Resort Property Management
How is the management and operation of a resort property different to that of an urban or suburban lodging facility? What are the areas of sensitivity?
The difference between resort property and that of an urban or suburban lodging facility is that resort inns are expansive, with 500 or more visitor rooms. They offer far reaching meeting and capacity space, and nourishment and refreshment operations. They are frequently near convention focuses or give facilities to citywide assemblies and exchange shows.Urban lodgings are more diminutive, with 100 to 500 visitor rooms. There are fewer open zones, littler meeting and capacity space, fewer food and drink outlets, and constrained recreational pleasantries. A significant number of these lodgings are placed in downtown territories.
Official meeting centers are regularly in disengaged or suburban settings with fewer than 300 visitor rooms. They offer overall composed learning situations, give a mixed bag of little meeting rooms, and classrooms offering full varying media and mechanical backing.Resorts are normally placed in beautiful settings with 200 to 500 visitor rooms. Resorts give an exhaustive show of recreational amenities relying upon the geographic area.In club hotels/resorts, gaming operations are the real income habitats for these properties. Health spas, regularly spotted in resort-sort settings, give comforts keeping tabs on requirements ranging from shedding pounds to diminishing anxiety to spoiling oneself.
You have been accepted into the position of a general manager of a struggling ski resort, with the duties of turning it around. What are some of the questions you might ask on the first day?
The manager might have a meeting and talk about the essential changes that could be launched to restore the resort. The manager will ask about the significance of the resort with consumers and competition. Some of the progressions can consolidate or rather incorporate: How to initiate menu modernization activities, propelling a reliability card program, and collected expense sparing plans all around the resort. Favoring new advertising campaigns, and approve a stock repurchase program by liaising with the administration.
The Invasion of Canada in 1775
The invasion of Canada in 1775 saw the newly created Continental Army of the United States launch their first military action in the American Revolutionary War. It also marked the first major defeat of the Americans in the Revolutionary War. The invasion led by Colonel Benedict Arnold and General Richard Montgomery, was staged in the city of Quebec with the aim of protecting Canadians from British rule. Americans also hoped to persuade Canadians to join their campaign in revolting against England.
Events leading to the Invasion of Canada in 1775
After the forces led by Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen captured Fort Ticonderoga in the spring of 1775, Americans got wind that a British Army was being created in Canada under the command of Sir Guy Carleton. Owing to the American resistance of British rule, they thought that by invading Canada, a rebellion would be triggered. Through the invasions, they hoped British plans for war with rebellious colonies would be disrupted.
With the approval of the Congress, George Washington authorized the attack on Canada in 1775 under General Philip Schuyler. The offensive was to be led by Richard Montgomery, advancing with troops from Ticonderoga.
How the 1775 American Invasion of Canada Occurred
Also known as the Battle of Quebec or Canadian Campaign, the invasion of Canada in 1775 started late August when Gen. Schuyler led American troops up Lake Champlain and captured St. Johns. However, the battle impacted ill health on the General, forcing him to wait for Montgomery’s forces before making further advancement.
Montgomery and Arnold finally met and joined their troops in early December 1775, outside Quebec City demanding the city to surrender. However, their demands were rejected by the then governor of the province of Quebec, General Guy Carleton.
With the looming expiry of the enlistment of American troops, they continued the march towards Quebec under snowfall cover in the wee hours of December 31. As the troops approached and surrounded the city, the British were ready and fire erupted between the two forces.
Montgomery was unable to make it through the first assault, and after several unfruitful attempts to penetrate through the British defenses, his troops were turned back.
At the time of Montgomery’s defeat, Arnold and his men were also taking heavy fire on the northern wall, forcing them to retreat. Apart from losing several troops, Arnold also got wounded on the leg. His role was taken up by Patriot Daniel Morgan who continued the assault but got held back at the second wall in wait for reinforcement. As Arnold’s men arrived, the British had reorganized and the Patriots were forced to discontinue the invasion.
Arnold and his men had to stay fortified outside the city amidst raging cold and lack of supplies. Thanks to their counterparts, reinforcements arrived in spring but there were no further orders to proceed with the invasion.
Instead, the American troops moved back to Montreal to team up with other forces, from where they all marched to Crown Point for safety. During this time, British forces and Carleton were still in pursuit. However, they later decided to return to Montreal after failing to capture the Americans who survived the battle.
Results and Significance of the Invasion of Canada in 1775
The greatest impact of the invasion of Canada in 1775 was on the Americans, considering their defeat. Of the about 1,200 American soldiers who took part in the war, more than 400 were taken into captivity, suffered wounds or died. Apart from losing a number of men, American troops also lost one of their Generals, Montgomery. Colonel Arnold left the battle filed with a broken leg while Morgan was captured.
Casualties on the side of the British were low
Canadians did not stage an uprising against the British as expected by the Americans. Canada remained as a British colony.
Americans had not planned well for the invasion of Quebec and this was clearly shown in their defeat. Besides, they had not properly analyzed the information about anti-British sentiments in Canada.
However, the actions of Arnold and his men while retreating to Montreal on Lake Champlain bore great impact by holding back the British Army from staging a counter-attack until 1777.
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SWOT Analysis of Toys “R” Us
A SWOT analysis of Toys “R” Us can be used to curve a clear, sustainable niche in the target market of this company. SWOT analysis can be defined as a useful technique that enables managers and policymakers to understand the strengths as well as weaknesses of an organization while identifying the available opportunities and threats that the organization is facing. Toys “R” Us can perform a SWOT analysis and use it to uncover opportunities that this organization is capable of exploiting. Additionally, this analysis can be used to identify and understand the weaknesses that the organization is facing as well as in managing and eliminating threats that may otherwise catch it unawares.
A clear SWOT analysis of Toys “R” Us
Toys “R” Us is a retail company that was founded in 1957 by Charles Lazarus in Rockville, Maryland, U.S. Currently, this firm is headquartered in Wayne, New Jersey. It has different outlets in Canada, Finland, Africa, Europe, Asia and Oceana.
Its SWOT analysis is as follows:
- Toys “R” Us offers a wide array of baby amusement items and toys.
- Its chain comprises of 840 stores in the U.S only, with operations in 34 countries and 716 stores.
- The franchises chain and licenses of this company have also made it very popular.
- It is the second-largest retailer in the United States.
- Its toys brand is popular globally.
- It has a properly developed e-commerce website that facilitates online purchases by customers. It has numerous e-commerce sites including eToys.com and babyuniverse.com that are not only well managed but also attractive.
- It has created jobs for 70,000 people across the world.
- Toys “R” Us lacks a competitive advantage because it is a sole source brand. Its only competitor is Wal-Mart which is offering attractive offers.
- It does not offer unique toys because you can find similar items in better packages with different brands.
- Its sales are season-dependents because the range of the products that it offers is not attractive during other seasons apart from Christmas. This is why its sales keep declining despite being the sole global toy chain store and having a strong brand.
- After Express locations gave this company positive response, it decided to open more with about 600 stores.
- The company has been able to excel after forming an alliance with Amazon, its competitor. This alliance encouraged the buying power of the company but it came with physical stacking risk.
- Through charitable giving, the company can enhance its popularity through several side by side campaigns.
- The company’s revenue can be enhanced by diversifying locations if introduced in countries like India and China which are the emerging economies.
- Affiliated chains like Kids “R” Us, Bike “R” Us, Scoops “R” Us and KB Toys are also presenting opportunities to the emerging markets and this company too.
- Strong competition particularly from Wal-Mart and other retailers.
- Low cost toys such as those from Chinese manufacturers are a threat to the manufacturers who spend on high costs’ raw materials.
- Many brands to choose from mean that the company must offer attractive packages to customers.
- By closing chains suddenly including its 87 stores, the firm indicated that the label was unreliable because it fired several employees.
- The company’s payment disputes over the last two years gave the brand a negative image because the media highlighted it.
What makes SWOT analysis of Toys “R” Us important
Toys “R” Us can use a SWOT analysis in two ways. The management can use it as an icebreaker that helps the management to start the process of formulating strategies or as a strategy tool. Using this analysis, the management of Toys “R” Us company can understand the competitors of this company better and gain vital insights that will enable them to formulate strategies that will enhance its competitiveness.
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Systemic risk is the vulnerability to unpredicted events including major catastrophes and earthquakes among others. These events affect the distribution of resources and the amount of resources in the market.
Systemic risk can also be defined as risk inherent to the entire market segment. It usually affects the overall market and not only the industry and stocks. Undiversifiable risk, market risk or volatility risk is caused by events that cannot be avoided completely. What’s more, it cannot be mitigated through diversification but only through the use of the right asset allocation strategy.
Putting assets in bonds and assets in stocks can easily mitigate a systemic risk. This is based on the fact that interest rates often shift and makes bonds less valuable to make stocks more valuable and vice versa. As a result, it limits the overall change in the portfolio value from systematic changes.
Interest rate changes, recessions, wars and inflation can also cause systemic risk. These factors affect the entire market. Systemic risk is one of the risks that underlie all other market and investment risks across the globe.
The Great Recession is one of the best examples of systemic risk. It is a risk that affected many businesses across the globe. Any person who had invested in the market in 2008 suffered a great loss. The value of many investments changed because of the Great Recession. It was a market wide economic event that affected investments regardless of the type of securities that one had held.
The Great Recession also affected different asset classes in different ways. Even so, investors with broader allocations were affected less than those with stocks only. To understand how much systemic risk a portfolio, fund or security has, it is always essential to take a closer look at its beta. This helps you to measure how volatile an investment is in the market compared to others.
A beta that is more than 1 means that a fund is more volatile in the overall market and less than one means that a fund has a less systemic risk. If a beta is equal to one, this means that a fund has the same systemic risk as the market itself.
The federal government often uses systemic risk as a clear justification for it to intervene in the economy. The main basis for intervention by Fed is to ensure the ripple effect from a company level in any event through targeted regulations is reduced. For instance, Dodd-Frank Act of 2010 was put in place with an enormous set of new laws aimed at preventing another event of the Great Recession from occurring. The laws regulate financial institutions and firms by limiting systemic risk.
According to researchers and economists, the size of Lehman Brother’s size and its integration in the US market or economy has made it a great source of systemic risk, when the firm collapsed; the US witnessed a lot of problems in the country’s economy as well as the financial system. Additionally, capital markets froze up, consumers could not access any loans and businesses could only get loans only if they were creditworthy. Those that posed minimal risks to the lender could also access loans.
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Where to Find a Reflection Paper Example
When asked to write a reflection paper for the first time, the first question that you might ask is most likely about where to find a reflection paper example. A reflection paper can be defined as a paper that gives you a chance to illustrate your comprehension of a given material and its effects on your ideas as well as possible future practice. While writing a reflection paper, you are allowed an opportunity to reinforce what you have learned through lecturers, personal experience and coursework. A reflection paper may focus on your personal experiences and feelings. However, it requires you to use concrete examples and multiple sources. Reflection papers are invaluable to students who engage in capstones or experiential classes which include internships because they enable them to synthesize theoretical knowledge via applied experience.
Importance of knowing where to find a reflection paper example
If you do not have a clue about how to write a reflection paper, a good reflection paper example will give you vital ideas on where to start the process of writing this paper. Even when you have ideas on how to write a reflection paper, a good reflection paper sample will give you fresh ideas. This makes approaching your reflection paper writing assignment easier. Generally, there are two major reasons why you need a sample reflection paper.
- To fine-tune ideas
While writing a reflection paper, you do not want to confine your writing to only what you know. A good reflection paper sample will enable you to fine-tune your current ideas so that you can present them in the most appropriate way and even get hints on new ways of presenting your ideas.
- Know how to format your reflection paper
Your instructor will give you different instructions on how to write your reflection paper. However, the instructor might or might not specify the style to adapt in your paper. The instructor can ask you to write the paper in APA, MLA, Harvard or Chicago style. A good sample written in a specified style will give you vital ideas on how to format your reflection paper.
When you know where you can find a good reflection paper sample, you do not have to worry or panic when asked to write this paper because you can always reach for a sample to act as your writing guide any time. You can also read the sample in advance especially if you are certain that your instructor will ask you to write one at some point.
Why use a reflection paper example?
Although writing a reflection paper may sound easy, it is not. While writing a reflection paper, you should stop, think and reflect about yourself. This paper gives you an opportunity to collect your thoughts before you write them and view things in an entirely new perspective. What you include in a reflection paper should come from your thoughts. The final reflection paper that you present should be based on your feelings and thoughts whose basis is your past life experiences, desires and beliefs.
When you know where to find a reflection paper example, you can reach for it while writing your paper for hints on the ideas, thoughts and information to include in your paper. Reading a good sample of a reflection paper will also enable you to generate ideas and organize them properly in your paper to ensure proper presentation. This is very important because the ability to write a good reflection paper depends on your ability to express your ideas, thoughts, experiences and desires in a way that opens your mind to an entirely new level.
Tips on where to find a reflection paper example
A good reflection paper sample should be based on the reflection of a particular event, a place or a person that has impacted on the life of the writer profoundly. Writing a reflection paper is more of writing a typical story and it usually leads to the establishment of important creative writing skills. However, when asked to write this paper for the first time you will find yourself struggling because you will not know which elements to put where. In that case, you should turn to the right places to look for a reflection paper example.
- Ask your teacher or professor to give you a reflection paper sample
If you do not know how to approach a reflection paper writing assignment or where to get a sample of a reflection paper, it is a good idea to ask your teacher or professor to give you a sample. You can visit the professor or teacher after the class or when you are sure that he/she is in the office to find out whether they can give you a reflection paper sample that you can review before you start writing your paper. There is a high chance that your teacher or professor has reflection paper samples written by former students. Once the professor or teacher gives you a sample, study it carefully to get insights on what the professor or teacher expects you to include in the paper. Pay close attention to the comments that the professor or teacher has included in the reflection paper sample.
- Ask a friend to give you a sample
You most probably know a friend whose papers are always excellent. You can seek assistance from such a friend. You might as well know a friend who is no longer at school but they scored high grades in academic papers. Ask them because they might have a sample that they keep at home. Such a friend can even tutor you on how to write a reflection paper as they give you the sample.
- Buy a reflection paper example online
There are companies that offer academic writing services online. If you are wondering about where to find a reflection paper example because your friends, teachers or professors do not have one, enlist the services of such companies. A reflection paper sample from a professional writing company is one of the best sample papers to use because it is written and edited by professionals. Therefore, order a reflection paper sample in advance so that you can use it as a guide for writing your reflection paper.
- Check the websites of professional writing companies
Several professional writing companies have websites where they post free academic paper samples. You can visit the blogs of such companies to find out whether they have a free sample reflection paper that you can use as your guide. You can find such a reflection paper example here.
- Check the websites of different colleges and universities
Some colleges and universities have websites where they post the best papers and essays written by their students. These are aimed at serving as samples to guide students when writing papers and essays in different disciplines. Visit the website of your college or university to find out if there is a reflection paper that you can use as your writing sample. If you cannot find a sample at the website of your college or university, check the websites of other learning institutions. Such a sample reflection paper can be found here.
How to use a reflection paper example
Now that you know where to find a reflection paper sample, it is important that you know how to use a sample reflection paper. Remember that you should use a reflection paper example just as the name suggests; as an example. You should not plagiarize the sample paper or part of it because that amounts to a serious offence for which you can be punished. As such, make sure that you only review the reflection paper example to get ideas for writing and formatting your paper then keep it away before you start writing your reflection paper. If you use ideas from the sample paper, make sure that your reflection paper has citations and footnotes that are properly referenced at the end of the paper.
It is also important that you use credible sources while writing your reflection paper. There are many books, academic journals and online sources where you can get information to guide you in writing your reflection paper. Make sure that you use and reference credible sources only. For your reflective paper to be credible, it should indicate that you consulted different sources including the internet, magazines and encyclopedias among others. After writing your paper, edit it properly, review the reflection paper sample and then reread your reflection paper to determine whether you have written it as the sample that you were using.
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You should use a unique reflection paper example from a credible source to come up with a great reflection paper. If you are having difficulties in identifying a place where to find a reflection paper example, get in touch with us right away. You can also visit our website’s home page for additional information about our academic writing services. Alternatively, continue reading for more guidelines on how to write a reflection paper as well as sample papers on our blog.
Electron Transport Chain
Electron transport chain refers to several compounds that are responsible for transferring electrns from the electron donors to the electron acceptors through redox reactions while coupling the electron transfer process with protons (H+ ions) transfer across the membrane. This results in the creation of the electrochemical proton gradient responsible for driving synthesis of ATP or chemical energy generation in form of ATP or adenosine triphosphate.
The electron transport chain is used in energy extraction through redox reactions during photosynthesis from the sun or such as the case of sugars’ oxidation, cellular respiration. In inner mitochondrial membrane in the eukaryotes, there is a crucial electron transport chain that serves as the main oxidative phosphorylation site via the use of the adenosine triphosphate synthesis. Thylakoid membrane of chloroplast in the photosynthetic eukaryotes also has an electron transport chain. Electron transport chain is also found in the cell membrane of bacteria.
Light drives water conversion into NADP+ and oxygen to NADPH with H+ ions being transferred across the chloroplast membranes in the chloroplast. Oxygen conversion into water, NADH to the NAD+ and a succinate to fumerate required for the generation of proton gradient takes place in mitochondria. Electron transport chain is a major site where leakage of premature electron to oxygen and generation of superoxide with potential result of an increase in oxidative stress occurs.
Catabolic processes have FADH2 and NADH as their byproducts. These are in reduced forms. FADH2 and NADH are used by metabolic processes in transporting electrons in form of the hydride ions (H–). The electrons are then passed from FADH2 or NADH to electron carriers that are membrane bound which then passes on to the other carriers until when they are delivered to oxygen which result in water production.
During the process of passing electrons from one carrier to the other, hydrogen ions transfer also takes place in the inter-membrane spaces at the three points in electron transport chain. Hydrogen ions transportation results in greater hydrogen concentration in inter-membrane spaces than in matrix that can be used in driving ATP synthase and production of ATP which is a high energy molecule.
Energy that is obtained via electrons transfer is used in pumping protons from the matrix of the mitochondria into inter-membrane space which creates the electrochemical proton gradient found across the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The electrochemical proton gradient enhances ATP synthase to use H+ flow via enzyme back to the matrix generating ATP from the adenosine diphosphate and the inorganic phosphate.
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ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter
Transport of specific molecules across the lipid membranes is quite essential when it comes to living organisms. There are numerous transporters that have evolved to carry out most of these functions. ATP-binding cassette transporter [ABC] is the largest transporter gene family that aids perform some of the crucial function in living organisms. ABC transporters are the core members of a protein superfamily made up of one of the largest and oldest families with representatives in extant phyla from prokaryotes to humans.
ATP-binding cassette transporter [ABC transporters] are transmembrane proteins that utilize the energy of the ATP [adenosine triphosphate] binding and hydrolysis to carry out biological processes. These processes include translocation of various substrates across membranes and non-transport-related process such as the translation of DNA and RNA repair. The proteins aid translocate a wide variety of substances that may include sugars, metal ions, amino acids, proteins and peptides and large amounts of hydrophobic compounds.
The ABC transporters genes are quite vital for many processes in the cell and mutation of these genes is harmful. Mutation of the responsible genes can cause or contribute to several human genetic complications that include cystic fibrosis, neurological disease cholesterol and bile transport defects, anemia and drug response. The ABC transporters make use of energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to transport numerous substrates across the cellular membranes.
These transporters are divided into three main functional categories. The prokaryotes, the importers mediate the uptake of nutrients into the cells while the substrates can be transported into amino acids, sugars, peptides and hydrophilic molecules. For the eukaryotes, they do not possess any importers. The exporters or effluxers which are both present in eukaryotes and prokaryotes aid as pumps that push out toxins and drugs available in the cells of living organisms. In the case of gram-negative bacteria, the exporters help transport lipids and polysaccharides from the cytoplasm to the periplasm.
Understanding the mechanism of ATP-binding cassette transporter makes it easy to comprehend how these active transporters can be aid the human cells. These active transporters require energy in the form of ATP to translocate substrates across the cell membranes. These proteins are able to harness the energy of ATP binding or for hydrolysis to drive conformational changes in the transmembrane domain and effectively transport molecules. Alternating-access model is the mechanism that described the conformational changes associated with binding of substrate.
The general mechanism for the transport cycle of the ABC transporters has been fully interpreted. However, the biochemical and structural data has accumulated to support a model through which ATP binding and hydrolysis has been made possible. ATP-binding cassette transporters also aid in the development of multidrug resistance [MDR]. In the MDR, patients who are on medication develop resistance not only to the drug that they are taking but also to several different types of drugs.
Excretion of the drug from the cell b ABC transporters is one of the factors that cause this resistance. Unfortunately, it is not clear how these proteins can translocate many drugs in the cell. ABC transporters are also expressed in the membranes of healthy cells, where they can easily facilitate the transport of numerous endogenous substances as well as substances remote to the body. ABC transporter interactions can be detected through assay types and they are membrane assays and whole based cells allays.
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Sympatric speciation refers to a process by which evolution of new species from one ancestral species occur while inhabiting a similar geographic region. In biogeography and evolutionary biology, sympatry and sympatric are the terms that are used in reference to organisms that have overlapping ranges or ones that are identical making them to occur together even once in certain species.
If the organisms are related closely for instance, sister species, the distribution might be due to sympatric speciation. In etymological terms, sympatry comes from the Greek word together with and fatherland or homeland. Poulton invented the term in 1904 and he explains his derivation.
Sympatric speciation refers to one of the three traditional and geographic categories of speciation phenomenon. Allopatric speciation refers to evolution of the populations that are isolated geographically into different species. As such, absence of the glow of genes facilitates divergence which tends to maintain similarity in the genetic of the populations.
Parapatric speciation refers to evolution of the populations that are geographically adjacent into different species. In such cases, divergence takes place despite the limited interbreeding in which contact is established between the diverging groups. No geographic constraint hinders interbreeding in sympatric speciation. These are special cases categories of the continuum from sympatric or zero to allopatric or complete spatial segregation of the diverging groups.
In the eukaryotic multi-cellular organisms, sympatric speciation is usually thought of as an uncommon though plausible process where genetic divergence via reproductive isolation of different populations from one parent species inhabiting a similar geographic location leads to the creation of another species.
However, in bacteria analogous process can be more common. This is because bacterial are not constrained by homogenizing effects that sexual reproduction has as well as prone to the comparatively rapid and dramatic genetic change via horizontal gene transfer. Analogous process in bacteria is defined as origin of the new species of bacteria that occupy the definable ecological niches.
In simple terms, sympatric speciation can occur in different instances including when individuals of different species reproduces forming an offspring that is viable such as extra chromosomes coming from different species due to allopolyploid. It can also occur when extra set of the chromosomes in polyploidy comes from the individual due to failure by the gamete to undergo cytokinesis upon the completion of meiosis.
Sympatric speciation may also occur when an individual develops abnormal chromosomes’ number with fewer or extra chromosomes. A species can have an abnormal chromosomes’ number and then interbreed with another member of a population with similar abnormal chromosomes number resulting in the development of a different species.
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Protease inhibitor is a class of antiviral drugs widely used in treated of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis which is caused by hepatitis C virus. Protease inhibitor prevents viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (for instance HIV-1 protease) and blocking proteolytic cleave of protein precursors that are important for infectious viral particles production.
Protease inhibitor has been developed or is currently undergoing testing for treatment of various viruses such as the ones listed below:
- Hepatitis C: telaprevir, boceprevir
- HIV/AIDS-antiretroviral protease inhibitors
This inhibitor prevents HIV from multiplying and also reduces the level of virus in the body. Whenever the level of virus in the blood is kept low, the immune system has a better chance of growing stronger and recovering. Protease inhibitor was the second class of antiretroviral drugs to be developed. The first were saquinavir (Hoffman-La Roche) and Ritonovir (Abbott) which were approved in the late 1955 to 1996.
Researchers are carrying out investigations into use of protease inhibitor that is developed for treatment of HIV as anti-protozoals for use against gastrointestinal and malaria protozoal infections:
- Lopinavir and ritonavir combination was found to be effective against infections such as Giardia
- Cysteine protease inhibitor drug has the property to cure Chagas disease common in mice
- Lopinavir, Saquinavir and ritonavir have anti-malarial properties
When protease inhibitor is used as a combination therapy, it helps in the following ways:
- Reduced viral loads that can lead to increase or stable CD4+ cell counts. This is also a sign that the immune system has the ability to fight off any opportunistic infections.
- Helps to decrease the severity and number of opportunistic infections
- Prevents or reduced occurrence of resistance to medication
- Goes a long way to help in prolonging life.
Researchers are also investigating to determine whether protease inhibitor can possible be used for the treatment of cancer. For instance, atazanavir and nelfinavir have the ability to kill tumor cells in culture.
The effect has not been tested or examined in humans yet through studies in a laboratory with mice has shown nelfinavir can suppress tumor growth in these animals thus representing the promise that the same tests can be carried out in humans.
Inhibitors of proteasome like Bortezomb and Velcade are in the front line of drugs that are been used to treat different types of cancer most notably, Multiple Myeloma. Protease inhibitor also has some side effects which include kidney stones, lipodystrophy, diabetes mellitus type 2 and hyperlipidaemia.
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Instrumental variable is a very important technique that is applied in statistics and econometrics. However, it can be a bit confusing to most people. The technique is used in the estimation of casual relationships when controlled experiments are not feasible or when a treatment is not is not delivered successfully to each unit in an experiment that is not randomized. There are various instrumental variable methods that can be applied in obtaining results. These methods allow for consistency in estimation under conditions that explanatory variables are correlated with the error terms of a relationship of regression.
How instrumental variable operates
The estimation of causal impacts is often faced with difficulties. In fact, even trials that are randomized are imperfect, partly because we can often not be able to carry out true experiments. However, it is important to note that experimental design still remains the gold standard of statistical research. Instrumental variable is among the quasi-experimental methods of impacts estimations that are too compelling. The reason for this is because the assumptions required for the justification of instrumental variable method are usually more plausible than those that are required to justify other methods like regression.
In order to estimate an instrumental variable model, one should begin by identifying a variable or certain variables that impact the key independent variable, but only affect the results through the main independent variables. For instance, you can assume that month and state of birth would have no impact of a person’s income later in life, except that state laws establish when one is able to begin and end his or her K-12 education.
It is important to note that the models of instrumental variable are often conceptualized as two different equations. One of them specifies the relationship that exists between the main independent variable and the result. The other equation specifies the relationship between the instrumental variables and the result. Despite linear regression being considered to generally produce biased and inconsistent estimates, accurate results (consistent estimates) can still be obtained if an instrument is available. An instrument refers to a variable that does not itself belong in the explanatory equation, and has got a correlation with the endogenous variables.
There are two main requirements for using instrumental variable in linear regression. One is that the instrument must be correlated with the endogenous explanatory variables, limited to other covariates. Besides, the instrument cannot be correlated with the error term in the explanatory equation; the instrument cannot be left to face the same problem as the original predicting variable.
Instrumental variable methods are mostly used in the estimation of causal effects in contexts whereby controlled experiments are not available. However, the credibility of the resulting estimates is based on the choice of suitable instruments to use. Good instruments are often developed from policy changes. For instance, when a federal student aid scholarship program is cancelled, it may give a revelation of the effects of aid on the outcomes of some students.
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US Electoral College
The United States constitution specifies the United States President and Vice President are to be selected every four year by a small group of people. These people are individually known as ‘presidential electors’ and collectively as the ‘Electoral College’.
Therefore, the Electoral College is not a place but rather a process. It was put into place by the founding fathers and the constitution specifies that every state is entitled to have one member of its U.S Representatives and U.S Senators.
Today, the total number of electoral votes is 538 and it corresponds to the 435 United States Representatives from the fifty states plus the 100 United States Senators from the 50 states plus another 3 members of the Electoral College that the District of Columbia became at liberty to under the 23rd Amendment that was ratified in 1961.
After every ten years, the 435 United States Representatives get reappointed among the state according to the latest federal census as such reapportioning membership of the Electoral College among all the states.
The US Electoral College was based on several anticipations and assumptions of the constitution Framers. Some of these include the following:
- Candidates wouldn’t pair together on a similar ticket with assumed placements towards each office of the Vice President and the president
- Every state would choose a district system of choosing the electors
- Each presidential elector would employ or exercise their own judgment independently when voting
- The system as it was designed would rarely produce any clear winner as such, election would be sent to Congress.
Based on the facts stated above, some scholars argue that the Electoral College is intended to nominate candidates and from there, Congress is mandated with the task of choosing the president and vice president. Each state government also is free to have its own strategy or plan for selecting its electors.
The theory behind the constitutional indirect election of the President and Vice President of the US is that while Congress is generally elected by the people, the President and Vice President are elected as executives of a federation of states that are independent. James Madison in Federalist No.10 argued the constitution was designed to serve as a mixture of population and state based government.
The Congress therefore would have two houses which include the Population based and State Bases Senate House of Representatives. At the same time, the President would be elected based on the mixture of two modes.
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Franchising Pros and Cons
To many entrepreneurs who have been successful in building business empires, franchising is an option that may be running through their minds. Franchising is one of the ways of expanding a business and you too may be moved to try it out. However, it is very important to note that just like any other models of business, franchising also has its benefits and demerits. Getting to know them will help you as an entrepreneur to make an informed choice on whether to franchise or not.
One of the pros of franchising is that it can be helpful in obtaining new talent for good business. Many people who are highly qualified and hard workers often tend to invest in running businesses instead of being employed by others in exchange for salaries. Thus, there is a higher chance that by franchising, you are able to get the best talent that can work towards building the business compared to hiring someone to work for you.
Franchising is also a way of obtaining expansion capital for the business without a lot of stress. Since franchisees pay to acquire outlets within the chain, you are able to significantly increase the number of locations without necessarily having to tap a great chunk of your own capital or even moving up and down in search of loans from banks.
When making comparison between starting your own business and franchising, you will realize that franchising is less risky and even costly. Since franchising involves the use of a brand that is already established in the market, there are several costs that are already avoided. Besides, it should also be noted that even though franchisors do not provide financing, many have better working relationships with lenders that can help with issues about financing.
Franchising limits creativity and flexibility on the part of the entrepreneur who is franchising. The reason for this is because the contracts always come with rules that set very explicit standards. In most occasions, the investor who has franchised is not allowed to make any change to the brand but stick to what its owner stipulates. Even if you have a new idea, the franchisor has to agree to it before it is rolled out. This can curtail the efforts of the franchisee to develop the business in the way that he or she likes.
Another con of franchising is that the success of the franchisee is based on the franchisor. The reputation that the franchisee will have in the market shall be a representation of the franchisor’s. This means that any problem that is encountered by the franchisor in the course of doing business will directly impact the franchisee. In fact, investors who fail to do their research well before franchising always find themselves stuck for years after signing the contract.
Just like any other ventures that people may think of investing in, there is no guarantee that franchising is risk-free and more profitable. Choosing to franchise or not is a decision that requires proper research and consultations.
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Contribution of Steel Industry in Indian Economy
Steel plays an important role in contributing to the development of a country and accelerating its growth. It is also the backbone of human civilization and is used in manufacture of electrical machinery, metal products, textile and transport equipment etc. Steel is a product of a technologically multifaceted and large industry. In 2006, India ranked as the 5th largest country in production of steel globally. The country has the richest coal and iron ore mines and its cost of production is lower compared to that of other countries. The country has also maintained lead position as the largest producer of sponge iron globally. In 2010, the production of steel in the country was 1414 million tonne which was a 15% growth from 2009. If expansion plans proposed are implemented according to schedule, then the country will become the 2nd largest producer of steel globally by 2015-2016.
India enjoys several advantages because of its dominant position in the steel industry on the global map. These include the following:
- Establishment of new steel plants that have state of the art technology. This is done without dependence on aid.
- Continued modernization and implementation of technology upgrading and de-bottlenecking schemes in the old plants.
- Improved energy efficiency in the plants in regard to power and coke rate consumption.
- Use of better raw materials
- Optimum processing of its raw materials such as washing of coal, sintering and beneficiation of iron ore.
Global integration of the Indian economy and the increasing demand by sectors like real estate, infrastructure, as well as automobile locally and abroad has also contributed in making Indian steel the fastest expanding industry. According to the information available, the consumption, export and production of finished steel during April to December 2007 were up by 68.7 percent over the previous year’s record. Consumption pace growth has outpaced production making the country the net steel importer.
The steel industry in India is classified into Main producers such as Tata Steel, Vizag Steel and Sail plants, Major producers which include plants that have a steel making capacity that is above 0.5 million tonne-Essar Steel and other producers. The latter is comprised of different plants that deal with crude/finished steel production and they can be found in different sections of the country.
The critical materials in the steel industry include manganese ore, chrome ore and iron ore which are of critical importance. Their assured and timely availability and in adequate quantities and great quality on long term basis is what is required to ensure the continued growth of the sector. In essence, the steel industry in the country is one of the greatest contributors to its overall GDP.
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Advantages of a Well-Prepared Business Plan
Success in the business industry is not that easily achieved. Many of the successful entrepreneurs that you come across have gone through a lot in life to reach certain competitive levels. Fortunately, coming up with or relying on a well-prepared business plan is one of the great business strategies that has worked miracles. A business plan is a well-written piece that describes more on a business, the market it operates, strategies to embrace and achieve set objectives.
Diving instantly into a business without coming up with a workable plan has never been a successful move. There are two great business plans to embrace prior to investing certain amount into a business of choice. You can use a prepared business plan or design your own brand new and unique business plan.
Any of the two strategies can work exceptionally well whenever starting out your business of choice. A business plan should not just be a well-prepared and written piece about a business, but an effective tool that comes with matchless merits. These unparalleled advantages of a well-prepared business plan include;
- Provides a business with a direction
There is a lot of research and preparations undertaken while developing a business plan and this helps broaden entrepreneurs understanding of the business and day to day undertaking in the industry of choice. It becomes easy to compare business expenses against your customer demands and competition. Hence, it becomes easy to develop incredible strategies to improve or develop your business.
- Provides a broad picture of the business details
A business plan offers a great way to monitor the progress of the venture. The business plan acts as a clear and precise portrait of a business and offers details and any possible forecasts. Benchmarking makes it easy to keep a business in a straight line with the marketplace standards.
- Provides a convenient way to seek finance and funds
If you are ready to increase your funding opportunities, then a well-prepared business plan will carry the day. You need a good business plan when seeking outside funding or top win investors’ confidence. Government grants and procurement opportunities are made available via a well-prepared business plan as it supports all financial
documents that may be needed.
- Offers an easy way to negotiate for contracts
To complete contract negotiations, it is easy to prove your business ideas and projections with a well-prepared business plan.
- Saves money and time
A well-prepared business plan especially if written by a professional will save money and time. It has complete and well-organize flow that any businessman, investor or funder will easily fathom and get clue of what your business is all about.
Many novices and even successful businessmen fail when it comes to writing business plans. For many it is not easy to execute their business ideas in a precise and comprehensive manner. Fortunately, there are professional out there who can offer writing services regardless of the bulkiness of the assignment. A well-prepared and written business plan will easily help your connect with investors, reduce time and money and meet the set goals.
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Borderline Personality Disorder
Borderline personality disorder describes a mental illness that is characterized by instability in moods, relationships and behavior. Some people that have severe cases of borderline personality disorder go through shortened psychotic episodes. A number of patients, who are diagnosed with BPD, often have difficulties in regulating their emotions and thoughts. Besides, they can also portray reckless behaviors and are unable to maintain relationships with other people.
People with borderline personality disorders are also likely to experience other disorders that may occur concurrently like anxiety, depression, substance abuse, self-harm, eating disorders, and suicidal behaviors among others.
Causes of BPD
Research and studies on the causes and factors that can place one at risk of developing borderline personality disorders are underway. However, most scientists are in agreement that genetic and environmental factors are the likely agents. Studies conducted on twins with the condition reveal that it can be inherited.
Social and cultural factors can also be linked to the development of BPD. For instance, belonging to a culture or group of people where there are common cases of instability in family relationships may increase the risk of a person to develop the disorder.
Signs and Symptoms
In order for one to be diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder, one must exhibit a consistent pattern of behavior that involves at least five of the symptoms below.
- Extreme reactions like rage, panic, depression and even abandonment
- Intense and stormy relationships with friends, family and loved ones.
- Unstable or distorted self-image.
- Impulsive behaviors that are often dangerous like substance abuse, unprotected sex, reckless driving among others
- Intense moods that are highly changeable
- Chronic feeling of boredom and emptiness.
- Difficulty in anger management.
Those who suffer from borderline personality disorder are also likely to portray suicidal behaviors that are recurrent, threats or acts of inflicting harm on themselves. The symptoms of the disorders can begin showing during adolescence or in early adulthood. Certain studies reveal that most cases of BPD have often been found in females compared to males. However, the intensity of the condition heightens with age.
The diagnosis of borderline personality disorders is done by a trained mental health professional like a psychiatrist or psychologist. It is important to note that the diagnosis process for BPD is not conducted through blood, genetic or laboratory tests. The procedure involves making comparisons on the symptoms shown by the patient with their life history.
Psychotherapy is the most ideal form of treatment that can be administered to people who have been diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. There are also certain medications that may be prescribed to patients to help with the symptoms.
Most people who suffer from Borderline Personality disorders do not often seek treatment until its gets to a point that they experience a significant impact on their lives. However, it is always advisable that you seek medical attention as soon as you begin noticing a difference in your mental state.
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