred in the company. The incurred liabilities are gathered, accrued and presented as reports and claims on undiscounted rates. The company has hired managers with skills and knowledge on insurance reserves. They are tasked in accruing the presented reports before choosing the high variable claims worth to be compensated. They are tasked in ensuring risks at the company are gradually reduced. Their responsibilities are aligned to financial conditions at the company. The financial aspects at the company strive to increase revenues, share values, profits and earnings while reducing expenses and costs. Thus, it is vital to reduce financial costs incurred in compensations and insurance cover program claims. More so, the company believes losing the ability to self-insure internal risks can increase costs incurred through insurance cover programs (Muhammad, 2011).
Issues Arising from the HR Practices
The training program at UPS is managed by Teamster. It is provided on a voluntary and daily basis for a period of one hour. The trainers from Teamster are paid fifty cents for every hour they spend at the training program. Employees qualified to attend the training program include drivers, pilots, marketers and financial experts as well as senior and junior staffs at the company. However, various issues can arise at the UPS training program. The company reserves the right to choose trainers from Teamster. Thus, it can be devastating for employees already enrolled in the program if the company chooses to employ new trainers. Firstly, the cordial relationship existing between employees and trainers is broken. Extra time and financial resources are utilized in order for employees to develop trust with new the new trainers. Thus, it can incur the company extra and unnecessary costs through the training program (Swier, 2013).
Scott Davis asserted mechanics are hired under different and diverse contracts and agreements. He also affirmed they attend the training program for the same period. However, they are employed at different levels and remunerated diversely due to differing contractual terms and agreements. Some employees may find this aspect unfair and equal. This is because, it does not seem fair for a person hired at the same time, undergone the same training program and tasked with similar responsibilities to be remunerated either more or less. Most strikes among organizations are based on remuneration issues. The strikes and go-slow approaches applied by employees often disrupt operations and functions in the organization. UPS should prevent these strikes as they can incur the firm costs and expenses in repairing damages caused during the strikes (Scott, 2012).
The information technologies and systems at the UPS Company are interrelated. Trained personnel with technical knowledge and skills manage them. However, various technical issues arise at the company. They disrupt operations and functions undertaken in the entire UPS Company. The interrelations facilitate issues experienced at marketing department to affect operations within financial, logistics, production and manufacturing departments. Company clients mainly receivers are free to sue the company for loss and/or damage of products. For example, the company faced an administrative investigative case in Brazil in 2010. This was based on allegations that the company had practiced anticompetitive behaviors within the freight forwarding industry (Muhammad, 2011).
The firm had to hire highly qualified and skilled professionals in law to address the allegations and investigations. Thus, the law cases and suits incur the firm huge costs to address and solve the issues. Technology infrastructures play a vital role in ensuring the UPS undertakes service delivery operations effectively and efficiently. Thus, issues, challenges and failures with regards to technological infrastructures can affect the company’s operations adversely. For example, packages can be delivered late. Consequently, packaged parcels can be delivered to the wrong receiver costing the company its reputation and lawsuit costs (Muhammad, 2011).
Techniques and Strategies to solve HR issues
Financial Accounting Standards Board developed and issued new Accounting Standards Updates and requirements. UPS ought to adopt them in order to disclose fair values and measurements through company financial statements. Utilizing GAAP and IFRS accounting techniques at UPS can ensure financial issues and challenges at the company are reduced and eliminated. The accounting techniques address tax returns, employee benefit plans, contractual and bargaining agreements and commitments. Thus, they can reduce lawsuits from employees likely to sue the company. This is because employees at the company are likely to sue UPS for unfair and unequal employment contracts and agreements with regards to diverse remunerations. They should acknowledge and accept the accounting procedures utilized in the company to determine remunerations (Scott, 2012).
Teaching staffs on tax management, budgeting, financial analysis and cost recovery techniques and skills can improve accountability and project management. Thus, the training program ought to adopt techniques aimed at providing skills at reduced costs and expenses. For example, the company can develop a training program lasting longer than an hour per day. This can ensure trainers offer extensive knowledgeable techniques and skills among attending employees at reduced costs. However, the program ought to ensure employees develop commercial, business and management equally (Lea, 2005).
Commercial skills among drivers, pilots and engineering specialists as well as supervisors prepare them to deliver newly innovated skills and system technologies. However, it is crucial to train company employees to utilize newly innovated technical systems. This ensures employees and technology systems jointly achieve the intended goals and objectives within the company. Business skills are offered among employees in sales and marketing departments. The skills include proper ethics on formulating marketing concepts, decisions and policies. They include segmentation, positioning, consumer behaviors and market targeting (Scott, 2012).
However, the training program ought to teach employees negotiation skills and strategies while meeting, sustaining consumer needs, wants, and desires. It is important for employees and the firm to develop and sustain cordial relations with clients. Thus, it is important for employees to acquire, develop and improve listening as well as conflict resolution techniques and skills. They can protect the firm from law suits, allegations and administrative investigations (Scott, 2012).
Management skills are provided to managers and supervisors. The staffs are taught to utilize technologies and procedures aimed at improving service delivery and customer relations. However, it is vital to train them on social skills, responsibilities and sustainable corporate social roles. These skills can play a key role in solving internal and external issues within the company. Consequently, they can reduce company costs utilized in solving internal and external issues though judicial systems (Lea, 2005).
Lastly, the company should continue undertaking corporate
social responsibilities. This builds company reputations while attracting new
clients. These responsibilities include undertaking projects to clean the
environment. They also include employing local members to reduce the rates of
unemployment. This can further reduce crime rates among global societies. More
so, it challenges competing firms to undertake similar corporate social
responsibilities. They build and develop better global societies suitable to
undertake commercial and social activities. Thus, human resource management
practices at UPS are diverse. They address social, economic and legal issues at
the company (Muhammad, 2011).
Eric, O., Ankit, P., & Stephen, D. (2003). United Parcel Service: Brief History, United Press International Report.
James, P. K. (1999). United Parcel Service: Moving at the Speed of Business, United Parcel Service Report.
Lea, S. (2005). Engaging Employees in Company Success: The Ups Approach to a Winning Team, Human Resource Management Journal, 44(1): 95- 98.
Muhammad, R. B. (2011). IT and Competitive Advantage of United Parcel Services (USA), Directory of Management e-Publications, 1(1): 1-9.
Scott, D. (2012). We Shrink the Globe: UPS Annual Report, United Parcel Services Annual Financial Report.
Swier, R. (2013). United Parcel Service (UPS), Inc., International Brotherhood of Teamsters Report.
Risk management is structured to enhance responsibility, effectiveness, and protection of organizations and individuals against undue problems and threats. However, this statement is inconsiderate since it targets only one particular group while completely ignoring the other. This is because in all situations, there are always two parties involved that may have similar or divergent views depending on their specific needs (Khatta, 2008). Therefore, once the needs are divergent, one side may manage to achieve their goals based on the risk management platform, while the other may feel short-changed or may not get the full benefits of the deal in a bid to protect the interests of the other party (Khatta, 2008).
For instance, the world trade center 9/11 bombing occurred while I was working at a military base. During the ensuing chaos and security aloofness, tighter measures and policies were enacted and implemented to enhance the safety of all military bases and government installations. The stringent security checks resulted in the workers enduring harsh checks that made them feel inferior and as if they were being considered as potential terrorists. Additionally, the security were lengthy, tiresome, and time consuming, resulting in workers wasting time queuing to be checked for long hours. Therefore, from this example, it is clear that the government was the risk manager and was protecting itself against terrorist threats, while the workers and citizens were the victims that had to endure the harsh security checks. The latter was affected by these checks physically, psychologically, and emotionally and can be considered as the aggrieved party, while the government aimed at enhancing safety. Therefore, from this analogy, it is clear that risk management has both positive and negative effects that influence both parties in different manners depending on the dominant party’s needs.
Khatta, R. S. (2008). Risk Management. New Delhi, India: Global India Publications.
Organizations that align their performance to institutional objectives realize desirable outcomes. The fact that modern organizations are taking practical measures to improve their efficiency, effectiveness, and appropriateness is indisputable. They are abandoning traditional approaches that place undue emphasis on accounting for costs and inputs, and assuming more reliable and credible strategies that encourage effective use of resources. Accounting is important for any organization that wishes to realize its goals and objectives. Information that appraisal systems generate influences objective decision-making and facilitates transparency. In addition, it enables an organization to understand the abilities of its employees and devise suitable ways of furthering and sustaining individual and institutional growth and development (Arthur, 2006). Although certain appraisal systems are faulty, they remain vital tools for monitoring individual performance and enhancing overall progression towards corporate goals.
Performance appraisals determine the current levels of efficiency of employees and facilitate future planning in a bid to meet the needs of the clients (Bhatawdekar & Bhatawdekar, 2013). Information pertaining staff competencies allows effective decision making with respect to areas of improvement. In this regard, organizations utilize the evaluations to ensure deserving employees benefit fully from the opportunities for development. Further, the reports enable managers to make amendments and ensure employee input contributes to attainment of organizational outcomes.
In their research, Bhatawdekar and Bhatawdekar (2013) contend that peak performing organizations rely on the successes as well as efforts of their staffs. Such corporate entities recognize employee efforts and praise or redirect them appropriately. Performance appraisals are imperative because they allow the managers to discuss the functioning of employees and plan for future operations. Evaluating employee abilities in light of organizational objectives enables organizations to ensure they have sufficient and relevant skills at all times. This gives these entities a sense of direction and enables them to develop suitable ways of attaining their goals. Additionally, it accords them a competitive edge in the current complex business environment.
From a strategic point of view, appraisals give companies a chance to identify the support that employees require in order to optimize performance. Relative platforms enhance effective flow of information from the managers to the employees (Arthur, 2006). The discussions enable employees to voice their concerns, give viable contributions, and ask questions regarding their uncertainties. Information from employee feedback informs decision making with regard to equipping employees and attaining best performance.
Arthur (2006) posits that performance appraisals act as motivational tools. In this respect, evaluating the performance of staffs helps in determination of their effectiveness and commitment to achieve set targets. This motivates the individuals and gives them a chance to understand and appreciate their performance levels as well as develop approaches that can enable them improve future operations. The impacts are particularly positive when employees perceive them positively and exhibit a willingness to change. This is particularly so in instances where the evaluation tools are objective. They motivate employees to sharpen their skills and competencies in order to meet targets at both the individual and organizational levels.
Ideally, performance appraisal systems should give organizations a chance to evaluate their current positions and make sustainable improvements. However, there are certain aspects of evaluation tools that undermine their credibility and ability to meet this goal. Bhatawdekar and Bhatawdekar (2013) indicate that defective appraisal systems are counterproductive and have far reaching effects on the entire process. One of the common prejudices that compromise the rating procedure includes individual biases. Subjective feelings determine whether the supervisors like or dislike certain employees. They stem from faith considerations, information obtained from work mates, family background, racial status, and so forth. These have direct effects on the objectivity of the rating tools and can undermine their credibility.
Another notable bias includes basing the performance of employees on their previous reports. In this respect, Arthur (2006) points out that certain managers presume that the behaviors and mannerisms of employees with respect to performance are static. This makes them to ignore the current scenario and base their rating on the outcomes of previous appraisals. In this respect, performance appraisals fail to provide an actual reflection of the levels of performance. Certainly, it undermines objective decision making and prevents the organization from making credible changes. In this sense, defective evaluation tools are counterproductive.
Regardless of the foregoing prejudices, performance appraisals are important for enhancing the overall performance of organizations. Inherent evaluation helps in determining the abilities of employees and the contributions that they make to effective institutional functioning. Through these deliberations, both managers and subordinates have an opportunity to ask questions and make sound suggestions. Based on the outcomes, organizations make timely changes and align the competencies and abilities of their staffs to strategic goals and objectives. Most importantly, the tools ensure effective planning that allows for efficient use of available resources. Nonetheless, there are certain prejudices, such as personal biases and basing current performance on past reports. Irrespective of the shortcomings, appraisal systems are imperative for enhancing employee performance and ensuring that organizations achieve their objectives.
Arthur, D. (2006). Performance appraisals: Strategies for success. New York: Amacom.
Bhatawdekar, S. &Bhatawdekar, K. (2013).Essentials of performance management and performance appraisal. USA: Publishing Division of Prodcons Group.
Challenges Facing the Implementation of Total Quality Management in Public Services Sector in Saudi Arabia
Challenges Facing the Implementation Total Quality Management in Public Services Sector in Saudi Arabia
In today’s business world, Total Quality Management (TQM) has become a key success factor of every organization. The concept of TQM emerged in 1980s when the world witnessed quality revolution, which was attributed to increased globalization and high competition (Conti, 2012). As a result, several organizations adopted Total Quality Management in order to remain competitive in the market. Japan was the first country to adopt TQM in early 1980s followed by United States (Alaraki, 2014). However, its success led other countries around the world to adopt TQM in 1990s. Initially, TQM was adopted by manufacturing firms as a way of ensuring quality of their output. Today, TQM is widely used in all sectors of the economy including public service organization. According to Conti, (2012), Total Quality Management is defined as an organization management approach that is centered on quality based on the participation of all its employees and other stakeholders, such as suppliers to ensure the long-term success of the organization through customer satisfaction. TQM ensures that customers are satisfied in the most efficient and cost effective way by involving employees to continuous improvement of the organization (Alaraki, 2014).
Like other countries in the world, Saudi Arabia has adopted TQM in all its sectors including private and public service sector to ensure quality products and services (Alaraki, 2014). In the private sector, TQM has been adopted successfully, and most of the organizations are reaping the benefits through increased customer satisfaction, which has led to increased profitability of the organization (Talib, Rahman, & Azam, 2011). However, the adoption of TQM in the public service sector has been slow, and most public service organizations are yet successful in implementing TQM. The public service sector has been facing various challenges in the implementation of TQM and thus the process has been slow as compared to the private service sector (Alaraki, 2014).
The study aims at establishing some of the challenges facing the implementation of Total Quality Management in public services sector in Saudi Arabia. The paper starts by establishing the problem and stating the study objective. Research questions, which are based on the objective of the study, will be highlighted to guide the researcher in conducting the study. A literature review will be conducted to give the researcher an insight on the study topic. The methodology of conducting the study will also be indicated in the paper.
Statement of the Problem
Saudi Arabia adopted TQM in early 1990s. Most of the manufacturing and construction firms have successfully adopted the concept of TQM to improve the quality of their product and services. The government of Saudi Arabia has also put a lot of efforts to implement TQM in the public service sector in order to improve the quality of public services. Some of the areas that the government is adopting TQM include public health service, education, security, social services, judicial services, and telecommunication among others. However, the research has indicated that there has been less success in the implementation of TQM in the public service sector. Various researchers show that public service organizations are faced with conflicting demands for productivity and quality that increase the chances of failure of any quality measures. There is also high resistance to change in the public service sector. Research has also shown that the bureaucratic nature of public service organization of contribute to the slow adoption of TQM. Hence, the quality of services in the public sector organizations is very low compared with the quality of service in the private service sector (Kumar, 2013).
Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study will be to establish challenges facing the implementation Total Quality Management in the public services sector in Saudi Arabia. The research will also aim to:
- Determine the benefits of implementing TQM in an organization
- Determine the level of TQM adoption in Saudi Arabia
- Give recommendations on how the challenges can be avoided
The Study will answer the following study questions:
- What are thechallenges facing the implementation Total Quality Management in public services sector in Saudi Arabia
- What are the benefits of implementing TQM in an organization?
- What is the level of TQM adoption in Saudi Arabia?
- How can the government deal with challenges facing the implementation of TQM in the public service sector?
In the course of the study, the researcher has formulated a research hypothesis that he will test. The research hypothesis of this study is the implementation of TQM in public service sector in Saudi Arabia is very slow due to several challenges faced by public service organizations.
Total Quality Management
Total Quality Management is a structured organization managerial approach that aims to improve the quality of products and services by involving all members of the organization in continuous improvements. TQM seeks to ensure customer satisfaction by offering quality products and services and hence the long-term success of the organization. TQM originated from manufacturing sectors where quality was seen as key success factors of the industries and has since been adopted in other sectors including both private and public sectors.
Implementation of TQM
TQM implementation involves everything and every member of the organization from the top management to employees and from input to output. Sabella, Kashou, and Omran (2014) indicate that successful implementation of TQM must involve everyone and every department in the organization. Employee management is the crucial point in ensuring continuous improvement of quality in the organization. Therefore, management must find ways of improving performance of employees and also ensure employee satisfaction to maintain quality (Goetsch, & Davis, 2014).
As indicated, TQM is a structured managerial approach to quality and hence, there are various basic elements that are involved in the implementation of TQM. TQM involves continuous improvement, customer’s satisfaction, process involvement, focus on employees, supplier involvement, teamwork, training, and management commitment (Youssef, Youssef, & Saleh, 2014). The integration of these elements ensures that the organization achieves its goals of ensuring customer satisfaction in the most efficient and cost effective way (Talib, Rahman, & Azam, 2011).
Training involves improving employee’s knowledge and skills and keeping them updated with changes in the business world as well as organization changes. Management commitment involves designing the mission and vision of the organization and also designing strategies to achieve them (Aspinwall, & Elgharib, 2013). Communication helps to increase understanding between employees and management and hence improving their performance. Teamwork involves everyone in an organization working together to achieve a common goal. Customer satisfaction involves ensuring that products and services are able to satisfy customer’s needs. Continuous improvement involves getting customers feedback o improve the quality of product and services in order to meet their need. The organization also improves its processes to ensure quality production and also reduce costs. Supplier involvement helps to ensure that the quality of input is high in order to get quality output (Goetsch, & Davis, 2014).
Benefits of TQM
There are several benefits that can be derived from the implementation of TQM in an organization. These benefits include:
- TQM improves the quality of product and services
- It ensures better control of processes which ensures consistency of product design through to delivery
- Reduce production time and waste
- Lead to increased measurement of performance
- Increases customer satisfaction
- Increases company’s profitability
Challenges Facing Implementation of TQM in Organizations
Suleman, and Gul (2015) have outlined some of the common challenges in the implementation of TQM. Some of these challenges include:
- Inadequate knowledge and information about TQM implementation
- Resistance to change by employees
- Difficulties in measuring effectiveness of TQM
- Poor communication between the management and subordinates
- Insufficient training resources
- Difficulties in measuring customer’s satisfaction
- Poor management
Customer satisfaction refers to the degree on how products and services supplied by a company or organization meet customer’s expectation. The measure of customer’s satisfaction helps businesses to manage and improve their products and services to meet customers demand. Total Quality Management is one of the best ways of meeting customer’s satisfaction by improving quality of products and services. Customer’s satisfaction is usually measured by the number of repeat customer as well as increasing sales of product and services (Bienstock, Mentzer, & Kahn, 2015).
The study will use quantitative research methodology to determine Challenges Facing the Implementation Total Quality Management in Public Services Sector in Saudi Arabia. A survey will be conducted by gathering relevant data from managers and employee in the public service sector in Saudi Arabia. Questionnaires will be the main data collection tool during the study. The question will consist of close-added questions where the research participant will be required to select an answer from a group of available choices. The questionnaire will also include open-ended questions where participants will give their own opinion of implementation of TQM in public service sectors as well as give a recommendation on what should be done to ensure effective implementation of TQM. The collected data will be analyzed using quantitative data analysis method to give findings that will be used in drawing conclusions and giving recommendations. Ethical issues such as privacy of participant and confidentiality of information will be addressed during the research by obtained an informed consent to participate in the study (Mackey, & Gass, 2013).
Limitation of the study
In the course of the study, the research is likely to face several limitations. One of the major limitations is lack of participation. The selected participant may fail to respond to the survey as anticipated by the researcher. The other limitation of the study is time constrains. Collecting data in the public service sector is a huge task and require a lot of time. The researcher may lack enough time to collect data from all public service organizations. Inadequate finance will also be a major limitation in the study. The researcher has limited finance to fund the study hence he may fail to collect the data from anticipated areas due to financial constraints (Mackey, & Gass, 2013).
Implementation of the TQM in public service sector in Saudi Arabia has been very slow as compared to the private sector. Research has shown that there are several challenges that face the implementation of TQM in the public sector. The study aims at determining the Challenges Facing the Implementation Total Quality Management in Public Services Sector in Saudi Arabia. The study will conduct survey using questionnaires to collect data from managers and employees of the public service organizations in Saudi Arabia. The data collected will help in drawing a conclusion on the challenges facing implementation of TQM in public service sector as well as give recommendation on what should be done to ease the implementation.
Note to the Lecturer
I am very flexible when writing the dissertation and I am committed to do any correction as guided by the adviser.
Alaraki, M. S. (2014). The Impact of Critical Total Quality Management Practices on Hospital Performance in the Ministry of Health Hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Quality Management in Healthcare, 23(1), 59-63.
Aspinwall, E., & Elgharib, M. (2013). TPM implementation in large and medium size organisations. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 24(5), 688-710.
Bienstock, C. C., Mentzer, J. T., & Kahn, K. B. (2015). How are Service Firms Measuring and Managing Service Quality/Customer Satisfaction?. In Proceedings of the 1996 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference (pp. 161-161). Springer International Publishing.
Conti, T. (2012). Building total quality: a guide for management. Springer Science & Business Media.
Goetsch, D. L., & Davis, S. B. (2014). Quality management for organizational excellence. pearson.
Kumar, R. (2013). Implementation of Total Quality Management in Small and Medium Enterprises: An Analysis of the Problems Based on Demographic Variables. IUP Journal of Entrepreneurship Development, 10(4), 44.
Mackey, A., & Gass, S. M. (2013). Second language research: Methodology and design. Routledge.
Sabella, A., Kashou, R., & Omran, O. (2014). Quality management practices and their relationship to organizational performance. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 34(12), 1487-1505.
Suleman, Q., & Gul, R. (2015). Challenges to Successful Total Quality Management Implementation in Public Secondary Schools: A Case Study of Kohat District, Pakistan. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(15), 123-134.
Talib, F., Rahman, Z., & Azam, M. (2011). Best practices of Total Quality Management implementation in health care settings. Health Marketing Quarterly, 28(3), 232-252.
Youssef, M. A., Youssef, E. M., & Saleh, F. (2014). Quality management practices: an international perspective. International Journal of Services and Operations Management, 19(1), 1-28.
Amid an era whereby most organizations are seeking to cut an edge over their competitors, a balanced scorecard has proved to be an essential tool for measuring performance. Various organizations today regard a balanced scorecard as the cornerstone of a management system. The scorecard continues to serve as an instrumental tool in translating an organization’s mission and strategy into a comprehensive set of performance measures that provide the framework for strategic measurement and management system. In addition, the scorecard has been designed to measure the performance of an organization across four balanced perspectives namely financial, customer, internal business process and growth.
Financial perspective is a crucial component for any operating organization. Financial matters are viewed in form of capital, revenue, profits and loss (In Vemić, 2017). Our organization is not exempted from financial matters which need to be measured regularly in order to determine the overall performance of the organization (Niven, 2006). As for the for-profit domain, the main function of the financial perspective is to inform the organization on whether the chosen strategy execution would lead to improved bottom-line results (Anand, 2016). The non-profit organizations and public sectors utilize the financial perspective as a strategy to measure and gauge whether the institution is achieving its goals in a cost-effective manner.
Customers are the drivers of any existing business. Without customers, an organization’s attempt to make profits would be deemed futile. Consequently, the balanced scorecard is characterized with customer perspective whose role is to gauge on whether the business is still able to maintain its market share. Furthermore, the customer perspective serves as an eye-opener for an organization to be more particular on its customer targets, the customers’ needs and its competitors (Niven, 2006).
Internal Business Process Perspective
The internal business process is an important perspective that enables an organization to identify the key processes at which it must excel in so as to continue adding value to the customers (Anand, 2016).The business process perspective focuses on specific internal operational procedures that assist the organization to attain its value proposition as well as satisfy the customers’ needs. In order to satisfy the customers, the internal business process perspective should aim to achieve the following; proper delivery services, service development and creation of a partnership relationship between itself and the community (Niven, 2006).
For an organization to attain its set goals and objectives, it needs to focus on its employees’ growth and development. In order to improve the employees’ level of productivity an organization ought to focus on the growth perspective component of the balanced scorecard. This is because growth perspective aims to identify and close the skill and knowledge gaps of the employees (Niven, 2006).
Aside from having a balanced scorecard, a company may opt for other strategies that would suit the company’s profile. However, in order for a company to prudently formulate effective strategies, it needs to perform a SWOT analysis (In Vemić, 2017). The SWOT analysis results provide useful information with regards to both the internal capabilities and external situations that are facing the company. Overtime, most organizations are bound to grow and expand with an unprecedented increase in market share. These organizations thereby need to acquire an organizational strategy so as to determine the wants and needs of the organization overtime.
When pursuing global expansion, it is important for an organization to have more than one strategy. This will enable the organization to minimize the effect of losses brought about by risk and uncertainties of global expansion (In Vemić, 2017). Also an organization that has more strategies would be able to effectively compete with its competitors. In conclusion, it is important for a company two or more strategies in its preparedness for growth and continuous expansion.
Anand, S. (2016). Execution excellence: Making strategy work using the balanced scorecard. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=nlyzCgAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Anand,+S.+(2016).+Execution+excellence:+Making+strategy+work+using+the+balanced+scorecard.&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
In Vemić, M. B. (2017). Optimal management strategies in small and medium enterprises. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=xufuDQAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=In+Vemic%CC%81,+M.+B.+(2017).+Optimal+management+strategies+in+small+and+medium+enterprises&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
Niven, P. R. (2006). Balanced scorecard step-by-step: Maximizing performance and maintaining results. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=yUEiYmU3LgcC&pg=PR4&dq=Balanced+scorecard+step-by-step:+Maximizing+performance+and+maintaining+results.+Hoboken,+N.J:+Wiley.&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi07p2vh-HVAhViIJoKHT76DAYQ6AEIJDAA#v=onepage&q=Balanced%20scorecard%20step-by-step%3A%20Maximizing%20performance%20and%20maintaining%20results.%20Hoboken%2C%20N.J%3A%20Wiley.&f=false