Improving ones health is a challenging practice that requires incorporating several strategies to achieve the goals. My journey to reduce the amount of sugar and alcohol consumption to a manageable level has not been easy, but being mentally healthy has contributed massively in this endeavor. I selected several strategies while searching for information to assist in improving my health. I have developed a personal health culture, which focus on maintaining good health for the future. I have connected this culture with my family members and doctors so that they can assist me in making necessary changes in achieving my goals. Appealing to my own senses has helped me to pay attention to what I have contemplated to achieve and focus on my accomplishment. I have also developed a follow-up strategy, which has assisted in evaluating my progress and renegotiate the goals whenever I fail to follow the initial plan. By creating time to contemplate and appreciate what I have achieved, I feel motivated to attain my health goals. The most valuable information about changes in one’s health is having a focus in life.
Rise in the costs of health care has necessitated individuals to look for alternative ways to improve personal health. Several tools can be exercised to improve personal health. Mobile applications have been quite helpful in making plans of how I will achieve the goal of reducing sugar and alcohol consumption. Apps have become my personal doctor through helping me in keeping time, as well as sharing information with my friends. Nutritional information from books and Internet has also played a major role in improving my health. The root cause analysis (RCA) endeavors to recognize the source of a health problem through determining what and why the problem occurred. RCA indicates that a single action can activate other action, thus, one should search for ways to minimize the occurrence of a negative action. By using the root cause analysis, I can gain information on why the problem may have occurred and how to fix such problem in the future. These tools are essential in ensuring that the goal towards achieving good health is on the right track.
It is very hard to survive without things that one loves. To survive this temptation of taking sugary foods and alcohol demands a person to have high levels of discipline. One of the barriers towards improving personal health is lack of interest. I know that I really need to change my behaviors, but in my minds, I find this exercise somehow boring. Financial constraints may discourage an individual to make appropriate changes if the cost of the substitutes is too high. Lack of motivation has also hindered the success in improving my health. I have tried to evade the barriers to healthy life through focusing on my future, since I know being fit will improve my self-confidence in the future. Setting realistic expectations, and keeping a diary of everyday’s activities has helped in sustaining the track towards achieving my goals and avoiding obstacles. Changing bad habits is quite hard, but once you begin experiencing positive outcomes, one would appreciate the contributions that he/she has made. I also try to avoid people who do not offer encouragement to my plans.
Sustaining a particular health behavior is not easy to a person with low mental health. However, when an individual makes up his/her mind to transform his/her health behaviors, the sky becomes the limit. My plan to sustain good behaviors will be determined by how I will approach the situation, as well as who is on my side in this endeavor. The best approach to sustain this endeavor is to create supportive environment through connecting to people that I trust most. In this way, I will struggle to keep on my plan in order to avoid hurting them. This is where family members come in handy. Developing personal skills can also help to push my goals to the future. Through education and research, I can be able to gather information that will assist in building my capacity to focus on my personal goals. Effective coping skills are fundamental in helping an individual to become self-reliant and solving life problems. I can also try to avoid being exposed to situations that will lure me into taking alcohol or sugary foods. Keeping myself busy will keep me away from consuming alcohol. Hanging around with friends who do not indulge in alcohol abuse will help me to tackle the issue of alcohol consumption.
An individual who focus on the future should create strategies that would ensure that his/her body is in good shape. Nevertheless, no one can afford to remain on the right direction without establishing appropriate strategies to guide on proper behaviors. Being in touch with the health care providers is crucial in maintaining good health. My aim is to continue seeking health information from doctors, as well as social support networks to sustain my health. Developing personal skills will assist in coping with barriers to appropriate health. Continued effort to improve on diet will result in change in personal behaviors and behaviors of those people around me. Creating more friends, engaging in hobbies, and getting enough sleep, are also strategies that would boost and sustain my good health. Effective strategies should accommodate individual’s goals and should be dynamic in boosting health.
MEMO ON CREDATION
TO: The local health director
SUBJECT: Accreditation of the public health
Right now, it is not obligatory for the local authorities to accredit their public health; thus, it is at their discretion to choose either to accredit their public health or not to accredit them. While this may appear reasonable and good to our local authority, it might not be either good or reasonable to the health organizations in the municipality because the local authority may choose never to accredit its public health thereby fail to improve it. In relation to this fact, I would like to bring to your attention the need to establish a mandatory process of accrediting the public health in this local authority. I will do this by evaluating both the pros and cons of this process with respect to the best practices of this local authority.
Starting with the pros, it would be important for you as the policy maker in this local authority to note the following advantages the local authority would enjoy once it accredits its public health. First, accreditation would help in the continuous quality improvement of the health services offered to the local community. It would help the medical practitioners in assessing and evaluating the services, they offer to the community thereby help in offering quality services that meet the needs of the members of the community. At the same time, it would help in collecting the necessary data that is fundamental in tracking down the progress made in the public health thereby help in making the necessary adjustments in the public health. Second, accreditation would help the health organizations in this local authority to standardize their daily practices and streamline them in line with the best practices of health care. With regard to this issue, the management teams in health organizations would commit themselves to understanding and establishing the best practices in health care. Once they do it, they would commit themselves to following them thereby help the local authority improve the public health. Third, accreditation in the public health would help in meeting the organizational standards of the local authority in improving the public health. In this case, it would enable the health organizations streamline their policies and efforts towards improving the public health. Fourth, accreditation in the public health would help in measuring the accountability of the local authority in offering health services to the members of the community. It would enable the members of the public give their responses regarding the public health and with the help of those responses, the local authority would evaluate ways of improving the public health. Finally, accreditation would help in improving the public trust in the local authority and improve the consistency of the local authority in dealing with health issues thereby help improve public health.
Nevertheless, while accreditation in the public health would bring the above advantages to the local authority, it would as well bring the following disadvantages. First, it would pose challenges to the local authority in streamlining its policies and measures with the accreditation process. Second, it would require time and money to conduct a thoroughly accreditation process thereby increase expenses in the local authority. Third, it would be mandatory for the local authority to conduct it within the specified time such that failure to conduct it would be a liability issue. Despite these challenges, accreditation of the public health remains a good thing to the local authority.
Therefore, based on the above advantages and with respect to a recent survey I conducted with the local health department and the local community, it would be important for the local authority to establish a mandatory accreditation process in the public health. The members of the public welcome it while the local health department acknowledges its importance in improving the public health. For this reason, accreditation in the public health remains a viable option for this local authority and I would encourage you to initiate it without hesitation.
Workforce Shortages in Health Care
The paper seeks to
discuss the challenge of workforce shortage in the healthcare sector. It demonstrates
how the shortages of the workforce affect the heath care services, including
training and treatment of the patients. In the U.S, there is close to 13 per cent population growth
rate compared to the 7 % growth rate in the health care professionals. This
indicates the need to train and employ more health workers to cater for the
rising demand for health care. It will evaluate both the short term and
long-term measures that can be used to develop relevant health reforms by
involving employment of more health care professionals. Therefore, the paper
will investigate how workforce shortages affect the healthcare industry.
Workforce Shortages in Health Care
A major challenge facing the health care industry is the shortage of health care professionals. The reasons for such shortages are the increased demand for their services, decreasing health care training attractiveness, and low supply of such professionals from training institutions. As a result of growing populations, the growth in patient population poses threats in the number of trained medical personnel to attend satisfactorily to the treatment of these individuals (Linda, & Berenson, 2011). For example, the United States census reports that its population growth is 13 percent as compared to the health care professional growth of 7 percent.
The increased demand has been attributed to growing cases of chronic diseases due to new lifestyle. This has constrained the health care industry. Consequently, low supply of health care personnel can be attributed to high training expenses involved and declining compensation for such professional in relation to their other professionals. For instance, the United States has experienced a decline of 20 percent of health physicians between 1950 and 2007 (Toni, 2005).
Both short term and long-term measures can be employed in providing a solution to health care shortages. Short-term solutions include providing better compensation schemes to medical practitioners to retain the professionals in their employment. Similarly, governments must invest in professional training to increase their skills and improve their morale (Harry, 2010). The government should encourage proper lifestyles to reduce high disease prevalence rates. People should be encouraged to seek alternative treatments through retail clinics for minor illnesses and adoption of information technology in reaching for medical services. These include e-visits and telemedicine. Other industry efforts may include expanding mid-level care services, such as mid-wife nurse care delivery and involvement of the private practitioners in provision of health care.
Long-term strategies include engaging in health reform programs that will make the industry more attractive. These measures include engaging in research and technological advancement to enhance efficient delivery of services. The government should promote low training costs through financing loans and scholarships to make it affordable to low income earners. Consequently, the government should expand the number of training institutions to cater for more enrolment and increase the market supply of these professionals.
An example of interest group to help in policy formulation in health care is public interest groups. These groups include the consumer groups, ideology groups, and labor unions. These groups present public concerns, such as employee protection and other social issues. They help in minimizing society moral decay and present their concerns to the government policy makers. Through their actions, they facilitate proper legislative laws that are not discriminative. In particular, the enactment of health policies will help in designing the right package and attract more people to the profession. Through collective action, they provide an essential link between the people and government (Harry, 2010). In the United States of America, the presence of influential groups has been influential in decision-making. Consequently, for effective increase in health services, these interest groups should be included in formulation of medical strategies.
In conclusion, the decline of the number of health
professionals is attributed to high demand for their services compared to
supply. In addition, the compensation for health professionals is low making
the profession unattractive. Both short term and long-term solution can provide
remedies to this mismatch. These include more training institutions in
medicine, better pay for the personnel, and reduction of training costs through
funding. This would involve interest groups, such as Labor unions being
involved in policy formulation.
Harry, S. (2010). Health care criteria for performance excellence: baldrige national quality program. New York: Diane Publishers.
Linda, D., & Berenson, W. (2011).Cultural competencies for nurses: impact on health and illness. London: Jones publishers.
Toni, P. (2005). Aging health care workforce issues. New York: Springer Publishers
Blood Infections In 2020
Blood stream infections affect some people and may cause death if not treated early enough. These infections result from bacteria finding its way into the blood stream. Once in the blood stream it causes infections some so severe they cause organ failure leading to death. Most infections are reported to occur in hospitals. Catheters used provide a means for bacteria that reside on their surfaces to get into the blood stream. Dental operations also provide an opportunity for bacteria to get into the blood stream (Beltrami, et al., 2000). These bacteria are known to reside mostly in hospitals and the skin. This implies that the administrator of a hospital can influence the spread of these infections and the general health of people in 2020.
Health administrators formulate policies that dictate how hospitals operate. This way they play a pivotal role on the ability of the health institutions to combat health problems in the society. Nurses and doctors abide by the policies of the administrators because they are their bosses. The policies they come up especially on usage of hospital equipments are very critical in dissemination of health services. They dictate how equipments such as catheters are used before they are disposed (Malhotra, et al., 2006). This implies that if they have policies that insist on recycling some of these equipments then they will affect the control of blood infections. Health administrators control the finances of health institutions. They make some of their decisions based on the monetary policies they have put in place to control finances. This way they affect control of some diseases that require new equipments to be used regularly.
Health administrators also control the cleanliness of health institutions they run. This implies that if they have lax rules then occurrences of infections that result from poor hygiene will be common. Blood stream infections occur from presence of bacteria in health facilities which later gains access into the blood stream (Seybold, et al., 2006).. This implies that a hospital with poor hygiene is likely to have a prevalence of this disease. This hygiene may include how well they sterilize surgical equipments. Surgical equipments can be used by bacteria to enter into the blood stream. If they are stored in conditions that are not hygienic they will have these bacteria. Once they surgical instrument is used to operate on a person the bacteria will enter the blood stream causing an infection. This can be blamed on the administrator because they make policies affecting every department in the hospital. Therefore, storage of these equipments is done according to what they administration dictates and using storage facilities provided by the administrators.
Furthermore the hygiene of washrooms, wards, beddings etcetera is also dependent on the policies of the hospital. If the polices advocate for a very clean hospital then there is every likelihood blood infections will be very few. Hygiene of these places is important because dirty conditions create a thriving environment for bacteria (Wertheim, et al., 2004). These bacteria eventually get into the patient’s blood through surgical equipments and other things that touch their open wounds. This implies that cleanliness is of paramount importance in any health facility. Any facility that does not pay attention to this exposes its patients to infections that thrive in dirty conditions. This highlights the importance of the administrators of hospitals formulating policies that priorities cleanliness in a health facility (English, et al, 1999).
In addition, health administrators can also create awareness of the health problem to encourage patients to maintain high hygiene standards. This would go a long way in ensuring that patients clean themselves and protect their wounds and keep them clean. This would also discourage patients from sharing items that may pass bacteria from one patient to the other (Claridge, et al., 2002). This kind of awareness is important because nurses cannot be expected to do everything to protect their patients. This requires patients to also participate in maintenance of high hygiene standards. If properly done blood infections would reduce blood infections significantly.
Health administrators play a key role in the efficiency of the health facilities they manage. They are entrusted with the responsibility of formulating policies that will not only keep the facility in sound financial condition but also delivering high quality medical services. However, the most important role is formulating polices that will ensure the facility performs its key role of health service delivery exemplarily (Pfaller, et al., 1999). A health facility is as good as the service it offers not the amount of money it is able to generate. This implies that health administrators have a huge impact on the control and eradication of such diseases such as blood stream infections (Benezra, et al, 1988). If they can maintain the hygiene of their health facilities and also ensure that they supply their facilities with new equipments to ensure that surgical instruments are not recycled. They will have eradicated the most common ways through which the disease is spread. The state of health in the year 2020 is highly dependent on how administrators run their health institutions. As long as they formulate sound policies blood infections will be very low in the year 2020.
English, J. F., Cundiff, M. Y., Malone, J. D., Pfeiffer, J. A., Bell, M., Steele, L., & Miller, M. (1999). Bioterrorism readiness plan: a template for healthcare facilities. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Beltrami, E. M., Williams, I. T., Shapiro, C. N., & Chamberland, M. E. (2000). Risk and management of blood-borne infections in health care workers. Clinical microbiology reviews, 13(3), 385-407.
Malhotra, I., Mungai, P., Muchiri, E., Kwiek, J. J., Meshnick, S. R., & King, C. L. (2006). Umbilical cord–blood infections with Plasmodium falciparum malaria are acquired antenatally in Kenya. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 194(2), 176-183.
Seybold, U., Kourbatova, E. V., Johnson, J. G., Halvosa, S. J., Wang, Y. F., King, M. D., … & Blumberg, H. M. (2006). Emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 genotype as a major cause of health care—associated blood stream infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 42(5), 647-656.
Wertheim, H. F., Vos, M. C., Ott, A., van Belkum, A., Voss, A., Kluytmans, J. A., … & Verbrugh, H. A. (2004). Risk and outcome of nosocomial< i> Staphylococcus aureus</i> bacteraemia in nasal carriers versus non-carriers.The Lancet, 364(9435), 703-705.
Claridge, J. A., Sawyer, R. G., Schulman, A. M., McLemore, E. C., & Young, J. S. (2002). Blood transfusions correlate with infections in trauma patients in a dose-dependent manner. The American Surgeon, 68(7), 566-572.
Pfaller, M. A., Jones, R. N., Doern, G. V., Fluit, A. C., Verhoef, J., Sader, H. S., … & Hollis, R. J. (1999). International surveillance of blood stream infections due to< i> Candida</i> species in the European SENTRY program: species distribution and antifungal susceptibility including the investigational triazole and echinocandin agents. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 35(1), 19-25.
Benezra, D., Kiehn, T. E., Gold, J. W., Brown, A. E., Turnbull, A. D., & Armstrong, D. (1988). Prospective study of infections in indwelling central venous catheters using quantitative blood cultures. The American journal of medicine, 85(4), 495-498.
PEER REVIEW OF FOOD PROCESSING PLANT HYGIENE ESSAYS
Review of Report 1
The growth in demand for processing foods in Ireland has brought about the increase of production and preservation techniques that have little effect on the dietary value of foods. These Food processing plants process a variety of food products that support and provide for the Irish community and the entire world. Because of the little use of preservation technologies in food processed, sanitary processing equipment and hygienic practice atmosphere is imperative to prevent food processing surfaces from contamination from microorganisms, compound elements, and other contaminants. This report summarizes the Irish operational guidelines with reference to factory hygiene and factory arrangement and zoning requirements. The report also highlights the significance of disinfection agents and arrangement of sanitation programs.
This essay covers various subjects of food processing plant hygiene such as food hygiene, food safety and quality, food regulations and guidelines, ingredients and ingredient functionality, process control and its contribution to food processing operations, plant layout design, food, , food zoning, basic food production, establishment of sanitation programs. The objective of the essay is to examine Irish food hygiene standards and guidelines; in particular, the HACCP guidelines.
This report exhibits a synopsis of Irish operational regulations pertaining to factory sanitation and factory arrangement and zoning prerequisites for various designated food zones. The report supplies information about food production plant layout and zoning prerequisites for various designated food areas. Food Safety and Sanitation Guidelines 2010/2996 legalizes the manufacturing and distribution of processed foods in Ireland. This provision grants instruction on all the working requirements concerning various classes of food processing industries. Ireland’s Food Safety Authority directive for food processing requires that the fitness, efficiency, and application of disinfecting agents and procedures be assessed.
The Methodology exposed by this report is well grounded, appropriate and up-to-date. The article first introduces the main operational guidelines accepted by the Irish food safety department on food hygiene. Food industries are mandated to apply and maintain a stable procedure based on the standards of hazard analysis critical control points. In relation to the implementation and enforcement, the first section of the report notes that food processors should ensure that food hygiene issues commensurate with their operations and those accountable for the development and preservation of the procedure are conversant with the relevant standards and have sufficient training about the purpose of HACCP principles. The report as well as details shows how to determine the suitability, application and the disinfection agents. This is because food processing should take place on clean and sterile surfaces. The plant layout design provided in this report clearly supports that a good factory layout should ensure that flow of material, employees, and garbage move in the appropriate course.
Discussions and Conclusion
Initiation and sustenance of high-quality hygiene practices and consequently, ensuring safe food and superior quality products, is a significant concern of administration in the food processing industry today. Efforts should be directed towards having the right people at the right place and educating them on their influence in the processing of quality products by giving them the needed guidance and equipments to perform their duties properly. This report indicates that guidelines and documentation of standards have their role to play in the processing of safe products. Benchmarking against the most excellent in the class and gap examination of the practices in the position such as GMP and HACCP is important. In the present day, a lot is known concerning food hygiene and many food safety accidents can be averted, but there is a need to share knowledge to achieve this.
The references used in the report are suitable, up to date, and readily available. They cover various aspects as well as aspects of processed food products. They present different aspects of organizing a plant sanitation program and presents Irish operational guidelines about food processing plant hygiene.
Review of Report 2
Incorporation of sterile environment and procedures into a food manufacturing plant can avoid the increase of germs and bacteria on processing surfaces, prevent contamination of food with dust, aid maintenance, and preserve hygienic conditions while processing. The report helps to understand the features on factory sanitation and the European Union operational guidelines on food manufacturing factoring hygiene.
The objective of the report is to assist food processing plants to avert the possibility of potential plant shut down by law enforcement agencies due to lack of adherence to food processing safety guidelines and poor sanitary conditions on the company’s processing premises. The report explains the operation requirements food-manufacturing industries must understand and are mandated to put into operation the guidelines of the European Union food safety guidelines.
This report presents guidelines on the operational prerequisites relating to different classes of food manufacturing businesses. The report as well explains the usage measures and worker safety conditions of disinfectants, as well as the process in which the efficiency, application, and suitability of disinfection products can be determined. The report outlines the important aspects of appropriate sanitation programs and the consequences of poor sanitation programs to a food processing plant. Lastly, the report outlines clearly in a chronological order, the recommended design and segregation requirements of a food factory.
The report is organized in clear, detailed topics that are well grounded, appropriate and up-to-date. These topics include Irish operational food safety guidelines, sanitation programs, efficiency, application, and fitness of disinfectants, and factory design and isolation conditions for areas that require high standards and low standards of sanitation. The topic on Irish sanitation guidelinesexplains the operational obligations that food-manufacturing industries should fulfil. The report also contains a heading explaining the conditions that various food-processing zones must maintain to ensure safe food manufacturing. The report also states that food producers must have a comprehensive food sanitation program that incorporates everybody involved in food manufacturing.
Discussion and Conclusion
Hygienic food plant layout starts with the choice of a suitable location and the utilization of a hygienic building plan that avoids the entry of microbes. The factory design should allow easy flow of materials, refuse, air, and personnel without endangering food safety and the installation of hygienic food areas that present maximum safety to the food produced. The report as well demonstrates thatdisinfectants are crucial in different zones of the food processing, where their application assists in the control of bacterial spoilage and food contamination hazards in food. Therefore, the advice given by the report concerning food safety should be taken seriously to ensure that a nation is healthy and the world in safe hands.
The references concentrate on some of the processing hygiene requirements, and discuss the design of the food processing equipment and the hygienic practices to keep the plant in a sanitized condition.
Gender, Power, and HIV Vulnerability
Before reading a research article by Panchanadeswaran et al., (2007), titled “Using the Theory of Gender and Power to Examine Experiences of Partner Violence, Sexual Negotiation, and Risk of HIV/AIDS among Economically Disadvantaged Women in Southern India”, I used to believe that women’s vulnerability to HIV was universal because they face almost similar gender and power obstacles. I did not know that gender inequalities in all its spheres increases women’s vulnerability to HIV, especially as it relates to intimate partner violence and assertiveness in negotiating for safe sex practices, where married women are most vulnerable.
Economic constraints affecting women originate from the sexual division of labor that accords men a higher participation, status, and remuneration in the work environment as compared to women. It creates an economic imbalance that can force women to be financially dependent on men, thus creating vulnerability in all spheres. Poverty is the main factor forcing most women to accept sex work as the only means of earning a livelihood for themselves and their children. The high poverty level increases women’s vulnerability to HIV infection, and varying levels of violence. Economic dependence forces women to forgo adoption of health-protective behaviors, including ignoring their partner’s infidelity or violent behavior
Sexual division of power creates disparities that increase women’s vulnerability to HIV. This includes physical exposure factors, for instance, violence perpetuated by an intimate partner, and other high-risk behaviors. Other contributing factors include use of alcohol, women’s perceived lack of control in intimate relationships, and their low assertive skills to negotiate condom use with the male partners. Although alcohol use among women reduces their assertiveness in negotiating condom use, alcohol use by male partners is of serious concern as it reduces women’s resistance to unwanted sex. Drunken male partners facing such resistance often make accusations of infidelity as the reason their female partners are not cooperating. Since such accusations are normally followed by physical violence, women are usually compelled to practice unsafe sex that increases their vulnerability to HIV.
Women have also accepted cultural norms that perpetuate power disparities and prevent them from embracing mechanisms that reduce their vulnerability to HIV. The women’s acceptance of male violence as a normative has encouraged physical violence, especially when questioning extra-marital relationships or negotiating safe sex practices. Some women have internalized harmful cultural norms, for instance, acceptance of male extra-marital relationships.
The authors noted that women engaging in high demand/low control work environment, such as sex work that has high risk for violence, were sometimes better capable of asserting and protecting themselves than married women because of their strong informal support networks.
Panchanadeswaran, S., Johnson, S., Go, V., Srikrishnan, A., Sivaram, S., Solomon, S., & Celentano, D. (2007). Using the theory of gender and power to examine experiences of partner violence, sexual negotiation, and risk of HIV/AIDS among economically disadvantaged women in southern India. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 15(3-4), 155-178.
Strategy formulation is a process by which a company selects the most suitable approaches to accomplish its defined objectives. This process is vital for the success of a company, because it gives a structure to the activities that will prompt the expected outcomes. Strategy formulation aims to develop coordinated actions for managing the company because of ecological chances and dangers (Hackney & Little, 1999). Furthermore, strategy formulation incorporates defining the mission, framing goals on distinctive levels, creating support plans, and setting the policies of an organization (Hill & Westbrook, 1997). Strategy formulation starts with a comprehensive examination to the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis). In the same connection, it is essential to show the vital role of actualizing a suitable order in strategy formulation.
The definition of a sound procedure encourages various actions and expected outcomes that might be troublesome. When a strategic plan is communicated to all members in a company, it gives workers an apparent vision of what the goals and purposes of the company are. The formulation of strategies is established in a specific order to allow a company to analyze the possibility of change within a reasonable period and to plan for change instead of waiting inactively until the market forces constrain it. Strategic formulation in a specific order permits an organization to plan its capital rationing. Organizations have constrained funds to invest and must dispense capital trusts where they will be more effective and infer the highest profits for their investment.
It is important to formulate strategies in this specific order for the process to flow smoothly. Some strategies cannot be implemented before others. Strategies are formulated in a manner such that those that provide direction for other strategies come first in the formulation process. Formulating strategies in a specific order also enables a company to assess its resources, allocate, and identify the most effective plan to maximize return before taking further actions.
To get primed for strategy formulation, a company should first survey on the off chance that it is prepared. While various issues must be tended to in evaluating readiness, the determination descends to whether the managers of a company are sincerely dedicated to the effort, and have the capacity to give the fundamental consideration regarding the whole picture. Managers ought to first study the aggressive drives in their settings, deduce a set of options that help the company to go up against those powers, and afterward execute the options. The mission of a firm offers a long-range point of view of what the firm strives for going forward and define a specific order to follow in strategy formulation. A clearly expressed mission will offer a company with an aide for executing its plans. The components of a solid mission statement should incorporate the values that the company holds, special capabilities, the nature of the business, position the company holds in the market, and the vision of the company. This clearly indicates the need to formulate strategies in a specific order. Without the mission to guide the process of formulating the strategies, there will be no flow of actions to be taken.
Following a specific order in strategy formulation holds many benefits. Undoubtedly, most techniques are dependent upon systemic methodology (Iivari, Hirschheim & Klein, 2001). Following a specific order will help in handling complex issues through partitioning them into sensible time-based parts and sees how these segments associate with one another, which gives a full understanding to strategy formulation process. In addition, applying a specific order enables managers to draw a framework outline for the company, which gives the bases to effective critical thinking, and therefore produce a dynamic and systematic strategy.
JIivari, J., Hirschheim, R., & Klein, H. (2001). A Dynamic Framework for Classifying Information Systems Development Methodologies and Approaches. Journal of Management Information Systems 17(3), 179-218
Hackney, R. & Little, S. (1999). Opportunistic Strategy Formulation for IS/IT Planning. European. Journal of Information Systems 8, 119 – 126.
Hill, T., & Westbrook, R. (1997). SWOT analysis: It’s time for a product recall. Long Range Planning, 30, 46-52.
Virginia Avenel Henderson is a legend nurse who became famous after being awarded the title “the best nurse of the 20th century”. Her contributions in this career have created a positive impact to nursing at both national and international level. Henderson became an inspiration to nurses across the world after receiving a prestigious Christianne Reimann prize from the nursing council. As a holder of twelve doctoral degrees, she applied her nursing knowledge through her influencing research and practice across the globe.
Analyzing the leadership characteristics of Henderson, it is evident that she was a gracious person with full sense of humor and wisdom. She was a leader who advocated for teamwork whereby she taught health professionals to work in a peaceful manner to achieve a common goal. Henderson believed that working harmoniously in a team could benefit patients and families that nurses assisted. She was an effective nurse leader who encouraged her colleagues to unite and function effectively to pursue their shared objective. Henderson exhibited a democratic way of leadership and most of the time she guided rather than control individuals she worked with. The other leadership trait she possessed is that she was a manager by attention when she gave directions that attracted followers. She was an excellent nurse who accepted opinion from others and attributed to personal life of individuals and what they contributed to society (Henderson, 2012).
According to Henderson, a leader who portrays excellence is a complete individual that can take part in any task he or she is assigned. She perceives nurses as individuals who are responsible of assisting patients who are not physically capable or have knowledge to take care of their own. Henderson is a kind of a leader who expects her team members to evade demands that could prevent them from doing their jobs appropriately. Based on her leadership style, good nurses are not supposed to divert from their line of work and focus on activities such as filing, cleaning and clerking that are non-medical.
I believe that Henderson’s leadership traits are the essential characteristics of directing others. First, for a leader to interact well with her staff, she has to be gracious and have a sense of humor as Henderson. This has a positive impact because it creates a mutual relationship that leads to understanding and proper functioning at work. It is also essential for a leader to support teamwork because it unites employees and facilitates them to work hard to achieve their goals. Leading in a democratic manner promotes a working spirit and make employees to feel comfortable in their line of duty. Furthermore, this stimulates sharing of ideas among the parties involved without discriminating against the superior and inferiors. It is vital for a leader to be a role model to others because it attracts many followers who emulate his or her behaviors for success of the organization.
The following are specific contributions that Henderson made to the nursing profession. As a nurse theorist, she significantly took part in nursing practices that gave her titles such as “First Lady of Nursing”. She participated in writing, conducted research, and worked with diverse nurses, which gave her an impression of the best nurse across the world. She mobilized other nurses to assist individuals in society whether sick or well to recover or maintain their good health especially those who lacked strength and knowledge in this area (Smith, 2009). In nursing career, Henderson was an educator in institutions such as Columbia University Teacher’s College and Yale school of nursing where she imparted knowledge to many students pursuing this career. She also contributed to nursing when she wrote three editions of “Principles and practices of nursing” that became widely used in spreading knowledge about nursing. Henderson contributed in creating the first nursing library in Indianapolis that benefited professionals because they were able to access it via electronic means.
The advocacy traits employed by Henderson to meet the needs of individuals in society are evident when she initiated a basic curriculum to solve nursing issues. She also paid frequent visits to nursing schools where she influenced and encouraged individuals in nursing profession. In addition, Henderson was a passionate advocate in spreading health details and resources in society. Her focus in taking care of individuals is evident when she motivated other nurses to aid patients to recover, maintain healthy status of those who are well, and take care of the sick who could not survive to have a peaceful death. She articulated on the significance of promoting self-reliance among patients to enhance their healing progress after their stay at the hospital. This could be achieved by allowing individuals to participate in activities that grant them health or contribute to their recovery. Furthermore, she advocated for nurses to devote their time to patients during day and night and their significance of attaining education at a university level. As a result, this has met healthcare needs of families and individuals in society when they receive services from educated nurses in a satisfactory manner.
In her nursing profession, Henderson encountered obstacles that influenced her decisions to handle a situation that caused change. The first barrier that hindered change is when some of her members failed to be part of teamwork. As a result, this affected the situation because it distracted the unity of other workers in nursing organizations (Henderson, 2011). In another circumstance, a section of nurses did not take their work as a first priority due to their personal demands. This had a negative impact to decision making in addressing a situation because nurses made a habit of coming to work late hence gave patients less attention. In such a condition, patients ended up suffering as they lacked assistance in absence of nurses who showed up late. At some point, her memory and hearing ability began to change and this had a bad effect because it reduced her concentration in this career. However, Henderson worked hard to overcome such obstacles by ensuring that she brought change in nursing profession.
As a legend nurse, Virginia Henderson contributed a lot in nursing and this had an impact to the future generation in various ways. First, the upcoming nurses will be motivated to pursue higher education in nursing as a way of emulating Henderson’s footsteps. Her contribution also creates a positive impact in future because nurses will be encouraged to conduct research and write books to explore more in this profession. In addition, the nursing generation will advance in providing efficient services to the patients. They will emulate such skills from her teachings when she advocated for concentration in line of duty (Henderson, 2010). For instance, nurses will learn the significance of spending time and assisting patients rather than engaging in irrelevant activities such as filing. They will fulfill this by attending their night and day duties appropriately to ensure that patients recover until they are able to take care of themselves.
Henderson has created a positive impact to future age group of nurses. They will apply her excellent leadership skills that incorporate teamwork to achieve their goals. In future, professions who engage nursing practices will imitate a democratic way of leadership from Henderson. This will assist nurses in leadership position to guide their colleagues instead of controlling them during work. Furthermore, health professionals will work harmoniously by appreciating different opinions from each other to foster understanding and unity. Learning from her contribution, the future group of nurses will embrace education, and offer quality services that will benefit individuals, families and aggregates in society.
Analyzing Henderson’s contribution and how she propelled change in nursing career impacts on me from a professional and personal perspective in relation to beliefs, knowledge and values. Personally, the values I acquire from her are being gracious and having a good relationship with the individuals I relate with. In addition, I will also stick to the value of offering assistance to others in a peaceful manner to achieve my goals (Davies, 2009). Her contribution in nursing also made me to value opinions from colleagues and professionally to appreciate teamwork. She also encourages me to pursue education at higher levels so as to gain knowledge that is useful in this profession. From her, I learn the significance of democracy in nursing and other organizations in general in that it creates a good working relationship between the leader and her staff.
Davies, P. (2009). Nursing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Henderson, V. (2012). The nature of nursing; a definition and its implications for practice, research, and education. New York: Macmillan.
Henderson, V. (2010). Principles and practice of nursing (6th ed.). New York: Macmillan.
Henderson, V. (2011). A Virginia Henderson reader: excellence in nursing. New York: Springer Pub. Co.
Henderson, V. (2012). Basic principles of nursing care (Rev. 2012. ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: International Council of Nurses.
Smith, M. (2009). Best practices in nursing education stories of exemplary teachers. New York: Springer Pub.
- Why are there ‘health based’ and ‘aesthetic based’ values in the guidelines?
Values stipulated in the water guidelines include aesthetic based effects, the health based effects and the operational considerations. The health based values are important, as they are associated with contaminants, exposure levels, and the availability of the treatments and the analytical technologies. Aesthetic values on the other hand, include turbidity, tastes, and colour of water and help to indicate whether the consumer of the water will see it as drinkable. These values are important in the guidelines since they help in determining whether water has the correct palatability and portability effect to the consumer, that is, it is drinkable as well as portraying colour, taste and other characters that are appealing to the consumer’s senses.
- The health based guideline value for free chlorine is 5mg/L whereas the aesthetic based guideline value is 0.6mg/L – why are they different?
The health requirement for chlorine is 5mg/L above which the health regulation will indicate that chlorine is being detected in the water and it will compromise quality or the effectiveness of disinfection. At the same time, it will affect the reaction between chlorine and other organic precursors. However, the aesthetic value is based on consumer preference and sensitivity. At 0.6mg/L is the acceptable range for most consumers in terms of tastes and odour related to chlorine. Therefore, the difference exists because aesthetic value is based on consumer preference in terms of taste and odour while 5MG/l relates to the operational range of chlorine that will not be harmful.
- Why are different parameters monitored for source water and customer tap water? Give examples of parameters which require to be monitored in (a) raw water and (b) distribution system (ADWG Ch9/10 will help here)
Different parameters are monitored both at the source and at the customer’s water tap to ensure that surrogates are controlled and at the same time to increase assurance that objectionable characteristics are reduced or are not present. Some parameters that need to be monitored include PH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, faecal contamination at the source water, treatment failures like free chlorine, HPC, Escherichia coli and turbidity, water stagnation issues like the dissolved oxygen, HPC, the loss of disinfectant residual and total coliforms, and in case there are disinfection by-products.
- Why is there ‘residual chlorine’ in drinking water? Why is the residual chlorine measured as ‘free’ residual chlorine in chlorinated systems, but as ‘total’ residual chlorine in chloraminated systems?
The presence of residual in the drinking water is an indication that a sufficient amount of chlorine has been put into the water so that most of the bacteria and viruses that are likely to cause diseases can be inactivated. At the same time, it helps in assuring the users that the water they are drinking or using for animal consumption has been protected from recontamination, as it is transported to their homes and when it will be stored at their homes. Chlorine presence also indicates the portability of water. In the chlorinated systems, the total demand for chlorine is zero since there are no nitrates to react with chlorine. Where the water is not treated, nitrate reacts with chlorine and part of it stays within the system to make the water portable.
- The results for tap water sourced from the Happy Valley system (DWQR p21) indicate that the aesthetic guideline for free chlorine was met 88.1% of the time – is this important?
The 88.1% of the time as indicated from the tap water of Happy Valley system is indicative of the aesthetic guideline and it is important because it shows that the palatable quality of water that is delivered to the residents of Happy Valley in terms of taste, colour and odour is not completely accepted by the residents. It indicates that 11.1% of the residents think that the waster is not good for consumption and therefore the water management board ought to do something about the matter to make it 100% good. It is also important because it explains the views of the thetic compliance has been fulfilled.
- Which parameters are used in measuring microbial contamination? (ADWG Ch10 will help here)
The parameters that are used to measure microbial contamination include the coliforms group. This group is made up of bacteria that have defined growth as well as biochemical characteristics that are related to faecal contaminants. It entails the total coliforms that can be used in disinfection of water, and it can also be used in treated water in the distribution system both ingress and regrowth as well as in outbreak investigations. Others of the coliform group include the Escherichia coli, and thermotolerant coliforms. Another parameter that can be used to measure microbial contamination includes the presence of enterococci and faecal streptococci. Enterococcus species originates from faecal matter. Faecal streptococci on the other hand are more resistant than the E. Coli and other coliform bacteria, they are resistant to drying and can therefore be used for routine controls and in the distribution systems. Ratio of counts is another parameter that counts thermotolerant coliforms and the faecal streptococci and helps in differentiating contaminations emanating from animals and humans. Others include the direct total bacteria counts and activity tests, heterotrophic bacteria, clostridium perfringens, heterotrophic plate count among others.
- The township of Parachilna achieves only 92% compliance for coliforms and yet 100% compliance for E.coli (DWQR p25). Explain the discrepancy in these results. Should the residents of Parachilna be concerned about these results?
The explanation for the discrepancies between coliform and E. Coli in Parachilna can be derived from the fact that unlike E. Coli, which is widely present in human and animal faeces, it is not found in other niches apart from faecal contamination. This therefore explains why it was 100% compliant. Coliform on the other hand found in faecal contamination, is also found naturally in the environment and therefore may not meet the 100% compliance. Since coliforms are not pathogens, they cannot be found in bottled water. This therefore means that they are not useful determinants of faecal contamination. The people of Parachilna should therefore not be concerned by the noncompliance of the coliforms.
- In the Barossa system (DWQR p20) the min value for coliforms recorded is 0 and the max value is 31. Given these results, explain why the average and median results are both also 0
Since this explains the water system in Barosa system, the whole system is not contaminated with coliforms. Thus, the median and minimum values read at zero. However, in case the water has contaminants, the maximum expected coliform in the water system is 31.
- What is THM, and why might it be important to measure it in drinking water?
THMs (trihalomethanes) are disinfection by-products that form once chlorine has been added to water that has high levels of organic particles like vegetations and decaying leaves. High HTMs are mostly found in areas with surface based water supply. It is important to test THMs in drinking water because if the levels exceed the required acceptable concentrations of 0.1mg/L, it can be dangerous to the health of the consumers. At the same time, drinking water that has a lot of THMs may in time lead to a person getting cancer.
- Why is it important to measure TDS?
TDS stands for total dissolved liquid and it is a meter that is used to analyse the quality of fresh water. TDS should be measured because when it reaches a certain level say 1000mg/l, the water is considered unfit to be consumed by human beings. TDS also measures taste of the water to determine if it is undesirable, that is, salty, metallic or even bitter. It is also used in measuring filter performance thereby determining when the filter should be changed. Also hardness of water can be detected as well as identifying whether the levels of minerals are constant for aquaculture. It helps measure hydroponics, pools and spas.
- What is the ‘rule of thumb’ figure used to convert electrical conductivity into total dissolved solids? Why does this conversion not always give a true picture of the TDS in a water sample?
The conversion factor is usually 0.67 which is multiplied by the approximate concentration usually given as (TDS) ppm = Conductivity µS/cm x 0.67. This conversion does not give the true picture of the TDS in the water sample because it is a gravitational analysis, which bases its assumption on the fact that a given sample would be measured to dryness and each party uses its own range to get the figures.
- Numerous country systems are never able to meet the aesthetic guideline values recommended for total hardness (DWQR p30). What issues might customers experience as a result of the utility’s inability to meet this guideline?
Generally, failure for the utility to meet the aesthetic guidelines indicates that many of the consumers will not be comfortable drinking the water, as they will think that it is impure. At the Same time, the consumers will think that it smells and tastes bad. It may also affect their clothing, as it may leave stains if it does not contain the water’s true colour.
- What does total hardness measure? Why does it have an aesthetic guideline but not a health based one?
Total hardness of water is the sum of calcium and magnesium ions concentrations that generally are expressed as the calcium carbonate equivalent. This being the case, total hardness measures the amount of calcium and magnesium that water may be having. Total hardness has an aesthetic guideline because it relates to the hardness that the consumer expects and is as a result of the source of the water. It is also based on aesthetic guidelines because it makes it difficult for consumers to obtain lather easily from it and can lead to undesirable deposits in hot water pipes and other fittings, and this can be expensive to remove. Health based requirements deal with the composition of water and the necessary steps that the water management takes to ensure that the water is safe for consumption by the consumer.
- Why might the values for both TDS and total hardness be relatively high in the source water of many country systems compared to the metropolitan systems?
The values for TDS and total hardness are high in the source water because at the source are plenty of inorganic salts and other organic matter that have not been filtered. At the metropolitan systems, filtration and sedimentation takes place and this minimises the level and amount of TDS and total hardness. At the source, residential runoffs, soil leaching pollution at point’s source are some of the reasons that explain water hardness and TDS. In the metropolitan system, chlorination makes the water soft and chemical contaminants are removed from this place.
- Why is it not possible to calculate the average pH value from a range of samples by simply adding the values and dividing by the number of samples taken? How would you go about calculating the average value from a list of pH results?
pH is a logarithmic scale and this being the case, it is impossible to take an average for a mixed solution since one has to determine the value of H+ in a solution, then total them and find the concentration of the ions in Mol/l of the new solution. The new pH can then be calculated.
- The result given for the minimum pH value of Murray Bridge source water is zero (DWQR p22). Why is this likely to be an incorrect result?
The pH value indicates the amount of hydrogen a given water point has. Owing to the fact that chemicals, contaminations, and pollutants are present everywhere, there ought to be a certain percentage of alkalinity in the water.
- Loxton, Morgan and Swan Reach appear to have significant issues in treating tap water to within the pH range required by ADWG (DWQR p28). Why might this be and what potential concerns maybe encountered by customers obtaining water with a pH consistently above 8.5?
The reasons as to why Loxoto, Morgan and Swan reach have issues in treating tap water may be because of the various networks of reservoirs and water mains that the water passes that affects the water pH. Water that has a high concentration of hydrogen ions is likely to pose concerns to the consumers in that the water will not be its natural texture like since high pH is likely to make the water slippery. At the same time, high pH levels are likely to change the taste of the water making it have the soda taste and at the same time the possibility of water having deposits are high.
- What does the term ‘true colour’ mean and what units are used to express this measurement?
True colour of water is the colour of water after water’s turbidity has been removed and it is as a result of the dissolved organics, the minerals and chemicals in water (American water association, 2003). The units used to express true colour are the colour units
- In tap water obtained from the Hope Valley system the average result for true colour is 20HU whereas the median result is 2 HU (DWQR p19). Why might these results be so different?
I think that the difference arises due to the number of samples taken. If a lot of samples have been taken with varying results; some being too high while the others too small, then the median could be low while the average becomes high. For example, in a sample of 20 samples with 1,2,4,2,8,3,5,45,56,86,3,8,5,12,,50,40,30,7 6,3. From the data, the median is 4.5 while the average is 17.
- In general what impact does increasing the number of samples taken have on the difference between the two measures of central tendency (average and median) reported in the tables?
From the example given above, if the number of samples increased at an increasing rate, then the median rate is bound to reduce while the average figure is likely to increase. This information depends on the value of the sample results such that if the values shift from high to low, the above results will be experienced, otherwise, if the values are closer to each other, then the measure of central tendency is likely to be closely related.
- Compare the results for a range of parameters (eg. colour, fluoride, TDS, turbidity) between source water and customer tap water from the same source. What can you say about the water treatment processes in regard to the comparison of the two results? Are the treatment systems across South Australia comparable in their removal of various parameters?
The source water usually has TDS, and turbidity, colour and fluoride. The components that the treatment process removes are TDS and turbidity as well as the colour. Fluoride is not removed in the process at each source. The same case happens in the treatment system across South Australia.
- Why do the values for some parameters actually increase during the treatment process? Which parameters fit into this category? Suggest reasons why this may be the case?
The values of some parameters increase during treatment because as the treatment takes place, chemicals are added to water. The effect of this is that these chemicals combine with the chemicals found in the water to form combinations. Some of the chemicals that fit into this category include oxygen.
What do you think are the main concerns that the public has about the quality of their water?
The main concern that the public has concerning the quality of water is that the water should have good taste and at the same time, the water is pure. This being the case, the public expects water that is both palatable and portable. The public expects to have water that is free from organics and other chemicals that can be harmful to their health and animals.
- Would the public prefer water which is palatable or potable? Explain the difference between these terms and cite examples which justify your response to the question.
Portable water can be consumed without there being any harmful effects. In other words, it is fit for consumption by animal and humans and is generally referred to as drinking water. Portable water may come from a natural source or it can be treated to ensure that it is safe for consumption. Usually, before water can be drunk in the developed countries, it is tested to find out if there are any harmful contaminants. Palatable water is that water that may be pleasing to drink but it does not necessarily mean that it is safe. However, it may be good tasting, have turbidity, lack sediments and have a pleasant colour that attracts the eyes. Overall drinking water should be both portable and palatable. Generally, the public would prefer water that is palatable given the fact that despite the fact that water is safe for drinking, if it does not have the required taste or have sediment, it will elicit comments from people saying that it is bad. For example, a region that has portable water that is impure may not consider that water to be pure. On the other hand, if a region has water that is palatable, everybody will like it irrespective of its state.
American Water Works Association. (2003). Water quality. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association.
Bottom of Form
Managed Health Care Assignment
- How does managed health care control the health cost?
Managed care refers to the systems and techniques used to control the rendering of health services. It encompasses the process of organizing doctors, hospitals and other health stakeholders into groups in order to enhance the quality of the health care (Kerry and Pam 22). This organization ensures there is transparency in utilization of health funds and resources. In addition, in managed care patients’ charges are set to avoid exploitation by health facilities and they also employ their own staff to avoid doctors being paid by patients which made them exaggerate charges hence saving health cost.
- a) What is organizational integration?
Organizational integration refers to the collaboration among health care service providers and payer groups. The World Health Organization defines it as the organization and management of health services to enable health accessibility in efficient means and in a cost friendly manner (Stone et al 43). Insurance firms form integration with the health facilities to provide quality services to the people. In such integration, patients get insured by their employees and they can pay for their hospital bills through the insurance cover. Integration minimizes the stages and difficulties that a patient experiences while seeking medical attention. The collaboration forms a new structure which is much solid than individual components when it comes to handling of tasks.
- What is the purpose of the organization integration?
The main purpose of organization integration is to promote health safety and prioritizing the quality of the health care delivery systems. A coordinated health care system spawns efficiency and equality in resource allocation reducing costs and ensuring that the systems are financially sustainable (Stone et al 22). With the presence of adequate finances and technology, organization integration provides a link that can channel the resources efficiently from the government to the people. Integration helps in providing joint services by two interrelated health professions such as ante-natal and child health clinics.
- How the long term care financial aspect impact the quality of patient care?
Long-term financial aspect provides for adequate planning for future events to avoid adverse health outcomes in the republic. This implies that the government finances health researches and influence more scholars to focus on health related matters in order to predict the future. This ensures that the republic is prepared to tackle future health problems. Similarly, long-term financing enables the health organizations to purchase drugs in advance to avoid any chance of future shortage. Also, long term financing aids patients who are poor and cannot afford to access quality health care centers due to financial constraints. Finally, long term financing helps the government to save on its future expenditure reducing the probability of a national deficit.
- Discuss the preventive and therapeutic aspects of long-term care
Preventive adverse health care events result to a major financial relief to the government, health providers, insurer and the family of the patient. The United States uses the highest amount of its GDP to finance the general public’s health (Kerry and Pam 30). Therefore, long-term solutions can help to reduce the high expenditure dedicated to health care. On the other hand, therapeutic aspects refer to creating a comfortable atmosphere to the patients suffering from chronic diseases. This can help them feel relatively important in the society and they can be as productive as anybody else. Therapeutic education has decreased the number of admitted patients because they are encouraged and mentored to engage in activities that helps them and the community.
Kerry, James and Pam, Silberman. Managed Care Regulations: Impact On Quality? Quality Management in Health Care. (2000). 8(2):21-39
Stone, Patricia et al. Creating A Safe And High Quality Health Care Environment. (2008). NCBI
Healthcare: Public Health
Background of the Study
Over the years, most parts of East Africa have encountered increased rates of HIV infection levels (Camlin et al, 2014). This has been the trend with the Kenyan Government embarking on severe measures that would help in reducing the instances of these infections (Camlin et al, 2014). This has been characterized by the increased treatment methods for other sexually transmitted infections as well as significant delays in age of first sex (Camlin et al, 2014). The AIDS epidemic has for a long affected women and girls with a growing proportion of those living with HIV being women. Recent analysis from the UNAIDS also indicates that young women between the age of 15 and 24 years are more prone to get infected than young men of their same age (UNAIDS/WHO, 2003). Similarly, data from these researches has indicated that girls and women are obligated to carry the burden of HIV/AIDS, as they are the ones who bear the traditional gender roles that entitle them to the provision of care and support of those who are infected. Additionally, young girls are also forced to miss school in order to offer assistance in taking care of the sick and infected with the community (UNAIDS/WHO, 2003).
The HIV/AIDS pandemic brings about heavy loads for people, especially in Kenya due to the fact that most of them live in poverty with estimates of about 50% of the people living in absolute poverty (Camlin et al, 2014). The levels of poverty endured in this region are as result of socio-cultural systems, which bring about inequality in terms of gender. This occurs through the way men are entitled to have mandate over the productive resources and the social infrastructure that is applied in making decisions (Camlin et al, 2014). The outcome of these activities is that women in the society end up being subordinated, which brings about the aspects of widespread infection of HIV. Women are disempowered in terms of economic and socio-cultural aspects (Camlin et al, 2014). This creates a channel where men get the chance of engaging in many other relations or rather concurrent relationships simply because they have more control over the women.
In addition to this, studies have indicated that gender based violence (GBV) has also been a contributing factor to the instances of HIV infections in that they disrupt the community social structures (Elis, 2007). This may be accompanied by the fact that humanitarian activities, such as failure of agriculture to ensure food and livelihood security, which may lead individuals to engage in sexual behaviors like sex work for food rations and access to basic goods. These activities have exposed them to higher risks of HIV infection (Elis, 2007). Other effects that are brought about by such activities include the fact that there are many children who become orphans due to HIV, and the society seems to take no action about it. Additionally, there have been few measures taken to elevate the situation and sensitize the people of the social and cultural factors that need to be improved in order to reduce instance of HIV infections (Elis, 2007).
Definition of Terms
AIDS- Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
GBV- Gender Based Violence
HIV- Human Immunodeficiency Virus
UNAIDS- Joint United Nations Programme for HIV/AIDS
WHO- World Health Organization
The social amenities applied in the field of HIV infections are mostly based on various assumptions. To start with, the social relations used in this study have actively created and reproduced systemic differences in the positioning of groups of people (Barz & Cohen, 2011). This is coupled with the fact that the social relations are dynamic in that they can easily be changed through legislation, policies, and economic trends as well as crisis. The third assumption involves the fact that the institutions utilized bring about social relations that create social inequalities that are based on particular gender ideologies (Barz & Cohen, 2011). Additionally, the structure of the study relies heavily on the role of institutions instead of the roles of individuals as well as activities and resources. The social framework looks at the whole aspect with considerations based on four key institutions that include the state, markets, communities, and the holistic family (Barz & Cohen, 2011).
The limitations available in this study include the fact that focusing on the social aspects leaves other issues unattended whereby there are more factors contributing to the spread of HIV infections in Kenya (Blas, 2010). The focus on social relations leaves out the importance of other tools that may help narrow down on the specific issues related to HIV infections and treatment. The study applies the perspectives of social institutions thus neglecting the particular focus on individual participation of the issues that are based on individual roles (Blas, 2010). This brings about the aspect of some communities and groups playing the role of passive victims. The results obtained are a form of disaggregation in terms sex followed by other factors such as income, religion, and political backgrounds. However, it fails to recognize other factors that should be aligned with gender to bring out the vulnerability issues (Blas, 2010).
Significance and Social Change Implication
This study applies a social interaction structure that combines the major aspects of HIV infection to bring out an approach that is highly relevant in addressing gender differences and inequalities. It also analyzes the behavior of couples intersected with social practices surrounding concurrent sexual relationships to reduce the vulnerabilities and increase capabilities of understanding the roots causes of HIV infections in the country (Okal et al, 2009). This helps in bringing about strategies that may be utilized in identifying the interrelations between different kinds of problems and advantages. Additionally, it helps in the creation of a platform through which the major problems in the society may be addressed effectively as the challenges are clearly identified (Okal et al, 2009).
The use of the social framework helps in bringing out the social interactions that bring about HIV infections. Concurrent relations and the differences in gender are some of the major issues that characterize the spread of HIV in Kenya. This is characterized by the fact that there is lack of sufficient knowledge about the issues and thus the people in the country end up engaging in activities that lead to HIV infection. Gender roles are also a high contributing factor that creates the disparity between their accesses to such kind of information that would help them prevent HIV infection. Additionally, the high levels of poverty within the nation also play a crucial role in the epidemic in that it creates channels where people engage in concurrent relationships for the benefits of survivor.
Barz, G., & Cohen, J. (2011). The Culture of Aids in Africa: Hope and Healing in Music and the Arts. New York: Oxford University Press.
Blas, E., & Kurup, A. (2010). Equity, Social Determinants and Public Health Programmes. Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Camlin, Carol S.; Kwena, Zachary A.; Dworkin, Shari L.; Cohen, Craig R.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A. (2014). “She mixes her business”: HIV transmission and acquisition risks among female migrants in western Kenya. Social Science & Medicine, 102, 146-156.
Ellis, A. (2007). Gender and Economic Growth in Kenya: Unleashing the Power of Women. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Engendering Development: Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources, and Voice. (2001). Washington, D.C: World Bank.
Gross, G., & Tyring, S. (2011). Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Heidelbergh: Springer Verlag.
Mugoya, George C.T.; Ernst, Kacey (2014). Gender differences in HIV-related stigma in Kenya. AIDS Care, 26(2), 206-213.
Okal, Jerry; Luchters, Stanley; Geibel, Scott; Chersich, Matthew F.; Lango, Daniel; Temmerman, Marleen (2009). Social context, sexual risk perceptions and stigma: HIV vulnerability among male sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 11(8), 811-826.
UNAIDS/WHO (2003). A History of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic with Emphasis on Africa. Geneva: UNAIDS.
Evaluating a Case Study on prevalence of Diarrhea
This article is a review involving a case study where two sets of patients are evaluated with respect to the diarrhea. An ideal of this study evaluates two parameters where two distinctive situations are compared, and accorded appropriate conclusions. For instance, what is the level of infection among people who are either infected or safe from this disease? Therefore, this study design involves a case control since the health status of patients with respect to diarrhea effluents. Out of this article, I learn to evaluate the implications improving health standards towards the sustainability of quality service delivery to the sector. The parametric values that the empirical study reveals include health condition of patients in the before and after exposure to different health conditions (Schlesselman, 2007, p. 35). Case control are more popular than Cohort studies since case controls are simple and do not require longer duration of studies. Cohort studies deal with evaluation on a given group of people with regard to a given infection, while case studies deal with examination of cases, people with diseases and those who are not infected.
Cohort study deals with health conditions of a given group of people who are initially free from the disease, while case studies capture both conditions where, one group is safe while the other is infected. Cases refer to people who are infected, while control refers to safe people. Cohort study is preferable in studies involving longer duration, regarding the behaviors of people with respect to a particular disease. On the other hand, case studies is preferable in simple studies where two sets of individual are studies with regard to a particular condition, and this normally takes a shorter duration(Schlesselman, 2007, p.36). Having the characteristic of evaluation the causation of a particular disease gives this method the best advantage. Cohort study is prospective when applied in studying causes of diseases, and becomes prospective when applied in evaluating wide range of diseases.
Schlesselman, J. J. (2007). Case control studies: Design, conduct, analysis. New York u.a: Oxford Univ. Press.
Diabetes in Men
Laaksonen, D. E., Lindström, J., Lakka, T. A., Eriksson, J. G., & al, e. (2005). Physical activity in the preventionof type 2 diabetes: The Finnish diabetes prevention study. Diabetes, 54(1), 158-65. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/216473519?accountid=458
This article seeks to establish the significance of leisure time physical activities in checking the incidence of diabetes in men. The authors acknowledge the fact that total lifestyle change impacts positively in reducing the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in both men and women, however, they question the role of LTPA in the same effect. They undertake a post hoc analysis of data on 487 men and women aged between 40 and 65 sampled from accomplices of a diabetes prevention study in Finland to determine the effect of LTPA on occurrence of diabetes. Their findings are in line with similar studies that show that LTPA reduces chances of occurrence of the disease. This article may be reliably used in studying the prevention measures for both men and women since it measures the consequence of several interventions and uses a randomized control design for both genders.
Atlantis, E., Lange, K., Martin, S., Haren, M. T., Taylor, A., O’Loughlin, P. D., et al. (2011). Testosterone and modifiable risk factors associated with diabetes in men. Maturitas, 279-289.
In this article, the author undertakes to establish the role of endogenous testosterone in the origin and progress of diabetes in men. The author identifies low physical activity, poor diet and obesity as the key risk factors for diabetes. In an attempt to explain the role of endogenous testosterone in the pathogenesis of diabetes, the authors undertook a quantitative study of 1195 randomly selected men of age range 35-80 years north-west regions of Adelaide, Australia. The findings of the study conclude that the prevalence of the disease in men is inversely proportional to the levels of testosterone and increases with age. Their findings are in line with other cohort studies that recognize that low testosterone contributes to risks of diabetes in men. This article is in agreement with the preceding one on the risk factors of diabetes and may be taken as a reliable source in the study of diabetes risk factors.
McCrimmon, R. J., Ryan, C. M., & Frier, B. M. (2012). Diabetes 2: Diabetes and cognitive dysfunction. 16.
This article focuses on comparing and contrasting cognitive dysfunction in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The authors begin by illustrating that the world population suffering from diabetes mellitus is expected to double by the year 2030. The article identifies two types of diabetes; type 1 diabetes-a disease occasioned by an outright ornear total lack of insulin exudation-and type 2 diabetes-marked by low insulin sensitivity andrelative insulin shortage. The authors identify mental and motor sluggishness as the main similarities between the two with type 2 victims being severely affected. The major difference in the two types of the disease originates from the principal causes of intellectual malfunction; in type 1, this is caused by prolonged exposure to high sugar levels and the existence of micro vascularinfection while type 2 it is occasioned by insulin incompatibility, dyslipidaemia, high blood pressure, and infection to the cerebrum. This article can be invaluable is studying diabetes through comparing and contrasting the main species of the disease, it however does not directly relates to the other two articles in this report which mainly centre on the risk factors of the disease particularly in men.
This article is a review of three journal articles that focus on diabetes in men. All the three articles are scholarly articles as can be seen from their source types. Of the three articles, the first two in order of appearance in this article are peer reviewed. This is because the search for the journals was only limited to peer reviewed in the database; information on the journals also indicates that they are refereed. Information of the received date and acceptance date is also given for the two articles indicating that there was a peer review window before publication. The last article in order of review in this article is not peer reviewed but just a scholarly article as is seen from its author affiliation.
The Recovery Process
Recovery is a systematic procedure where a person shifts from using drugs to drug free by becoming an energetic contributing member of the community. Recovery is most effective when service users’ needs and ambitions are given priority during the care and treatment progression. Recovery support systems that have been cautiously been prepared to battle the need for drugs participate in a significant task in assisting individuals with a substance abuse problem to recover (Jason et al, 2007, p 803). Substance abuse is a persistent stipulation which calls for formulated programs to have distinct treatment experiences to be executed through continual recovery systems. The most significant step in the procedure of recovery is assisting patients confess that they have an addiction setback. After treatment, many individuals return to the former risk environments or family situations that are stressful. Approaches should be investigated to set hopeful forms of recovery residence. The purpose of this paper will be to highlight the background of the recovery process, the objectives of recovery programs, some of the principles and elements of these programs, and a model of a support recovery program to illustrate all these.
Background on Recovery Process
Substance related disorders pose serious problems to the health, and costs to the families and friends of the user. Despite the increased knowledge warning on the substance abuse, and efforts to combat the problem, the number of the users is still the same. The recovery process helps patients to achieve abstinence, although relapses are substantial. There have been efforts by many groups, mutual health groups such as supports in Orange county of California. Numerous studies have been approved out on particular features of support services necessary in the recovery procedure. Among persons whose degree or severity of this dependence are high, and as such have condensed probability of recovery, social support systems in sober communities are the primary power aspects of long term recovery (Jason et al, 2001; Jason, Davis and Ferrari, 2007). Brown and Lewis, (1999) and Gruber and Fleetwood, (2004) also hypothesize that amid support services that engage one or more relatives and acquaintances, offering social support services keeps the progression of recovery on trail.
This is a programs that has four major intentions; boost the quantity of faith and community based help for clinical and recovery support services, maintain a outsized client selection, and develop capacity (Brown et al, 1998, pg.145). This system provides clients with a wide selection of appropriate treatment givers, where one can obtain the desirable healing services. They offer flexible plans and execution processes that are reliable with established molds of care, making a guarantee that the customers have an indisputable and autonomous selection amid the authorized givers. It also offers an assortment of medical and recovery support devices to those identified with substance addiction, thus meeting a person desires (Gruber et al, 2004, pg. 1375).
Many recovery programs believe there is no one way for effectively treating people with substance abuse problems. Research indicates that treatment is effective when there is diversity in treatment approaches, individuals respond favorably. The program assists in progress of participants’ capabilities in regions that are vital in retaining a drug free way of life. Through addition of the number of community based help, the recovery program is able to rehabilitate the individual as a whole, change their negative patterns of thinking feeling and behaving, develop the individuals interpersonal skills, and help them have a drug free lifestyle. The community based help is able to achieve this by enabling individuals to give feedback, foster relationships and express feelings and thoughts.
Principles of Recovery
One principle of recovery is that it is aimed at and steered by the own individual, the individual being his own manager of improvement. The individual has power to formulate choices based on the targets prepared that influence the recuperation process. Recovery also involves the individual acknowledging that they have a crisis and are willing to look for aid in order to control the disarray, and be motivated to stick to the process. Recovery is a progression of achieving greater balance of the mind, body and spirit, through emotional physical and spiritual incorporation of a person. It is a continuous learning process, and encourages a sense of self empowerment, thus advancing ones worth of living.
The recovery progression of a person is affected by the cultural beliefs. The culture has significant implications on the patient and provider relationship, developing higher satisfaction and accurate history of the patient through better communication. Recovery may entail seasons of deterioration and wellness, since it’s a never-ending procedure and individuals persistently develop during the recovery process. People seeking recovery regularly gain optimism from those who are also going through recovery. They gain motivation by seeing that people can conquer the complications and they build up a sense of appreciation each day all through the recovery process.
Elements of Recovery –Oriented systems of Care
The Recovery oriented systems of care sustain person centered and self undeviating approaches to care that fabricate on the power and flexibility of self, relatives and society, to take accountability for their continued health, recuperation from alcohol and drug evils and the wellness. ROSCs involve a continuing progression of structure upgrading that integrates the incidents of persons in recuperation. Recovery oriented systems of care will be personalized, all-inclusive, and supple. They will adjust to the requests of the persons are intended to maintain recovery process in years.
These systems will be introduced in the community in order to improve accessibility of support capacities of families and social networks. Individual using this system will have the suitable services to select from at any point of time. Recovery oriented systems will highlight on individuals strong points, to display the significance and thoughts of individual when dealing with life matters. The systems will also be ethnically sensitive, knowledgeable and open, because the traditions and values of individuals are assorted and may have an effect on the recovery efforts (Jason et al, 2002, pg.23).
Recovery Support Services
Recovery support services (RSSs) are nonclinical services that support persons to recuperate from alcohol or drug evils. They comprise social support, connection to and bringing together state amid associated service donors and a complete variety of human services that assist in recuperation and wellness leading to an enhanced worth of living. They can be conveyed in background such as self-supporting recovery society, as an element of treatment organizations, and as services presented by faith based unions. Examples include; Peer support service, Faith-based recovery support and Agency provided support services (Zarkin et al, 2005, pg. 50).
Peer Support Services
These are service designed and offered by peers who have achieved handy skills in both the progression of recuperation and sustenance, and these individuals are designated to be peer leaders (Davidson, 2009, p.87). They offer their time to provide responses to the community by assisting them maintain their recuperation. They provide emotional support, provision of information by helping teach and acquire new skills, provide instrumental support, and consequently help establish positive social connections with others in recovery.
Faith-based Recovery Support
They mostly offer service by the foundation of religion, of values and rites. They provide services that are consistent with recovery support services and mainly frequent regions with a great amount of ethnic and racial minorities (Davidson, 2009, pg.89). They aid in sustenance of the person and relatives, and support of treatment devotion and continuing recovery support.
Agency Provided Support Services
These people are particularly trained for the job, and may themselves be in recovery or may have a family member in recovery. They execute a range of responsibilities under management of clinical personnel, and can serve as recuperation coaches or recuperation managers.
Model of support in Orange County California
The orange county support program directories include the Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. The Alcohol Anonymous is an association of gentleman and ladies who share occurrences, potencies and optimism with each other that they may resolve their general setback. It ensures that keen care to social services for people in the recovery process is taken note of. It also ensures there is no wrong way to treatment, that is, people can enter at any appropriate level when needed not just in time of crisis. The persons’ preference should be esteemed. The programs must be supple and customized according to the individual.
The department of Alcohol and drugs program developed practice Guidelines for recovery oriented behavioral health care. This document identifies some domains of recovery oriented systems of care which include primacy of participation, promoting access and engagement by facilitating swift entry to care, ensuring there is a continuity in care by using a carefully created system, offering individualized recovery planning through ensuring individual receives the service requested for. Providers also need to have an adequate knowledge of the individuals’ local community so that the communication will be smooth. Identifying and addressing barriers to recoveries, and strategies executed to ensure that they are addressed and solved.
A recovery system focuses on the individual and the family; it provides the person in recuperation with alternatives that are steady in their principles, wants and customs (Jason et al, 2007, pg 817). Access recovery programs are set up and the system provides clients with a wide selection of appropriate treatment givers, where one can obtain the desirable healing services. Typically, after treatment for substance abuse, many patients return to the former high risk environment or stressful family situations and that is why systems like the Recovery oriented systems of care sustain person centered and self undeviating approaches. They fabricate on the power and flexibility of self, relatives and society, to take accountability for their continued health, recuperation from alcohol and drug evils and their wellness. They promote access and engagement by facilitating swift entry to care, ensuring that there is continuity in care by using a carefully created system, offering individualized recovery planning through ensuring individual receives the service requested for. Additionally, they ensure they have an adequate knowledge of the individuals’ local community so that the communication will be smooth. Identifying and addressing barriers to recoveries, and strategies executed to ensure that they are addressed and solved.
Brown, S. & Lewis, V. (1998). The alcoholic family in recovery: a developmental model. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Davidson, L. (2009). A practical guide to recovery-oriented practice: Tools for transforming health care. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gruber, K.J., & Fleetwood, T.W. (2004). “In-home continuing care services for substance use Affected families.” Substance Use & Misuse, 39, 1370-1403.
Jason, L.A., Davis, M.I., & Ferrari, J.R., (2007). “The need for substance abuse after-care:
Longitudinal analysis of Oxford House.” Addiction Behaviors, 32, 803-818.
Jason, L.A., Davis, M.I., Ferrari, J.R., & Bishop, P.D. (2001). “Oxford House: A review of Research and implications for substance abuse recovery and community research.” Journal of Drug Education, 31, 1-27.
Zarkin, G.A., Bray, J.W., Mitra, D., Cisler, R.A., &Kivlahan, D.F. (2005). “Cost methodology Of Combine.” Journal of Studies on Alcohol Supplement, 15, 50-55.
Top of Form
Bottom of Form
The routes of infection spread are chiefly by means of pathogenic agents. These can spread from animal to animal or human to human by a variety of transmission modes (Hurst, 1996, pg.9). Microorganisms are transmitted through several routes, namely contact transmission, droplet, airborne transmission, and vector borne (Hurst, 1996, pg.9). Human exposure can occur by direct contact transmission, which involves contact with a pathogenic agent or organism from an infected animal, through open wounds, abraded skin or mucus membrane. There is a droplet form of spreading, which happens as droplets that have micro organisms are produced from a contaminated being by air and may be through coughing, talking or sneezing. Airborne transmission occurs by the spread of airborne droplet nuclei of evaporated droplets containing microorganisms or through dust particles containing an infectious agent (Hurst, 1996, pg.10). Vector borne transmissions are those diseases transferred by an arthropod or insect vectors, such as mosquitoes, fleas or ticks.
No one is at fault for spreading of infectious diseases. The Introduction of the agent into a new host population (whether the pathogen originated in the environment, possibly in other species, or as a variant of an existing human infection), followed by establishment and further dissemination within the new host population “adoption” may cause this (Hurst, 1996, pg.15). Human behavior can have important effects on disease spreading. The best-identified instance is sexually spread infections and surfacing of HIV. However, this is not constantly the case, and normal ecological alterations, such as weather or climate variance might have similar outcomes. A means of preventing the infection is through immunization, where one is either given an injection or exposed to the disease-causing microorganism (Hurst, 1996, pg.29).
Hurst, C. J. (1996). Modeling Disease Transmission and Its Prevention by Disinfection. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.